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    1: QEMU for NetBSD
    2: 
    3: # Current status
    4: 
    5: Summary of the current status of QEMU hosted on a NetBSD host.
    6: 
    7: ## What works?
    8: 
    9: Quick summary:
   10: 
   11:  - The NetBSD target builds and works out of the box with elementary features.
   12: 
   13:  - There is a pkgsrc package that ships a recent version.
   14: 
   15:  - QEMU should work with all currently supported NetBSD versions starting from 6.x.
   16: 
   17:  - QEMU as of today is not PaX MPROTECT safe.
   18: 
   19:  - All tests in the check target pass.
   20: 
   21:  - NetBSD is a maintained platform.
   22: 
   23: ## Standard features matrix
   24: 
   25: Elementary features for NetBSD are probably well supported.
   26: 
   27: Name                  | Description                                        | NetBSD status
   28: ----------------------|----------------------------------------------------|--------------
   29: python                | Python programming language                        | should work
   30: smbd                  | Samba                                              | net/samba, untested
   31: git                   | GIT VCS                                            | should work
   32: debug                 |                                                    | should work
   33: sanitizers            | ASan, UBSan, ASan headers                          | should work
   34: sanitizers Fibers     | Asan headers with fibers                           | Futue GCC/Clang should work
   35: stack-protector       | Stack protector                                    | works
   36: audio oss             | OSS audio backend                                  | should work
   37: audio sdl             | SDL audio backend                                  | should work
   38: coroutine ucontext    |                                                    | should work
   39: coroutine sigaltstack |                                                    | should work
   40: coroutine windows     |                                                    | N/A, Windows specific
   41: slirp                 | User networking                                    | works                     
   42: tcg-interpreter       | Tiny Code Generator                                | should work
   43: malloc-trim           | GNU malloc(3) optimization                         | N/A, Linux specific
   44: gcov                  | Test Coverage Program                              | should work
   45: gprof                 | GNU profiling                                      | should work
   46: profiler              |                                                    | should work
   47: 
   48: 
   49: ## Optional feature matrix
   50: 
   51: Additional features support various extensions,
   52: most of them are a matter of using the emulator with a 3rd party and are OS independent.
   53: 
   54: Part of features require OS specific extensions.
   55: 
   56: Name           | Description                                        | NetBSD status
   57: ---------------|----------------------------------------------------|--------------
   58: system         | all system emulation targets                       | works
   59: user           | supported user emulation targets                   | broken
   60: linux-user     | all linux usermode emulation targets               | N/A
   61: bsd-user       | all BSD usermode emulation targets                 | broken (FreeBSD ships local patches)
   62: docs           | build documentation                                | should work
   63: guest-agent    | build the QEMU Guest Agent                         | unknown, probably broken
   64: guest-agent-msi| build guest agent Windows MSI installation package | unknown, probably broken
   65: pie            | Position Independent Executables                   | should work
   66: modules        | QEMU modules support (not kernel modules)          | unknown, should work
   67: debug-tcg      | TCG debugging (default is disabled)                | should work
   68: debug-info     | debugging information                              | should work
   69: sparse         | sparse checker                                     | should work
   70: gnutls         | GNUTLS cryptography support                        | should work
   71: nettle         | nettle cryptography support                        | should work
   72: gcrypt         | libgcrypt cryptography support                     | should work
   73: sdl            | SDL UI                                             | should work
   74: --with-sdlabi  |   select preferred SDL ABI 1.2 or 2.0              | should work, not imporant
   75: gtk            | gtk UI                                             | should work
   76: --with-gtkabi  |   select preferred GTK ABI 2.0 or 3.0              | should work, not important
   77: vte            | vte support for the gtk UI                         | should work
   78: curses         | curses UI                                          | works with native NetBSD 8.0 curses(3) 
   79: vnc            | VNC UI support                                     | should work
   80: vnc-sasl       | SASL encryption for VNC server                     | should work
   81: vnc-jpeg       | JPEG lossy compression for VNC server              | should work
   82: vnc-png        | PNG compression for VNC server                     | should work
   83: cocoa          | Cocoa UI (Mac OS X only)                           | N/A, Darwin specific
   84: virtfs         | VirtFS                                             | probably broken
   85: mpath          | Multipath persistent reservation passthrough       | unknown, problably not supported
   86: xen            | xen backend driver support                         | unknown
   87: xen-pci-passthrough |   PCI passthrough support for Xen             | unknown, probably not supported
   88: brlapi         | BrlAPI (Braile)                                    | unknown, should work
   89: curl           | curl connectivity                                  | should work
   90: membarrier     | membarrier system call (for Linux 4.14+ or Windows)| not supported
   91: fdt            | fdt device tree                                    | unknown, should work
   92: bluez          | bluez stack connectivity                           | unknown
   93: kvm            | KVM acceleration support                           | N/A , Linux specific kernel APIs required in userland
   94: hax            | HAX acceleration support                           | mostly works
   95: hvf            | Hypervisor.framework acceleration support          | not ported, Darwin specific
   96: whpx           | Windows Hypervisor Platform acceleration support   | N/A
   97: rdma           | Enable RDMA-based migration and PVRDMA support     | unknown, probably not supported
   98: vde            | support for vde network                            | probably not supported and Linux specific as of today
   99: netmap         | support for netmap network                         | not supported (FreeBSD specific?)
  100: linux-aio      | Linux AIO support                                  | not supported, Linux specific
  101: cap-ng         | libcap-ng support                                  | not supported, Linux specific
  102: attr           | attr and xattr support                             | N/A, Linux specific ?
  103: vhost-net      | vhost-net acceleration support                     | not supported
  104: vhost-crypto   | vhost-crypto acceleration support                  | not supported
  105: spice          | spice                                              | unknown, probably not supported
  106: rbd            | rados block device (rbd)                           | unknown
  107: libiscsi       | iscsi support                                      | unknown
  108: libnfs         | nfs support                                        | unknown
  109: smartcard      | smartcard support (libcacard)                      | unknown
  110: libusb         | libusb (for usb passthrough)                       | unknown
  111: live-block-migration |  Block migration in the main migration stream| unknown
  112: usb-redir      | usb network redirection support                    | unknown
  113: lzo            | support of lzo compression library                 | should work
  114: snappy         | support of snappy compression library              | should work
  115: bzip2          | support of bzip2 compression library               | should work
  116: seccomp        | seccomp support                                    | Linux specific (?)
  117: coroutine-pool | coroutine freelist (better performance)            | unknown
  118: glusterfs      | GlusterFS backend                                  | unknown
  119: tpm            | TPM support                                        | unknown
  120: libssh2        | ssh block device support                           | should work
  121: numa           | libnuma support                                    | not ported
  122: libxml2        | for Parallels image format                         | should work
  123: tcmalloc       | tcmalloc support                                   | should work
  124: jemalloc       | jemalloc support                                   | works
  125: replication    | replication support                                | not ported, N/A ?, Linux specific
  126: vhost-vsock    | virtio sockets device support                      | not ported
  127: opengl         | opengl support                                     | unknown
  128: virglrenderer  | virgl rendering support                            | unknown
  129: xfsctl         | xfsctl support                                     | N/A / not ported
  130: qom-cast-debug | cast debugging support                             | unknown
  131: tools          | build qemu-io, qemu-nbd and qemu-image tools       | works (userland nbd only)
  132: vxhs           | Veritas HyperScale vDisk backend support           | N/A ?
  133: crypto-afalg   | Linux AF_ALG crypto backend driver                 | N/A / not ported
  134: vhost-user     | vhost-user support                                 | not ported
  135: capstone       | capstone disassembler support                      | should work
  136: 
  137: ## External features
  138: 
  139: 1. HQEMU
  140: 
  141: > HQEMU is a retargetable and multi-threaded dynamic binary translator on multicores. It integrates QEMU and LLVM as its building blocks. The translator in the enhanced QEMU acts as a fast translator with low translation overhead. The optimization-intensive LLVM optimizer running on separate threads dynamically improves code for higher performance. With the hybrid QEMU+LLVM approach, HQEMU can achieve low translation overhead and good translated code quality.
  142: > HQEMU supports process-level emulation and full-system virtualization. It provides translation modes of running the QEMU translator and LLVM optimizer in one process, or running the LLVM optimizer as a stand-alone optimization server (version 0.13.0).
  143: 
  144: <http://itanium.iis.sinica.edu.tw/hqemu/>
  145: 
  146: 2. DPDK
  147: 
  148: > DPDK is a set of libraries and drivers for fast packet processing.
  149: 
  150: <https://dpdk.org/>
  151: 
  152: 3. The ultimate CPU emulator
  153: 
  154: > Unicorn is a lightweight multi-platform, multi-architecture CPU emulator framework. 
  155: 
  156: <https://www.unicorn-engine.org/>
  157: 
  158: ## Prioritized tasks
  159: 
  160: 1. Upstream remaining local pkgsrc patches, mostly (old?) NetBSD and SmartOS related ones.
  161: 
  162: 2. Make QEMU PaX MPROTECT safe.
  163: 
  164: 3. Develop NetBSD USER emulation, attempt to either share the code with FreeBSD (bsd-user, old broken, downstream patches) or with Linux (linux-user, recent, actively maintained). Preferred approach is to share as much code with linux-user as possible, regardless of the state of bsd-user.
  165: 
  166: ## HAXM
  167: 
  168: > HAXM is a cross-platform hardware-assisted virtualization engine (hypervisor), widely used as an accelerator for Android Emulator and QEMU. It has always supported running on Windows and macOS, and has been ported to other host operating systems as well, such as Linux and NetBSD.
  169: 
  170: > HAXM runs as a kernel-mode driver on the host operating system, and provides a KVM-like interface to user space, thereby enabling applications like QEMU to utilize the hardware virtualization capabilities built into modern Intel CPUs, namely Intel Virtualization Technology.
  171: 
  172: 
  173: More information on the porting process is available on The NetBSD blog:
  174: 
  175: <http://blog.netbsd.org/tnf/entry/the_hardware_assisted_virtualization_challenge>
  176: 
  177: A tutorial (outdated) by an early user of the support:
  178: 
  179: <http://polprog.net/blog/netbsd-hax/>
  180: 
  181: NetBSD/amd64 is the only supported host of the package, but it shouldn't be difficult to expand it to Darwin, Windows and Linux if there would be users and maintainers for these OSes.
  182: 
  183: NetBSD as host version 8.0 and HEAD (8.99.3x) tested. The minimal version that could work in theory is 6.x, but everything prior 8.0 is untested.
  184: 
  185: There is no longer need to keep a patched host kernel.
  186: 
  187: There is need to keep at least a copy of syssrc in /usr/src(/sys).
  188: 
  189: Guests known to work:
  190: 
  191:  * NetBSD/amd64 8.99.3x (other variations untested)
  192:  * Windows 7 32-bit
  193:  * FreeBSD 12 32-bit
  194:  * Linux (noapic boot)
  195:  * Minix3 i386
  196:  * Plan9 (i386?)
  197:  * FREEDOS
  198: 
  199: Other OSes are either broken or untested.
  200: 
  201: Usage:
  202: 
  203: 1. Install emulators/haxm from pkgsrc
  204: 2. Install emulators/qemu 3.1.0nb5 or newer from pkgsrc
  205: 3. Use auxiliary scripts for HAXM (superuser privileges needed)
  206: 4. Append HAXM option to qemu (qemu --accel hax)
  207: 
  208: Auxiliary scripts in the HAXM package:
  209: 
  210:  * haxm-mknod     # creates /dev entries
  211:  * haxm-modload   # insert the HAXM kernel module
  212:  * haxm-modunload # remove the HAXM module from kernel
  213: 
  214: Optionally grant access to the HAXM device nodes to user(s):
  215: 
  216:  * /dev/HAX
  217:  * /dev/hax_vm/vm{00-07}
  218:  * /dev/hax_vm{00-07}/vcpu{00-16}

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