Annotation of wikisrc/users/dholland/mercurial.mdwn, revision 1.3
1.1 dholland 1: ## Using Mercurial and mq to work on NetBSD
3: This page contains directions for using Mercurial as a commit buffer
4: for NetBSD.
6: (It will not do you much good if you're trying to convert the master
7: NetBSD tree to Mercurial or to work with such a converted tree.)
9: ### What it is
11: Mercurial is a distributed version control system ("DVCS").
12: mq is an extension to Mercurial for handling patch queues.
13: The concept of patch queues was introduced by Quilt some years back.
15: This document assumes you already know more or less how to use
16: Mercurial but may not have used mq before.
18: ### The model we're using here
20: What we're going to do is commit a NetBSD CVS working tree into a
21: Mercurial repository.
22: You can then use Mercurial to merge; it is better at this than CVS.
23: You can also commit changes locally and ship them back to the CVS
24: master later; this is useful in a variety of ways.
25: You can potentially also clone the Mercurial tree and work jointly
26: with other people, but there are limits to this as we'll discuss in a
29: Because the NetBSD tree is rather large, you will find that if you
30: commit the whole thing into Mercurial that a number of operations
31: (anything that scans the working tree for changes) become annoyingly
33: It isn't slow enough to be unusable, and it's quite a bit faster than a
34: comparable CVS option (like running cvs update from the top level),
35: but it's slow enough to be annoying.
37: For this reason, in most cases, I recommend committing only part of
38: the tree into Mercurial and telling it to ignore the rest. This means
39: you can't in general usefully clone the resulting Mercurial repo
40: (although that depends on exactly what you leave out) but this is not
41: a major problem unless you're specifically trying to work with someone
44: So the basic model here is that you check out a CVS working tree and
45: use Mercurial to manage local changes to part of it, then later on
46: commit those changes back to the master CVS repository.
48: ### Branches vs. patches
50: There are two ways you can manage your changes: as a branch, or as a
51: patch queue.
52: The advantage of a patch queue is that you can easily commit each
53: patch individually back to CVS, and you can go back and forth between
54: them and debug and polish each one separately.
55: The disadvantage is that the merge facilities are (as far as I know
56: anyway) relatively limited.
58: Conversely, if you commit your changes to a branch, you get all the
59: native merging support in Mercurial.
60: However, it is painful to try to commit anything other than one big
61: diff for the whole branch back to CVS.
62: (You might be able to do it via bookmarks and rebasing, but I've never
63: tried and have no desire to figure out how.)
65: If you don't want to keep the incremental history of your local
66: commits, use a branch.
67: If you do, use a patch queue.
69: It is possible to use multiple branches to allow you to commit back in
70: several stages.
71: However, managing this is a major pain and I don't recommend it -- you
72: might get away with two branches but more than that is probably a bad
75: There's a Mercurial extension called the "patch branch extension" that
76: lets you manage a whole graph of patches using branches.
77: I haven't tried using it in some years; at the time it had scaling
78: problems such that it became horrifyingly slow once you had more than
79: a handful of such branches.
80: That might have been improved in the meantime; if you find yourself
81: wanting to use both branches and patches, it might be worth looking
84: It is also fairly probable that there is now a solution for merging
85: with patch queues; it's been a while since I had time to look closely.
87: ### Setting up
89: First, check out a CVS working tree.
90: You probably want to use a different one for each project, because
91: different projects require changing different parts of the tree and so
92: you will probably want to have Mercurial ignore different subtrees for
93: different projects.
94: (At least, I find it so; it depends on what you're working on.)
1.2 dholland 96: % cvs -d cvs.netbsd.org:/cvsroot checkout -P src
1.1 dholland 97:
98: Now create a Mercurial repository at the top level.
99: (If you are working only in a subtree and you are *sure* that you will
100: never need to change anything in other parts of the tree, you can
101: create the Mercurial repository in a subtree.
102: But unless you're absolutely certain, don't take the risk.)
104: % cd src
105: % hg init
107: If you're going to be using a patch queue, now enable mq.
109: % vi .hg/hgrc
1.3 ! kim 110:
1.1 dholland 111: and add
1.3 ! kim 112:
1.1 dholland 113: [extensions]
114: hgext.mq =
1.3 ! kim 115:
1.1 dholland 116: (Since the extension is built into Mercurial, that's all you need.)
117: You can if you prefer also put this in your .hgrc so mq is always on.
118: Then do
1.3 ! kim 119:
! 120: % hg qinit -c
1.1 dholland 122: The -c option tells mq that you'll be checkpointing your patches,
123: which is usually a good idea.
125: Now prepare a .hgignore file.
126: This file contains one regular expression per line; Mercurial ignores
127: files (and subdirectories) whose paths from the repository root match
128: one of the regexps.
129: Add at least:
1.3 ! kim 130:
1.1 dholland 131: ^CVS$
1.3 ! kim 133:
1.1 dholland 134: to ignore all the CVS control directories in the CVS checkout.
135: While you can commit these to Mercurial, there's no point and it gets
136: awkward if owing to mistakes later you end up having to merge them.
138: If you aren't arranging to put the tree's object directories somewhere
139: else, then also add
1.3 ! kim 140:
! 141: ^obj\.[0-9a-z]*$
! 142: /obj\.[0-9a-z]*$
1.1 dholland 144: and you might want
1.3 ! kim 145:
1.1 dholland 146: ^sys/arch/[0-9a-z]*/compile/[A-Z]
1.3 ! kim 147:
1.1 dholland 148: to ignore kernel build directories.
150: Ignore subtrees that you aren't working in.
151: You don't have to bother to be very selective; the goal is to rapidly
152: rule out a few large subtrees that you definitely don't care about, in
153: order to avoid wasting time scanning them for changes.
154: Unless you plan to be working with 3rd-party software,
159: is a good starting point.
160: Alternatively, if you aren't going to be working on MD kernel stuff or
165: is a good choice as it's also large.
167: You can always unignore stuff later, so don't worry about remote
170: Now commit the .hgignore file:
172: % hg add .hgignore
173: % hg commit -m 'add .hgignore file' .hgignore
175: Now add and commit the contents of the working tree:
177: % hg add
178: % hg commit -m 'HEAD of 20130101'
1.3 ! kim 179:
1.1 dholland 180: (or whatever date)
182: You are now in business.
184: ### Working
186: If you're using a branch, remember to change branches before you
187: commit anything:
1.3 ! kim 188:
1.1 dholland 189: % hg branch mystuff
1.3 ! kim 190:
1.1 dholland 191: You want to keep the default branch an untouched CVS tree so you can
192: use Mercurial to merge.
193: (And also so you can use Mercurial to extract diffs against CVS HEAD
194: and so forth.)
196: Similarly, if you're using a patch queue, put everything in patches
197: and don't commit.
198: (There's a section below about working with mq if you aren't familiar
199: with it.)
201: You can edit and build and test as normal.
202: Use hg commit or hg qrefresh to sync stuff into Mercurial.
204: If you're using mq, it's a good idea to checkpoint your patch queue
206: This is done as follows:
1.3 ! kim 207:
1.1 dholland 208: % hg qcommit
1.3 ! kim 209:
1.1 dholland 210: The patches directory (.hg/patches) is stored in its own Mercurial
211: repository, and this commits the patches to that repository.
212: If necessary you can then fetch older versions of the patches back and
213: so forth.
215: ### Updating from CVS
217: First, make sure all your changes are committed.
218: (If you have unfinished changes that aren't ready to commit, there's a
219: Mercurial extension for stashing them temporarily.
220: If you have stuff that you don't want to commit at all, like debugging
221: printouts or quick hacks, it's often convenient to keep those in their
222: own mq patch, even if you aren't using mq for development.)
224: Now go back to a clean CVS tree.
225: If using branches, go back to the default branch:
1.3 ! kim 226:
1.1 dholland 227: % hg update -r default
1.3 ! kim 228:
1.1 dholland 229: If using mq, pop all the patches:
1.3 ! kim 230:
1.1 dholland 231: % hg qpop -a
233: DO NOT run cvs update until/unless you have done this; it will make a
235: When you eventually do this by accident, see the section below on
236: recovering from mistakes.
238: Now run cvs update from the top of the source tree:
1.3 ! kim 239:
1.1 dholland 240: % cvs -q update -dP
242: You should get no conflicts from CVS and nothing should show as
244: (It is usually a good habit to save the cvs update output to a file to
245: be able to check this.)
247: Tell hg to sync up:
1.3 ! kim 248:
1.1 dholland 249: % hg addremove
251: Use hg to check what it thinks has changed:
1.3 ! kim 252:
1.1 dholland 253: % hg status
255: Commit the changes to Mercurial:
1.3 ! kim 256:
1.1 dholland 257: % hg commit -m 'Updated to 20130202"
259: Now you get to merge.
261: If you're using a branch, you want to merge the changes into your
262: branch rather than merge your branch into the changes:
1.3 ! kim 263:
1.1 dholland 264: % hg update -r mystuff
265: % hg merge default
266: (edit and resolve as needed)
267: % hg commit -m 'sync with HEAD'
269: If it tells you "update crosses branches" when trying to update back
270: to your branch, update to the parent changeset (the previous version
271: from CVS) first, as that's an ancestor of your branch.
273: If you're using mq, the thing to do now is to push all your patches,
274: and if any reject, clean up the mess and refresh them.
276: If patch tells you "hunk N succeeded at offset MMM with fuzz Q", it's
277: a good idea to manually inspect the results -- patch being what it is,
278: sometimes this means it's done the wrong thing.
279: Edit if needed.
280: Then (even if you didn't edit) refresh the patch so it won't happen
283: As I said above, it's quite likely that by now there's a better scheme
284: for merging with mq that I don't know about yet.
286: ### Pushing back to CVS
288: When you're ready to push your changes back to CVS (so they're really
289: committed), first (unless you're absolutely sure it's not necessary)
290: update from CVS as above and merge.
293: If you're using a branch, go back to the default branch and merge your
294: changes into it:
1.3 ! kim 295:
1.1 dholland 296: % hg update -r default
297: % hg merge mystuff
298: % hg commit -m "prepare to commit back to cvs"
1.3 ! kim 299:
1.1 dholland 300: Now cvs add any new directories and files; be sure not to forget this.
301: It is a good idea to crosscheck with cvs diff and/or cvs update:
1.3 ! kim 302:
1.1 dholland 303: % cvs diff -up | less
304: % cvs -nq update -dP
1.3 ! kim 305:
1.1 dholland 306: Then you can cvs commit:
1.3 ! kim 307:
1.1 dholland 308: % cvs commit
1.3 ! kim 309:
1.1 dholland 310: Because of RCSIDs, committing into cvs changes the source files.
311: So now you need to do:
1.3 ! kim 312:
1.1 dholland 313: % hg commit -m 'cvs committed'
1.3 ! kim 314:
1.1 dholland 315: and if you intend to keep working in this tree, you want to merge that
316: changeset back into your branch to avoid having it cause merge
317: conflicts later.
318: Do that as above.
321: If you're using a patch queue, usually it's because you want to commit
322: each patch back to CVS individually.
323: First pop all the patches:
1.3 ! kim 324:
1.1 dholland 325: % hg qpop -a
1.3 ! kim 326:
1.1 dholland 327: Now, for each patch:
1.3 ! kim 328:
1.1 dholland 329: % hg qpush
330: % hg qfinish -a
331: % cvs commit
332: % hg commit -m "cvs committed previous"
1.3 ! kim 333:
1.1 dholland 334: With a long patch queue, you'll want to use the patch comments as the
335: CVS commit messages.
336: Also, running cvs commit from the top for every patch is horribly slow.
337: Both these problems can be fixed by putting the following in a script:
1.3 ! kim 338:
1.1 dholland 339: hg log -v -r. | sed '1,/^description:$/d' > patch-message
340: cat patch-message
341: echo -n 'cvs commit -F patch-message '
342: hg log -v -r. | grep '^files:' | sed 's/^files://'
1.3 ! kim 343:
1.1 dholland 344: (I call this "dogetpatch.sh") and then the procedure is:
1.3 ! kim 345:
1.1 dholland 346: % hg qpop -a
1.3 ! kim 347:
1.1 dholland 348: then for each patch:
1.3 ! kim 349:
1.1 dholland 350: % hg qpush && hg qfinish -a && dogetpatch.sh
351: % cvs commit [as directed]
352: % hg commit -m "cvs committed previous"
1.3 ! kim 353:
1.1 dholland 354: (This could be automated further but doing so seems unwise.)
356: ### Using CVS within Mercurial
358: You can successfully do any read-only CVS operation in the hybrid
359: tree: diff, annotate, log, update -p, etc.
360: Read-write operations should be avoided; if you mix upstream changes
361: with your changes you will find it much harder to commit upstream
362: later, and you may get weird merge conflicts or even accidentally
363: revert other people's changes and cause problems.
365: If you clone the Mercurial tree and you didn't include the CVS control
366: files in it, you won't be able to do CVS operations from clones.
367: Including the CVS control files in the Mercurial tree is one way
368: around that.
370: You will find that any large CVS operation on a clone is horribly
372: This is because making a clone causes CVS to think all the files in
373: the clone have been modified since you last ran it; it then re-fetches
374: every file you ask it about so it can update its own information.
375: For this reason cloning the Mercurial tree usually isn't worthwhile
376: and even when it is, including the CVS files in the Mercurial tree
379: Another consequence of this: do not try to cvs update in a cloned
380: Mercurial repository; use only the original.
381: Updating a clone basically downloads the entire tree over again from
382: the CVS server.
384: DO NOT CVS COMMIT FROM A CLONE.
385: It is known that some operations that muck with the timestamps in a
386: CVS working tree can cause CVS to lose data.
387: It is not clear if hg clone is such an operation; don't be the person
388: who finds out the hard way.
390: ### Recovering from mistakes
392: The most common mistake is CVS updating when the Mercurial tree is not
393: in the proper state from that; e.g. onto your branch or while you have
394: patches applied.
396: The basic strategy for this is to use hg revert to restore the part of
397: the tree it knows about, then go back to CVS, clean up the mess there,
398: and update properly.
400: If you're using a branch:
1.3 ! kim 401:
1.1 dholland 402: % hg revert -C
403: % hg update -r default
1.3 ! kim 404:
1.1 dholland 405: If you're using a patch queue:
1.3 ! kim 406:
1.1 dholland 407: % hg revert -C
408: % hg qpop -a
410: The problem is, CVS will now think you've changed every file that
411: Mercurial is managing, and the modifications are to revert all the
412: changes that have happened since your previous update.
413: You do *not* want that to turn into reality.
414: Hunt down (with cvs -n update) any files that CVS thinks are modified,
415: then rm them and run cvs update on them.
416: CVS will print "Warning: foo was lost" and restore an unmodified copy.
418: When you have no files left that CVS thinks are modified, do a CVS
419: update on the whole tree and merge it as described above.
420: (You must do this, as the parts of the tree that Mercurial is ignoring
421: will otherwise be out of sync with the parts it's managing.)
423: If you stored the CVS control files in Mercurial, then the revert will
424: restore them, but your tree will still be inconsistent so you still
425: need to do a proper update and merge immediately.
427: ### mq
429: The basic idea of mq (like quilt) is it maintains a series of patches
430: against the source tree, that are to be applied in order.
431: By applying them or removing them one at a time, you can move the tree
432: to any intermediate state; and then you can update the topmost patch,
433: insert a new patch, or whatever.
435: To see the list of patches:
1.3 ! kim 436:
1.1 dholland 437: % hg qseries
439: To apply the next patch:
1.3 ! kim 440:
1.1 dholland 441: % hg qpush
443: To remove the current patch:
1.3 ! kim 444:
1.1 dholland 445: % hg qpop
447: To merge current working tree changes into the current patch:
1.3 ! kim 448:
1.1 dholland 449: % hg qrefresh
451: To also update the current patch's change comment:
1.3 ! kim 452:
1.1 dholland 453: % hg qrefresh -e
455: To collect current working tree changes (if any) into a new patch:
1.3 ! kim 456:
1.1 dholland 457: % hg qnew PATCHNAME
459: When there's an mq patch applied, you can't commit.
460: (Doing qrefresh is basically equivalent to committing the current
462: Diff will show the changes against the last refreshed version of the
463: current patch; to see the complete changes for the current patch
464: (including current changes), use "hg qdiff".
466: You can delete patches with "hg qrm" and rename them with "hg qmv".
468: Patches are applied with patch, unfortunately, which means that if
469: they don't apply (which can happen if you or someone else changes
470: something under one) you get .rej files you have to clean up by hand
471: rather than a Mercurial merge.
473: When a patch is ready to be committed for real, you do "hg qfinish" on
475: This removes it from the patch queue and converts it to a normal
476: Mercurial changeset.
478: To change the ordering of patches, you edit the file
480: If the patches aren't orthogonal you'll have to fix the rejections
481: when you next apply them.
482: (Don't do this with patches that are currently applied.)
484: Use "hg help mq" to see the full list of mq-related commands.
486: I'm sure there are better mq tutorials out there.
488: ### Using mq
490: The basic process when using mq is that you start a new patch, edit
491: and hack for a while, use hg qrefresh to commit it (once or many
492: times), and when you're done go on to the next one.
494: If you find a bug in an earlier patch, you can go back to the patch
495: that introduced it and fix the bug there, creating a new version of
496: the offending patch that no longer contains the bug.
497: (Or you can create a new patch that fixes the bug, but insert it
498: immediately after the patch that created the bug.)
500: When a patch is ready to be seen by other people, you "finish" it and
501: then it becomes a normal immutable changeset.
503: One catch is that you can't push or pop the patch queue while you have
504: unsynced (uncommitted) changes.
505: There are two ways around this; there's a separate "stash" extension
506: that lets you put unfinished changes aside while you do something else.
507: Or, alternatively, you can create a new temporary patch holding your
508: unfinished changes, and then later use hg qfold to combine that with
509: the patch you originally meant this for.
511: A variant of this problem is when you discover a bug, open an editor,
512: fix it, and then realize that you wanted to make the edit in an
513: earlier patch.
514: Then you go to pop the queue and it complains that you have a modified
516: If the modification in question is the only uncommitted change, the
517: best way to deal with this is to create a new patch for it, then pop
518: to where you wanted it to go and use hg qfold to apply it there.
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