Annotation of wikisrc/zfs.mdwn, revision 1.36
1.1 gdt 1: # ZFS on NetBSD
1.11 gdt 3: This page attempts to do two things: provide enough orientation and
1.13 wiz 4: pointers to standard ZFS documentation for NetBSD users who are new to
1.11 gdt 5: ZFS, and to describe NetBSD-specific ZFS information. It is
1.1 gdt 6: emphatically not a tutorial or an introduction to ZFS.
8: Many things are marked with \todo because they need a better
1.28 gdt 9: explanation, and some have question marks
1.1 gdt 10:
11: # Status of ZFS in NetBSD
1.27 gdt 13: ## NetBSD 8
1.23 gdt 14:
1.27 gdt 15: NetBSD 8 has an old version of ZFS, and it is not recommended for use
16: at all. There is no evidence that anyone is interested in helping
17: with ZFS on 8. Those wishing to use ZFS on NetBSD 8 should therefore
18: update to NetBSD 9.
1.1 gdt 19:
20: ## NetBSD 9
1.27 gdt 22: NetBSD-9 has ZFS that is considered to work well. There have been
23: fixes since 9.0_RELEASE. As always, people running NetBSD 9 are
24: likely best served by the most recent version of the netbsd-9 stable
25: branch. As of 2021-02, ZFS in the NetBSD 9.1 release is very close to
1.1 gdt 27:
1.27 gdt 28: ## NetBSD-current
1.1 gdt 29:
1.27 gdt 30: NetBSD-current (as of 2021-02) has similar ZFS code to 9.
1.5 gdt 31:
1.9 gdt 32: There is initial support for [[ZFS root|wiki/RootOnZFS]], via booting from
1.5 gdt 33: ffs and pivoting.
1.1 gdt 34:
1.27 gdt 35: ## NetBSD/xen special issues
1.1 gdt 36:
1.36 ! gdt 37: Summary: if you are using NetBSD, xen and zfs, use NetBSD-current.
1.27 gdt 39: In NetBSD-9, MAXPHYS is 64KB in most places, but because of xbd(4) it
40: is set to 32KB for XEN kernels. Thus the standard zfs kernel modules
41: do not work under xen. In NetBSD-current, xbd(4) supports 64 KB
1.36 ! gdt 42: MAXPHYS and this is no longer an issue. Xen and zfs on current are
! 43: reported to work well together, as of 2021-02.
1.1 gdt 44:
45: ## Architectures
47: Most people seem to be using amd64.
49: To build zfs, one puts MKZFS=yes in mk.conf. This is default on amd64
50: and aarch64 on netbsd-9. In current, it is also default on sparc64.
52: More or less, zfs can be enabled on an architecture when it is known
53: to build and run reliably. (Of course, users are welcome to build it
54: and report.)
1.27 gdt 56: # Quick Start
58: See the [FreeBSD Quickstart
59: Guide](https://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/zfs-quickstart.html); only
60: the first item is NetBSD specific.
62: - Put zfs=YES in rc.conf.
64: - Create a pool as "zpool create pool1 /dev/dk0".
66: - df and see /pool1
68: - Create a filesystem mounted on /n0 as "zfs create -o
69: mountpoint=/n0 pool1/n0".
1.36 ! gdt 71: - Read the documentation referenced in the next section.
! 73: ## Documentation Pointers
! 75: See the man pages for zfs(8), zpool(8). Also see zdb(8), if only for
! 76: seeing pool config info when run with no arguments.
! 78: - [OpenZFS Documentation](https://openzfs.github.io/openzfs-docs/)
! 79: - [OpenZFS admin docs index page](https://github.com/openzfs/zfs/wiki/Admin-Documentation)
! 80: - [FreeBSD Handbook ZFS Chapter](https://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/zfs.html)
! 81: - [Oracle ZFS Administration Manual](https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E26505_01/html/E37384/index.html)
! 82: - [Wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZFS)
1.27 gdt 83:
1.1 gdt 84: # NetBSD-specific information
86: ## rc.conf
88: The main configuration is to put zfs=YES in rc.conf, so that the rc.d
1.13 wiz 89: scripts bring up ZFS and mount ZFS file systems.
1.1 gdt 90:
1.14 gdt 91: ## pool locations
93: One can add disks or parts of disks into pools. Methods of specifying
94: areas to be included include:
1.29 gdt 96: - entire disks (e.g., /dev/wd0d on amd64, or /dev/wd0 which has the same major/minor)
1.14 gdt 97: - disklabel partitions (e.g., /dev/sd0e)
98: - wedges (e.g., /dev/dk0)
1.33 gdt 100: Information about created or imported pools is stored in
1.36 ! gdt 103: ## pool Native blocksize mismatch
! 105: ZFS attempts to find out the native blocksize for a disk when using it
! 106: in a pool; this is almost always 512 or 4096. Somewhere between 9.0
! 107: and 9.1, at least some disks on some controllers that used to report
! 108: 512 now report 4096. This provokes a blocksize mismatch warning.
! 110: Given that the native blocksize of the disk didn't change, and things
! 111: seemed OK using the 512 emulated blocks, the warning is likely not
! 112: critical. However, it is also likely that rebuilding the pool with
! 113: the 4096 blocksize is likely to result in better behavior because ZFS
! 114: will only try to do 4096-byte writes. \todo Verify this and find the
! 115: actual change and explain better.
1.33 gdt 117: ## pool importing problems
119: While one can "zpool pool0 /dev/wd0f" and have a working pool, this
120: pool cannot be exported and imported straigthforwardly. "zpool
1.35 gdt 121: export" works fine, and deletes zpool.cache. "zpool import", however,
122: only looks at entire disks (e.g. /dev/wd0), and might look at slices
123: (e.g. /dev/dk0). It does not look at partitions like /dev/wd0f, and
124: there is no way on the command line to ask that specific devices be
125: examined. Thus, export/import fails for pools with disklabel
1.33 gdt 127:
128: One can make wd0 be a link to wd0f temporarily, and the pool will then
129: be importable. However, "wd0" is stored in zpool.cache and on the
130: next boot that will attempt to be used. This is obviously not a good
133: One an mkdir e.g. /etc/zfs/pool0 and in it have a symlink to
134: /dev/wd0f. Then, zpool import -d /etc/zfs/pool0 will scan
135: /etc/zfs/pool0/wd0f and succeed. The resulting zpool.cache will have
136: that path, but having symlinks in /etc/zfs/POOLNAME seems acceptable.
138: \todo Determine a good fix, perhaps man page changes only, fix it
139: upstream, in curent, and in 9, before removing this discussion.
1.1 gdt 141: ## mount order
1.13 wiz 143: NetBSD 9 mounts other file systems and then ZFS file systems. This can
1.3 gdt 144: be a problem if /usr/pkgsrc is on ZFS and /usr/pkgsrc/distfiles is on
145: NFS. A workaround is to use noauto and do the mounts in
1.27 gdt 148: NetBSD current after 20200301 mounts ZFS first. The same issues and
149: workarounds apply in different circumstances.
1.1 gdt 150:
1.19 gdt 151: ## NFS
1.31 gdt 153: zfs filesystems can be exported via NFS, simply by placing them in
154: /etc/exports like any other filesystem.
1.27 gdt 155:
1.31 gdt 156: The "zfs share" command adds a line for each filesystem with the
157: sharenfs property set to /etc/zfs/exports, and "zfs unshare" removes
1.33 gdt 158: it. This file is ignored on NetBSD-9 and current before 20210216; on
159: current after 20210216 those filesystems should be exported (assuming
160: NFS is enabled). It does not appear to be possible to set options
161: like maproot and network restrictions via this method.
1.31 gdt 162:
1.33 gdt 163: On current before 20210216, a remote mkdir of a filesystem mounted via
1.31 gdt 164: -maproot=0:10 causes a kernel NULL pointer dereference. This is now
1.33 gdt 165: fixed.
1.14 gdt 167: ## zvol
169: Within a ZFS pool, the standard approach is to have file systems, but
170: one can also create a zvol, which is a block device of a certain size.
172: \todo The zvol will appear as /dev/???? and can be used in many
173: respects like a slice. However, the system will not read disklabels
174: and gpt labels from a zvol; in this respect it is more like a disklabel
175: partition or wedge than a disk drive.
177: \todo Explain that one can export a zvol via iscsi.
179: \todo Explain if one can swap on a zvol.
181: \todo Explain that one can use ccd to create a normal-looking disk
182: from a zvol. This allows reading a GPT label from the zvol, which is
183: useful in case the zvol had been exported via iscsi and some other
184: system created a label.
1.1 gdt 186: # Memory usage
188: Basically, ZFS uses lots of memory and most people run it on systems
189: with large amounts of memory. NetBSD works well on systems with
190: comparatively small amounts of memory. So a natural question is how
1.27 gdt 191: well ZFS works on one's VAX with 2M of RAM :-) More seriously, one
192: might ask if it is reasonable to run ZFS on a RPI3 with 1G of RAM, or
193: if it is reasonable on a system with 4G.
195: The prevailing wisdom is more or less that ZFS consumes 1G plus 1G per
196: 1T of disk. 32-bit architectures are viewed as too small to run ZFS.
198: Besides RAM, zfs requires that architecture kernel stack size is at
199: least 12KB or more -- some operations cause stack overflow with 8KB
200: kernel stack. On NetBSD, the architectures with 16KB kernel stack are
201: amd64, sparc64, powerpc, and experimental ia64, hppa. mac68k and sh3
202: have 12KB kernel stack. All others use only 8KB stack, which is not
203: enough to run zfs.
205: NetBSD has many statistics provided via sysctl; see "sysctl
208: FreeBSD has tunables that NetBSD does not seem to have, described in
209: [FreeBSD Handbook ZFS Advanced
1.1 gdt 211:
1.27 gdt 212: # Interoperability with other systems
1.1 gdt 213:
1.27 gdt 214: Modern ZFS uses pool version 5000 and feature flags.
1.1 gdt 215:
1.27 gdt 216: It is in general possible to export a pool and them import the pool on
217: some other system, as long as the other system supports all the used
1.10 gdt 219:
1.27 gdt 220: \todo Explain how to do this and what is known to work.
1.26 wiki 221:
1.27 gdt 222: \todo Explain feature flags relationship to FreeBSD, Linux, iIllumos,
1.1 gdt 224:
1.27 gdt 225: # Sources of ZFS code
1.2 gdt 226:
1.27 gdt 227: Currently, there are multiple ZFS projects and codebases:
1.1 gdt 228:
1.27 gdt 229: - [OpenZFS](http://www.open-zfs.org/wiki/Main_Page)
1.30 wiz 230: - [openzfs repository](https://github.com/openzfs/zfs)
1.27 gdt 231: - [zfsonlinux](https://zfsonlinux.org/)
232: - [OpenZFS on OS X ](https://openzfsonosx.org/) [repo](https://github.com/openzfsonosx)
233: - proprietary ZFS in Solaris (not relevant in open source)
234: - ZFS as released under the CDDL (common ancestor, now of historical interest)
1.1 gdt 235:
1.27 gdt 236: OpenZFS is a coordinating project to align open ZFS codebases. There
237: is a notion of a shared core codebase and OS-specific adaptation code.
1.1 gdt 238:
1.27 gdt 239: - [zfsonlinux relationship to OpenZFS](https://github.com/openzfs/zfs/wiki/OpenZFS-Patches)
1.28 gdt 240: - FreeBSD more or less imports code from openzfs and pushes back fixes. \todo Verify this.
241: - NetBSD has imported code from FreeBSD.
242: - The status of ZFS on macOS is unclear (2021-02).
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