1. Preface
  2. User
    1. useradd(8)
    2. userinfo(8)
    3. usermod(8)
    4. userdel(8)
    5. passwd(5)
    6. chpass(1)
  3. Group
    1. groupadd(8)
    2. groupdel(8)
    3. groupinfo(8)
    4. groupmod(8)
  4. Other
    1. chmod(1)
    2. chown(8)
    3. chgrp(1)
    4. chroot(8)
    5. quota(1)
  5. See also


Before you start to do user and group management you must:

  1. For security reasons, create substitute user and name it as you like, here it is referred as noroot:
# useradd -m -G wheel _noroot_
  1. Set password for noroot user:
# passwd _noroot_
  1. Exit and log in as noroot user.

  2. Use the su command to obtain the root privileges for noroot:

$ su
  1. Forget to use the root for maintenance or regular administration of the system. You free to find any secure and convenient spot for the root password be available upon your need.

If your favorite user with login password is already assigned in the system and no need to create new one. Omit first steps from above. Do modify user information by adding your no root user into the wheel group and su anytime per your desire:

# usermod -G wheel _noroot_


The NetBSD maintains information in regard of each user who logs into, access system, runs processes on so forth. This include and not limited to:

The superuser called root has no limitations on its privileges.

To limit user priveleges consider to set limits by: coredumpsize, cputime, filesize, quota, maxproc, memory, openfiles etc.

[user(8)](// is frontend to the useradd, usermod, userinfo and userdel commands, it helps to manage users in the system.

Use id(1) to see user identity:

$ id

Use w(1) to see who present and what they are doing:

$ w

Use last(1) to see last logins:

$ last


To add user do:

user add [options] _user_

To add a user and create a new home directory:

# useradd -m _myuser_

Look into the NetBSD Guide Chapter 5.6


To see user information do:

$ userinfo _myuser_


To modify existing user login do:

# user mod [options] _user_

# usermod -C yes _username_             ; set Close lock on user account

# usermod -C no _username_              ; unlock user account

# usermod -G wheel _username_           ; add user to group _wheel_

# usermod -s /sbin/nologin _username_   ; remove login shell

# usermod -s /bin/sh _username_         ; set login shell

# usermod -F _username_                 ; force user to change password


To remove a user from the system do:

# userdel _myuser_


To see a list of all users in the system do:

$ cat /etc/passwd

To edit /etc/passwd file do:

# vipw


Use chpass, chfn, and chsh (chpass(1)) to add or change user database information.

To change the shell of myuser, for an exapmle to /bin/ksh:

# chpass -s /bin/ksh _myuser_


To manage groups check /etc/group file which maintains name of each group, group id and list of users who is a group member.

[group(8)](// is frontend to the groupadd, groupmod, groupinfo and groupdel commands, it helps to manage groups in the system.

To add group do:

group add [options] _group_

To delete group do:

group del [options] _group_

To obtain group information do:

group info [options] _group_

To modify existing group do:

group mod [options] _group_

To remove user from the group you have to do user del and then add user again.








To change files/directory ownership:

#chown -R  myuser path 

Where myuser is the name of user and path is directory where files are located.




Use quota to set users quotas per desire.

See also