Annotation of wikisrc/tutorials/user_management.mdwn, revision 1.5

1.2       schmonz     1: **Contents**
                      2: 
                      3: [[!toc levels=2]]
                      4: 
                      5: #Preface
                      6: 
                      7: Before you start to do user and group management you must: 
                      8: 
                      9: 1. For security reasons, create substitute user and name it as you like, here it is referred as _noroot_: 
                     10: <pre><code>    
                     11:     # useradd -m -G wheel _noroot_
                     12: </code></pre>    
                     13: 
                     14: 2. Set password for _noroot_ user: 
                     15: <pre><code>    
                     16:     # passwd _noroot_
                     17: </code></pre>
                     18: 
                     19: 3. Exit and log in as _noroot_ user. 
                     20: 
1.5     ! sevan      21: 4. Use the `su` command to obtain the root privileges for _noroot_: 
1.2       schmonz    22:     
                     23:     $ su
                     24:     
                     25: 
1.5     ! sevan      26: 5. Forget to use the `root` for maintenance or regular administration of the system. You free to find any secure and convenient spot for the root password be available upon your need. 
1.2       schmonz    27: 
                     28:   
1.5     ! sevan      29: If your favorite user with login password is already assigned in the system and no need to create new one. Omit first steps from above. Do modify user information by adding _your no root user_ into the wheel group and `su` anytime per your desire: 
1.2       schmonz    30:     
                     31:     # usermod -G wheel _noroot_
                     32:     
                     33: 
                     34: #[**User**](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?user++NetBSD-current)
                     35: 
                     36: The NetBSD maintains information in regard of each user who logs into, access system, runs processes on so forth. This include and not limited to: 
                     37:     
                     38:     - user name
                     39:     - password
                     40:     - group
                     41:     - base_dir
                     42:     - skel_dir
                     43:     - shell
                     44:     - class
                     45:     - homeperm
                     46:     - inactive
                     47:     - expire
                     48:     
                     49: 
                     50: The superuser called root has no limitations on its privileges. 
                     51: 
                     52: To limit user priveleges consider to set limits by: coredumpsize, cputime, filesize, quota, maxproc, memory, openfiles etc. 
                     53: 
1.5     ! sevan      54: `user` is frontend to the useradd, usermod, userinfo and userdel commands, it helps to manage users in the system. 
1.2       schmonz    55: 
                     56: Use [id](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?id+1+NetBSD-current) to see user identity: 
                     57: 
1.5     ! sevan      58:     $ id
1.2       schmonz    59:     
                     60: 
                     61: Use [w](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?w+1+NetBSD-current) to see who present and what they are doing: 
                     62: 
1.5     ! sevan      63:     $ w
1.2       schmonz    64:     
                     65: 
                     66: Use [last](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?last+1+NetBSD-current) to see last logins: 
                     67: 
                     68: 
1.5     ! sevan      69:     $ last
1.2       schmonz    70:     
                     71: 
1.4       sevan      72: ##  [useradd](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?useradd++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz    73: 
                     74: To add user do: 
                     75:     
1.5     ! sevan      76:     user add [options] _user_
1.2       schmonz    77:     
                     78: 
                     79: To add a user and create a new home directory: 
                     80:     
1.5     ! sevan      81:     # useradd -m _myuser_
1.2       schmonz    82:     
                     83: 
                     84: Look into the NetBSD Guide [Chapter 5.6](http://netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-boot.html#chap-boot-adding-users)
                     85: 
                     86: ##  [userinfo](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?userinfo++NetBSD-current)
                     87: 
                     88: To see user information do: 
                     89:     
1.5     ! sevan      90:     $ userinfo _myuser_
1.2       schmonz    91:     
                     92: 
1.4       sevan      93: ##  [usermod](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?usermod++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz    94: 
                     95: To modify existing user login do: 
                     96:     
1.5     ! sevan      97:     # user mod [options] _user_
1.2       schmonz    98:     
                     99:     
1.5     ! sevan     100:     # usermod -C yes _username_             ; set Close lock on user account
1.2       schmonz   101:     
                    102:     
1.5     ! sevan     103:     # usermod -C no _username_              ; unlock user account
1.2       schmonz   104:     
                    105:     
1.5     ! sevan     106:     # usermod -G wheel _username_           ; add user to group _wheel_
1.2       schmonz   107:     
                    108:     
1.5     ! sevan     109:     # usermod -s /sbin/nologin _username_   ; remove login shell
1.2       schmonz   110:     
                    111:     
1.5     ! sevan     112:     # usermod -s /bin/sh _username_         ; set login shell
1.2       schmonz   113:     
                    114:     
1.5     ! sevan     115:     # usermod -F _username_                 ; force user to change password
1.2       schmonz   116:     
                    117: 
                    118: ##  [userdel](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?userdel++NetBSD-current)
                    119: 
                    120: To remove a user from the system do: 
                    121:     
1.5     ! sevan     122:     # userdel _myuser_
1.2       schmonz   123:     
                    124: 
1.4       sevan     125: ##  [passwd](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?passwd++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz   126: 
                    127: To see a list of all users in the system do: 
                    128:     
                    129:     $ cat /etc/passwd
                    130:     
                    131: 
                    132: To edit _/etc/passwd_ file do: 
                    133:     
                    134:     # vipw
                    135:     
                    136: 
1.4       sevan     137: ##  [chpass](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chpass++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz   138: 
                    139: Use [chpass, chfn, chsh]((http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chpass+1+NetBSD-current)) to add or change user database information. 
                    140: 
                    141: To change the shell of _myuser_, for an exapmle to /bin/ksh: 
                    142:     
1.5     ! sevan     143:     # chpass -s /bin/ksh _myuser_
1.2       schmonz   144:     
                    145: 
                    146:   
                    147: 
                    148: 
                    149: #  [**Group**](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?group++NetBSD-current)
                    150: 
1.5     ! sevan     151: To manage groups check `/etc/group` file which maintains name of each group, group id and list of users who is a group member. 
1.2       schmonz   152: 
1.5     ! sevan     153: `group` is frontend to the groupadd, groupmod, groupinfo and groupdel commands, it helps to manage groups in the system. 
1.2       schmonz   154: 
                    155: To add group do: 
                    156:     
1.5     ! sevan     157:     group add [options] _group_
1.2       schmonz   158:     
                    159: 
                    160: To delete group do: 
                    161:     
1.5     ! sevan     162:     group del [options] _group_
1.2       schmonz   163:     
                    164: 
                    165: To obtain group information do: 
                    166:     
1.5     ! sevan     167:     group info [options] _group_
1.2       schmonz   168:     
                    169: 
                    170: To modify existing group do: 
                    171:     
1.5     ! sevan     172:     group mod [options] _group_
1.2       schmonz   173:     
                    174: 
1.5     ! sevan     175: To remove user from the group you have to do `user del` and then add user again. 
1.2       schmonz   176: 
                    177: ##  [groupadd](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?groupadd+8+NetBSD-current)
                    178: 
                    179: ##  [groupdel](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?groupdel+8+NetBSD-current)
                    180: 
                    181: ##  [groupinfo](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?groupinfo+8+NetBSD-current)
                    182: 
                    183: ##  [groupmod](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?groupmod+8+NetBSD-current)
                    184: 
                    185: #  Other
                    186: 
1.4       sevan     187: ##  [chmod](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chmod++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz   188: 
1.4       sevan     189: ##  [chown](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chown++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz   190: 
                    191: To change files/directory ownership: 
                    192:     
                    193:     #chown -R  myuser path 
                    194:     
                    195: 
                    196: Where myuser is the name of user and path is directory where files are located. 
                    197: 
1.4       sevan     198: ##  [chgrp](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chgrp++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz   199: 
1.4       sevan     200: ##  [chroot](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?chroot++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz   201: 
1.4       sevan     202: ##  [quota](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?quota++NetBSD-current)
1.2       schmonz   203: 
                    204: Use quota to set users quotas per desire. 
                    205: 
                    206: #  See also
                    207: 
                    208:   * [[How to set up per-user timezones]]
                    209:   * How to [[Hide other user's processes]]
                    210:   * [[Userland version]]
                    211:   * [[The_NetBSD_System_Manager's_Manual#Users_and_Accounts_Management]]

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