1: # ZFS on NetBSD
3: This page attempts to do two things: provide enough orientation and
4: pointers to standard ZFS documentation for NetBSD users who are new to
5: ZFS, and to describe NetBSD-specific ZFS information. It is
6: emphatically not a tutorial or an introduction to ZFS.
8: Many things are marked with \todo because they need a better
9: explanation, and some have question marks
11: This HOWTO describes the most recent state of branches, and does not
12: attempt to describe formal releases. This is a clue; if you are using
13: NetBSD 9 and ZFS, you should update along the branch.
15: # Status of ZFS in NetBSD
17: ## NetBSD 8
19: NetBSD 8 has an old version of ZFS, and it is not recommended for use
20: at all. There is no evidence that anyone is interested in helping
21: with ZFS on 8. Those wishing to use ZFS on NetBSD 8 should therefore
22: update to NetBSD 9.
24: ## NetBSD 9
26: NetBSD-9 has ZFS that is considered to work well. There have been
27: fixes since 9.0_RELEASE. As always, people running NetBSD 9 are
28: likely best served by the most recent version of the netbsd-9 stable
29: branch. As of 2021-03, ZFS in the NetBSD 9.1 release is very close to
30: netbsd-9, except that the mkdir fix is newly in netbsd-9.
32: There was a crash with mkdir over NFS with maproot, resolved in March
33: 2021 in 9 and current. See http://gnats.netbsd.org/55042
35: There is a workaround where removing a file will commit the ZIL
36: (normally this would not be done), to avoid crashes due to vnode
37: reclaims. \todo Link to PR.
39: There has been a report of an occasional panic somewhere in
42: ## NetBSD-current
44: NetBSD-current (as of 2021-03) has similar ZFS code to 9.
46: There is initial support for [[ZFS root|wiki/RootOnZFS]], via booting
47: from ffs and pivoting.
49: ## NetBSD/xen special issues
51: Summary: if you are using NetBSD, xen and zfs, use NetBSD-current.
53: In NetBSD-9, MAXPHYS is 64KB in most places, but because of xbd(4) it
54: is set to 32KB for XEN kernels. Thus the standard zfs kernel modules
55: do not work under xen. In NetBSD-current, xbd(4) supports 64 KB
56: MAXPHYS and this is no longer an issue. Xen and zfs on current are
57: reported to work well together, as of 2021-02.
59: ## Architectures
61: Most people seem to be using amd64.
63: To build zfs, one puts MKZFS=yes in mk.conf. This is default on amd64
64: and aarch64 on netbsd-9. In current, it is also default on sparc64.
66: More or less, zfs can be enabled on an architecture when it is known
67: to build and run reliably. (Of course, users are welcome to build it
68: and report.)
70: # Quick Start
72: See the [FreeBSD Quickstart
73: Guide](https://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/zfs-quickstart.html); only
74: the first item is NetBSD specific.
76: - Put zfs=YES in rc.conf.
78: - Create a pool as "zpool create pool1 /dev/dk0".
80: - df and see /pool1
82: - Create a filesystem mounted on /n0 as "zfs create -o
83: mountpoint=/n0 pool1/n0".
85: - Read the documentation referenced in the next section.
87: ## Documentation Pointers
89: See the man pages for zfs(8), zpool(8). Also see zdb(8), if only for
90: seeing pool config info when run with no arguments.
92: - [OpenZFS Documentation](https://openzfs.github.io/openzfs-docs/)
93: - [OpenZFS admin docs index page](https://github.com/openzfs/zfs/wiki/Admin-Documentation)
94: - [FreeBSD Handbook ZFS Chapter](https://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/zfs.html)
95: - [Oracle ZFS Administration Manual](https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E26505_01/html/E37384/index.html)
96: - [Wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZFS)
98: # NetBSD-specific information
100: ## rc.conf
102: The main configuration is to put zfs=YES in rc.conf, so that the rc.d
103: scripts bring up ZFS and mount ZFS file systems.
105: ## pool locations
107: One can add disks or parts of disks into pools. Methods of specifying
108: areas to be included include:
110: - entire disks (e.g., /dev/wd0d on amd64, or /dev/wd0 which has the same major/minor)
111: - disklabel partitions (e.g., /dev/sd0e)
112: - wedges (e.g., /dev/dk0)
114: Information about created or imported pools is stored in
117: Conventional wisdom is that a pool that is more than 80% used gets
118: unhappy; so far there is not NetBSD-specific wisdom to confirm or
119: refute that.
121: ## pool native blocksize mismatch
123: ZFS attempts to find out the native blocksize for a disk when using it
124: in a pool; this is almost always 512 or 4096. Somewhere between 9.0
125: and 9.1, at least some disks on some controllers that used to report
126: 512 now report 4096. This provokes a blocksize mismatch warning.
128: Given that the native blocksize of the disk didn't change, and things
129: seemed OK using the 512 emulated blocks, the warning is likely not
130: critical. However, it is also likely that rebuilding the pool with
131: the 4096 blocksize is likely to result in better behavior because ZFS
132: will only try to do 4096-byte writes. \todo Verify this and find the
133: actual change and explain better.
135: ## pool importing problems
137: While one can "zpool pool0 /dev/wd0f" and have a working pool, this
138: pool cannot be exported and imported straigthforwardly. "zpool
139: export" works fine, and deletes zpool.cache. "zpool import", however,
140: only looks at entire disks (e.g. /dev/wd0), and might look at slices
141: (e.g. /dev/dk0). It does not look at partitions like /dev/wd0f, and
142: there is no way on the command line to ask that specific devices be
143: examined. Thus, export/import fails for pools with disklabel
146: One can make wd0 be a link to wd0f temporarily, and the pool will then
147: be importable. However, "wd0" is stored in zpool.cache and on the
148: next boot that will attempt to be used. This is obviously not a good
151: One an mkdir e.g. /etc/zfs/pool0 and in it have a symlink to
152: /dev/wd0f. Then, zpool import -d /etc/zfs/pool0 will scan
153: /etc/zfs/pool0/wd0f and succeed. The resulting zpool.cache will have
154: that path, but having symlinks in /etc/zfs/POOLNAME seems acceptable.
156: \todo Determine a good fix, perhaps man page changes only, fix it
157: upstream, in curent, and in 9, before removing this discussion.
159: ## mountpoint conventions
161: By default, datasets are mounted as /poolname/datasetname. One can
162: also set a mountpoint; see zfs(8).
164: There does not appear to be any reason to choose explicit mountpoints
165: vs the default (and either using data in place or symlinking to it).
167: ## mount order
169: NetBSD 9 mounts other file systems and then ZFS file systems. This can
170: be a problem if /usr/pkgsrc is on ZFS and /usr/pkgsrc/distfiles is on
171: NFS. A workaround is to use noauto and do the mounts in
174: NetBSD current after 20200301 mounts ZFS first. The same issues and
175: workarounds apply in different circumstances.
177: ## NFS
179: zfs filesystems can be exported via NFS, simply by placing them in
180: /etc/exports like any other filesystem.
182: The "zfs share" command adds a line for each filesystem with the
183: sharenfs property set to /etc/zfs/exports, and "zfs unshare" removes
184: it. This file is ignored on NetBSD-9 and current before 20210216; on
185: current after 20210216 those filesystems should be exported (assuming
186: NFS is enabled). It does not appear to be possible to set options
187: like maproot and network restrictions via this method.
189: On current before 20210216, a remote mkdir of a filesystem mounted via
190: -maproot=0:10 causes a kernel NULL pointer dereference. This is now
193: ## zvol
195: Within a ZFS pool, the standard approach is to have file systems, but
196: one can also create a zvol, which is a block device of a certain size.
198: As an example, "zfs create -V 16G tank0/xen-netbsd-9-amd64" creates a
199: zvol (intended to be a virtual disk for a domU).
201: The zvol in the example will appear as
202: /dev/zvol/rdsk/tank0/xen-netbsd-9-amd64 and
203: /dev/zvol/dsk/tank0/xen-netbsd-9-amd64 and can be used like a
204: disklabel partition or wedge. However, the system will not read
205: disklabels and gpt labels from a zvol.
207: Doing "swapctl -a" on a zvol device node fails. \todo Is it really
208: true that NetBSD can't swap on a zvol? (When using a zvol for swap,
209: standard advice is to avoid the "-s" option which avoids reserving the
210: allocated space. Standard advice is also to consider using a
211: dedicated pool.)
213: \todo Explain that one can export a zvol via iscsi.
215: One can use ccd to create a normal-looking disk from a zvol. This
216: allows reading a GPT label from the zvol, which is useful in case the
217: zvol had been exported via iscsi and some other system created a
220: # Memory usage
222: Basically, ZFS uses lots of memory and most people run it on systems
223: with large amounts of memory. NetBSD works well on systems with
224: comparatively small amounts of memory. So a natural question is how
225: well ZFS works on one's VAX with 2M of RAM :-) More seriously, one
226: might ask if it is reasonable to run ZFS on a RPI3 with 1G of RAM, or
227: if it is reasonable on a system with 4G.
229: The prevailing wisdom is more or less that ZFS consumes 1G plus 1G per
230: 1T of disk. 32-bit architectures are viewed as too small to run ZFS.
232: Besides RAM, zfs requires that architecture kernel stack size is at
233: least 12KB or more -- some operations cause stack overflow with 8KB
234: kernel stack. On NetBSD, the architectures with 16KB kernel stack are
235: amd64, sparc64, powerpc, and experimental ia64, hppa. mac68k and sh3
236: have 12KB kernel stack. All others use only 8KB stack, which is not
237: enough to run zfs.
239: NetBSD has many statistics provided via sysctl; see "sysctl
242: FreeBSD has tunables that NetBSD does not seem to have, described in
243: [FreeBSD Handbook ZFS Advanced
246: # Interoperability with other systems
248: Modern ZFS uses pool version 5000 and feature flags.
250: It is in general possible to export a pool and them import the pool on
251: some other system, as long as the other system supports all the used
254: \todo Explain how to do this and what is known to work.
256: \todo Explain feature flags relationship to FreeBSD, Linux, iIllumos,
259: # Sources of ZFS code
261: Currently, there are multiple ZFS projects and codebases:
263: - [OpenZFS](http://www.open-zfs.org/wiki/Main_Page)
264: - [openzfs repository](https://github.com/openzfs/zfs)
265: - [zfsonlinux](https://zfsonlinux.org/)
266: - [OpenZFS on OS X ](https://openzfsonosx.org/) [repo](https://github.com/openzfsonosx)
267: - proprietary ZFS in Solaris (not relevant in open source)
268: - ZFS as released under the CDDL (common ancestor, now of historical interest)
270: OpenZFS is a coordinating project to align open ZFS codebases. There
271: is a notion of a shared core codebase and OS-specific adaptation code.
273: - [zfsonlinux relationship to OpenZFS](https://github.com/openzfs/zfs/wiki/OpenZFS-Patches)
274: - FreeBSD more or less imports code from openzfs and pushes back fixes. \todo Verify this.
275: - NetBSD has imported code from FreeBSD.
276: - The status of ZFS on macOS is unclear (2021-02).
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