Diff for /wikisrc/tutorials/openldap_authentication_on_netbsd.mdwn between versions 1.1 and 1.2

version 1.1, 2011/11/20 21:35:54 version 1.2, 2012/02/05 07:14:36
Line 1 Line 1
 **Contents**  **Contents**
   
 [[!toc levels=3]]  [[!toc levels=3]]
   
 #  Author's note  #  Author's note 
   
 This document really describes (what I remember of installing) my system, with tidbits I've forgotten from various sources on the net. I can't guarantee that following this document you'll get a working system, but I hope it will provide some insights into how the thing is supposed to work.  This document really describes (what I remember of installing) my system, with tidbits I've forgotten from various sources on the net. I can't guarantee that following this document you'll get a working system, but I hope it will provide some insights into how the thing is supposed to work. 
   
 Staffan Thom´en <duck@shangtai.net>  Staffan Thom´en <duck@shangtai.net>
   
 #  Server setup  #  Server setup 
   
 First things first, you'll need to set up an openldap server somewhere, this is fairly straightforward, as it's available in pkgsrc. The tricky bit is really configuring the ACL:s, since the openldap logs are incredibly hard to read. Generally it's probably a good idea to firewall it from outside and worry about the ACL setup later if you want to do things like let other departments to see your users or let the public see contact information for example.  First things first, you'll need to set up an openldap server somewhere, this is fairly straightforward, as it's available in pkgsrc. The tricky bit is really configuring the ACL:s, since the openldap logs are incredibly hard to read. Generally it's probably a good idea to firewall it from outside and worry about the ACL setup later if you want to do things like let other departments to see your users or let the public see contact information for example. 
   
 An example config file is included in the package (${LOCALBASE}/etc/opeldap/slapd.conf), and the only thing that really has to be added is to include some schemas for user authentication:  An example config file is included in the package (${LOCALBASE}/etc/opeldap/slapd.conf), and the only thing that really has to be added is to include some schemas for user authentication: 
          
     cosine.schema      cosine.schema
     inetorgperson.schema      inetorgperson.schema
     nis.schema      nis.schema
          
   
 These are (in pkgsrc-2008Q2) installed in ${LOCALBASE}/share/examples/openldap/schema, and can just be included from there, and tells the server which record keys (as in key-value pairs) it shall accept.  These are (in pkgsrc-2008Q2) installed in ${LOCALBASE}/share/examples/openldap/schema, and can just be included from there, and tells the server which record keys (as in key-value pairs) it shall accept. 
   
 And that really is it for the server bit. Next comes testing it out with a few ldap commands.  And that really is it for the server bit. Next comes testing it out with a few ldap commands. 
   
 The basic commands of talking directly with the ldap database are ldapadd, ldapmodify and ldapsearch. These are in the openldap-client package, so you won't have to install the entire server on a client machine.  The basic commands of talking directly with the ldap database are ldapadd, ldapmodify and ldapsearch. These are in the openldap-client package, so you won't have to install the entire server on a client machine. 
   
 Options you'll be using alot like -b (base) and -H (host URI) can conveninently be stuck in a client configuration file, ${LOCALBASE}/etc/openldap/ldap.conf, which will save you time and aggravation from having to type them all the time.  Options you'll be using alot like -b (base) and -H (host URI) can conveninently be stuck in a client configuration file, ${LOCALBASE}/etc/openldap/ldap.conf, which will save you time and aggravation from having to type them all the time. 
   
 To talk to your ldap server, try running ldapsearch;  To talk to your ldap server, try running ldapsearch; 
          
     % ldapsearch -H ldap://my.server/      % ldapsearch -H ldap://my.server/
          
   
 This really means dump everything, but since we've nothing in the database it will respond with an error.  This really means dump everything, but since we've nothing in the database it will respond with an error. 
   
 To set this database up for user authentication, we'll need to lay down some structure. LDAP is generally a hierachial database of records with key-value pairs. We'll first need to tell it about our organisation and then add a user.  To set this database up for user authentication, we'll need to lay down some structure. LDAP is generally a hierachial database of records with key-value pairs. We'll first need to tell it about our organisation and then add a user. 
   
 Here we'll be using ldapadd, which reads a format called ldif. It is a flat text format that looks something like this:  Here we'll be using ldapadd, which reads a format called ldif. It is a flat text format that looks something like this: 
          
      dn: cn=example,dc=org       dn: cn=example,dc=org
      objectClass: dcObject       objectClass: dcObject
      objectClass: organization       objectClass: organization
      objectClass: top       objectClass: top
      o: Example Organisation       o: Example Organisation
      dc: example       dc: example
          
          
      dn: ou=groups,dc=example,dc=org       dn: ou=groups,dc=example,dc=org
      objectClass: top       objectClass: top
      objectClass: organizationalUnit       objectClass: organizationalUnit
      ou: groups       ou: groups
          
          
      dn: ou=people,dc=example,dc=org       dn: ou=people,dc=example,dc=org
      objectClass: top       objectClass: top
      objectClass: organizationalUnit       objectClass: organizationalUnit
      ou: people       ou: people
          
   
 The text above define three records, they start with a distinguished name of the record (dn:), which is a unique identifier for the record.  The text above define three records, they start with a distinguished name of the record (dn:), which is a unique identifier for the record. 
   
 "cn=example,dc=org" is the root of this organisation, with a common name (cn) example and a domain component (dc) of org. Next come the objectClass lines which tells us that this is domain component object, an organisation object and a top-level object. We then have an organisation (o:) line which is a descriptive text and finally a domain component line (dc:) which is the stored value for the dc (same as in the distinguished name).  "cn=example,dc=org" is the root of this organisation, with a common name (cn) example and a domain component (dc) of org. Next come the objectClass lines which tells us that this is domain component object, an organisation object and a top-level object. We then have an organisation (o:) line which is a descriptive text and finally a domain component line (dc:) which is the stored value for the dc (same as in the distinguished name). 
   
 Following this are two records which define something called in ldap terms organisational units, and as you see from the dn:, essentially two branches of the main tree. They are here to be used for the user groups (yes, like /etc/groups) and the actual users.  Following this are two records which define something called in ldap terms organisational units, and as you see from the dn:, essentially two branches of the main tree. They are here to be used for the user groups (yes, like /etc/groups) and the actual users. 
   
 If you want you can just stick all of this in one file (even the user below) and add it with ldapadd -f file.ldif, this will create the initial structure of your database.  If you want you can just stick all of this in one file (even the user below) and add it with ldapadd -f file.ldif, this will create the initial structure of your database. 
   
 Adding a group and then a user user is no more difficult, you just have to fill out the right fields.  Adding a group and then a user user is no more difficult, you just have to fill out the right fields. 
          
     dn: cn=ldapusers,ou=groups,dc=example,dc=org      dn: cn=ldapusers,ou=groups,dc=example,dc=org
     objectClass: top      objectClass: top
     objectClass: posixGroup      objectClass: posixGroup
     cn: ldapusers      cn: ldapusers
     gidNumber: 101      gidNumber: 101
     memberUid: bill      memberUid: bill
     memberUid: george      memberUid: george
          
   
 A group named ldapusers with the number 101, and the secondary users bill and george (these are of course not required).  A group named ldapusers with the number 101, and the secondary users bill and george (these are of course not required). 
          
     dn: uid=test,ou=people,dc=example,dc=org      dn: uid=test,ou=people,dc=example,dc=org
     objectClass: top      objectClass: top
     objectClass: posixAccount      objectClass: posixAccount
     objectClass: inetOrgPerson      objectClass: inetOrgPerson
     uid: test      uid: test
     uidNumber: 2000      uidNumber: 2000
     gidNumber: 101      gidNumber: 101
     o: Example Organisation      o: Example Organisation
     cn: Test User      cn: Test User
     givenName: Test      givenName: Test
     sn: User      sn: User
     gecos: Test User,3b,+358800128128,+35801234567      gecos: Test User,3b,+358800128128,+35801234567
     loginShell: /bin/ksh      loginShell: /bin/ksh
     homeDirectory: /home/test      homeDirectory: /home/test
     mail: test@example.org      mail: test@example.org
     displayName: El Magnifico Test User      displayName: El Magnifico Test User
          
   
 A user with the uid test, belonging to group ldapusers (101); o: is the same as the root record above and the others apart from sn (surname) is fairly obvious. The GECOS field contains comma separated values, apparently it's pulled straight into the client system.  A user with the uid test, belonging to group ldapusers (101); o: is the same as the root record above and the others apart from sn (surname) is fairly obvious. The GECOS field contains comma separated values, apparently it's pulled straight into the client system. 
   
 The fields actually required by the schemes are:  The fields actually required by the schemes are: 
          
     uid      uid
     uidNumber      uidNumber
     gidNumber      gidNumber
     cn      cn
     sn      sn
     homeDirectory      homeDirectory
          
   
 LDAP can store multiple roots and each user entry for example can be more than just the login information, as above it also mentions email, phone numbers and so on for our test user, and it can also include binary data like a mugshot and them playing the corporate theme on banjo. As far as authentication is concerned, we've got what we want though.  LDAP can store multiple roots and each user entry for example can be more than just the login information, as above it also mentions email, phone numbers and so on for our test user, and it can also include binary data like a mugshot and them playing the corporate theme on banjo. As far as authentication is concerned, we've got what we want though. 
   
 So far so good, this should not cause much trouble to set up, I believe I've covered everything required; the thing I had most problem with in relation to the database itself was that it was so unstructured, you have to provide all the structure yourself.  So far so good, this should not cause much trouble to set up, I believe I've covered everything required; the thing I had most problem with in relation to the database itself was that it was so unstructured, you have to provide all the structure yourself. 
   
 #  Client Setup  #  Client Setup 
   
 In order to log in on a NetBSD system we need to provide two things, a way for the system to authenticate you and a way for it to find out what your group, user id, etc. is.  In order to log in on a NetBSD system we need to provide two things, a way for the system to authenticate you and a way for it to find out what your group, user id, etc. is. 
   
 The first part of this, authentication is taken care of by PAM (or possibly by some BSD auth scheme, but this is not yet implemented as far as I know.)  The first part of this, authentication is taken care of by PAM (or possibly by some BSD auth scheme, but this is not yet implemented as far as I know.) 
   
 The second part is done via libc and the NSS subsystem.  The second part is done via libc and the NSS subsystem. 
   
 In order to do this, we need to provide some plugins for either system that enables LDAP support in them. The plugins are in pkgsrc and are called  In order to do this, we need to provide some plugins for either system that enables LDAP support in them. The plugins are in pkgsrc and are called 
          
     security/pam-ldap      security/pam-ldap
          
   
 and  and 
          
     databases/nss_ldap      databases/nss_ldap
          
          
   
 Once these are installed, you can either link them, copy or use in place from ${LOCALBASE}/lib and ${LOCALBASE}/lib/security into /usr/lib and /usr/lib/security respectively. I prefer to use symbolic links because then any upgrade I make will automatically have the latest version already in place.  Once these are installed, you can either link them, copy or use in place from ${LOCALBASE}/lib and ${LOCALBASE}/lib/security into /usr/lib and /usr/lib/security respectively. I prefer to use symbolic links because then any upgrade I make will automatically have the latest version already in place. 
   
 Before we go any further, I'd like to introduce some security into the mix; up til now we've talked to the ldap server without any limitations and what's called anonymous binds, i.e. not logged in.  Before we go any further, I'd like to introduce some security into the mix; up til now we've talked to the ldap server without any limitations and what's called anonymous binds, i.e. not logged in. 
   
 XXX can anonymous binds actually write to a db without ACLs?  XXX can anonymous binds actually write to a db without ACLs? 
   
 This is an ldap user, just like the test user outlined above, since the ldap database can authenticate against itself. (You don't have to, but I haven't explored the other possibilities such as SASL)  This is an ldap user, just like the test user outlined above, since the ldap database can authenticate against itself. (You don't have to, but I haven't explored the other possibilities such as SASL) 
   
 So we'll create a user called nss  So we'll create a user called nss 
          
     dn: cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org      dn: cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org
     objectClass: top      objectClass: top
     objectClass: inetOrgPerson      objectClass: inetOrgPerson
     o: Example Organisation      o: Example Organisation
     cn: nss      cn: nss
     sn: manager      sn: manager
          
   
 We'll attach a password so that not just anyone can connect, and also change our LDAP configuration slightly so that we use encrypted passwords.  We'll attach a password so that not just anyone can connect, and also change our LDAP configuration slightly so that we use encrypted passwords. 
          
     userPassword: {SSHA}w5aocfmGgZqq3h8AjvaZiw8WKdrRTjTi      userPassword: {SSHA}w5aocfmGgZqq3h8AjvaZiw8WKdrRTjTi
          
   
 To generate this password I use (bundled with openldap-server) slapdpasswd  To generate this password I use (bundled with openldap-server) slapdpasswd 
          
     % slappasswd -h "{SSHA}"      % slappasswd -h "{SSHA}"
          
          
   
 And in slapd.conf add  And in slapd.conf add 
          
     passsword-hash {SSHA}      passsword-hash {SSHA}
          
   
 And of course you'll need to change the secret for the rootpw into something encrypted.  And of course you'll need to change the secret for the rootpw into something encrypted. 
   
 Note that the traffic between the ldap client and the server is still not (that is if you've been following this document) encrypted so this might be best to perform locally.  Note that the traffic between the ldap client and the server is still not (that is if you've been following this document) encrypted so this might be best to perform locally. 
   
 This user will be used for ACL filtering later.  This user will be used for ACL filtering later. 
   
 Next we'll need to configure the LDAP part of the plugins, a convenience here is that since both the plugins are made by the same people, they can share a configuration file. They will look for ${LOCALBASE}/etc/nss_ldap.conf and ${LOCALBASE}/etc/pam_ldap.conf, but linking them to the same file will let you have just one place to configure (and protect for your ldap user password)  Next we'll need to configure the LDAP part of the plugins, a convenience here is that since both the plugins are made by the same people, they can share a configuration file. They will look for ${LOCALBASE}/etc/nss_ldap.conf and ${LOCALBASE}/etc/pam_ldap.conf, but linking them to the same file will let you have just one place to configure (and protect for your ldap user password) 
   
 The important bits in this file is the base setting and the uri for your ldap server:  The important bits in this file is the base setting and the uri for your ldap server: 
          
     base dc=example,dc=org      base dc=example,dc=org
          
          
     uri ldap://my.server/      uri ldap://my.server/
          
   
 Next we need to tell it who it should contact the ldap database as:  Next we need to tell it who it should contact the ldap database as: 
          
     binddn cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org      binddn cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org
          
          
     bindpw unencrypted-password      bindpw unencrypted-password
          
   
 And if you want to be able to change passwords as root without knowing the user's password in advance (with passwd, using ldapmodify you can still just set it, if you bind with the credentials to do it (see ACLs).)  And if you want to be able to change passwords as root without knowing the user's password in advance (with passwd, using ldapmodify you can still just set it, if you bind with the credentials to do it (see ACLs).) 
   
 I haven't mentioned this user before, it's the database's root user, allowed to do anything;  I haven't mentioned this user before, it's the database's root user, allowed to do anything; 
          
     rootbinddn cn=root,dc=example,dc=org      rootbinddn cn=root,dc=example,dc=org
          
   
 The password for this will not be in this file, but in a separate file called ${LOCALBASE}/etc/nss_ldap.secret or for pam; ${LOCALBASE}/etc/pam_ldap.secret  The password for this will not be in this file, but in a separate file called ${LOCALBASE}/etc/nss_ldap.secret or for pam; ${LOCALBASE}/etc/pam_ldap.secret 
   
   * ) not sure about this, but my system has both, linked together    * ) not sure about this, but my system has both, linked together 
   
 Finally we will set the password exchange method to exop;  Finally we will set the password exchange method to exop; 
          
     pam_password exop      pam_password exop
          
   
 This is the OpenLDAP extended method and while the passwords will still be sent in the clear, they are encrypted with the database's scheme in the database.  This is the OpenLDAP extended method and while the passwords will still be sent in the clear, they are encrypted with the database's scheme in the database. 
   
 So while you can use ldapsearch to get the data (though ACLs can prevent this if properly set up) it will still only be a hash.  So while you can use ldapsearch to get the data (though ACLs can prevent this if properly set up) it will still only be a hash. 
   
 That's it for configuring the plugins so far.  That's it for configuring the plugins so far. 
   
 #  NSS  #  NSS 
   
 The next change we will need to do is to enable the ldap module in nsswitch.conf:  The next change we will need to do is to enable the ldap module in nsswitch.conf: 
   
 Change  Change 
          
     group:      files      group:      files
     ...      ...
     passwd:     files      passwd:     files
          
   
 To  To 
          
     group:      files ldap      group:      files ldap
     ...      ...
     passwd:     files ldap      passwd:     files ldap
          
   
 This will enable you to have local accounts as well as ldap users. You could test this out now, by running the getent program;  This will enable you to have local accounts as well as ldap users. You could test this out now, by running the getent program; 
          
     % getent group      % getent group
          
   
 Will present you with a list of all the groups in the system, with the ldap group 'ldapusers' we created earlier tacked on to the end of the list.  Will present you with a list of all the groups in the system, with the ldap group 'ldapusers' we created earlier tacked on to the end of the list. 
          
     % getent passwd      % getent passwd
          
   
 And this will show you the user list, with the ldap user 'test' at the end.  And this will show you the user list, with the ldap user 'test' at the end. 
   
 #  PAM  #  PAM 
   
 PAM keeps it's configuration files in /etc/pam.d/, these are divided into individual files per each pam service in the system; most are just including system but some need special attention.  PAM keeps it's configuration files in /etc/pam.d/, these are divided into individual files per each pam service in the system; most are just including system but some need special attention. 
   
 On my system I have the following changes from the stock netbsd setup:  On my system I have the following changes from the stock netbsd setup: 
   
 ##  /etc/pam.d/sshd  ##  /etc/pam.d/sshd 
          
     # $NetBSD: sshd,v 1.5.2.2 2005/03/19 17:45:49 tron Exp $      # $NetBSD: openldap_authentication_on_netbsd.mdwn,v 1.1 2011/11/20 21:35:54 mspo Exp $
     #      #
     # PAM configuration for the "sshd" service      # PAM configuration for the "sshd" service
     #      #
             
     # auth      # auth
     auth            required        pam_nologin.so  no_warn      auth            required        pam_nologin.so  no_warn
     auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so      auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     auth            sufficient      pam_krb5.so     no_warn try_first_pass      auth            sufficient      pam_krb5.so     no_warn try_first_pass
     # pam_ssh has potential security risks.  See pam_ssh(8).      # pam_ssh has potential security risks.  See pam_ssh(8).
     #auth           sufficient      pam_ssh.so      no_warn try_first_pass      #auth           sufficient      pam_ssh.so      no_warn try_first_pass
     auth            required        pam_unix.so     no_warn try_first_pass      auth            required        pam_unix.so     no_warn try_first_pass
             
     # account      # account
     account         required        pam_krb5.so      account         required        pam_krb5.so
     account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so      account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     account         required        pam_login_access.so      account         required        pam_login_access.so
     account         required        pam_unix.so      account         required        pam_unix.so
             
     # session      # session
     # pam_ssh has potential security risks.  See pam_ssh(8).      # pam_ssh has potential security risks.  See pam_ssh(8).
     #session        optional        pam_ssh.so      #session        optional        pam_ssh.so
     session         sufficient      pam_ldap.so      session         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     session         required        pam_permit.so      session         required        pam_permit.so
             
     # password      # password
     password        sufficient      pam_krb5.so     no_warn try_first_pass      password        sufficient      pam_krb5.so     no_warn try_first_pass
     password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so      password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     password        required        pam_unix.so     no_warn try_first_pass      password        required        pam_unix.so     no_warn try_first_pass
          
   
 ##  /etc/pam.d/su  ##  /etc/pam.d/su 
          
     # $NetBSD: su,v 1.5 2005/03/01 16:28:46 christos Exp $      # $NetBSD: openldap_authentication_on_netbsd.mdwn,v 1.1 2011/11/20 21:35:54 mspo Exp $
     #      #
     # PAM configuration for the "su" service      # PAM configuration for the "su" service
     #      #
             
     # auth      # auth
     auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so      auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     auth            sufficient      pam_rootok.so           no_warn      auth            sufficient      pam_rootok.so           no_warn
     auth            sufficient      pam_self.so             no_warn      auth            sufficient      pam_self.so             no_warn
     auth            sufficient      pam_ksu.so              no_warn try_first_pass      auth            sufficient      pam_ksu.so              no_warn try_first_pass
     auth            requisite       pam_group.so            no_warn group=wheel root_only fail_safe      auth            requisite       pam_group.so            no_warn group=wheel root_only fail_safe
     #auth           sufficient      pam_group.so            no_warn group=rootauth root_only fail_safe authenticate      #auth           sufficient      pam_group.so            no_warn group=rootauth root_only fail_safe authenticate
     auth            required        pam_unix.so             no_warn try_first_pass nullok      auth            required        pam_unix.so             no_warn try_first_pass nullok
             
     # account      # account
     account         required        pam_login_access.so      account         required        pam_login_access.so
     account         include         system      account         include         system
             
     # session      # session
     session         required        pam_permit.so      session         required        pam_permit.so
          
   
 ##  /etc/pam.d/system  ##  /etc/pam.d/system 
          
     # $NetBSD: system,v 1.6 2005/03/03 02:12:32 christos Exp $      # $NetBSD: openldap_authentication_on_netbsd.mdwn,v 1.1 2011/11/20 21:35:54 mspo Exp $
     #      #
     # System-wide defaults      # System-wide defaults
     #      #
             
     # auth      # auth
     auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so      auth            sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     auth            sufficient      pam_krb5.so             no_warn try_first_pass      auth            sufficient      pam_krb5.so             no_warn try_first_pass
     auth            required        pam_unix.so             no_warn try_first_pass nullok      auth            required        pam_unix.so             no_warn try_first_pass nullok
             
     # account      # account
     account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so      account         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     account         required        pam_krb5.so      account         required        pam_krb5.so
     account         required        pam_unix.so      account         required        pam_unix.so
          
     # session      # session
     session         sufficient      pam_ldap.so      session         sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     session         required        pam_lastlog.so          no_fail no_nested      session         required        pam_lastlog.so          no_fail no_nested
             
     # password      # password
     password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so      password        sufficient      pam_ldap.so
     password        sufficient      pam_krb5.so             try_first_pass      password        sufficient      pam_krb5.so             try_first_pass
     password        sufficient      pam_unix.so             try_first_pass      password        sufficient      pam_unix.so             try_first_pass
     password        required        pam_deny.so             prelim_ignore      password        required        pam_deny.so             prelim_ignore
          
   
 The last bit here with pam_deny, is a bit special, it is what enables you to change passwords for both local users and those in the ldap database with the passwd command. pam_deny with the prelim_ignore flag is needed, else pam will will fail in the preliminary phase (it is always run trough twice) and you will not be able to change passwords.  The last bit here with pam_deny, is a bit special, it is what enables you to change passwords for both local users and those in the ldap database with the passwd command. pam_deny with the prelim_ignore flag is needed, else pam will will fail in the preliminary phase (it is always run trough twice) and you will not be able to change passwords. 
   
 In order to use this you need to patch your pam_deny (/usr/src/lib/libpam/modules/pam_deny.c) with the patch by Edgar Fuß <ef@math.uni-bonn.de>:  In order to use this you need to patch your pam_deny (/usr/src/lib/libpam/modules/pam_deny.c) with the patch by Edgar Fuß <ef@math.uni-bonn.de>: 
   
 <http://mail-index.netbsd.org/tech-userlevel/2007/08/29/0001.html>  <http://mail-index.netbsd.org/tech-userlevel/2007/08/29/0001.html>
   
 The original message describing the problem is here:  The original message describing the problem is here: 
   
 <http://mail-index.netbsd.org/tech-userlevel/2007/08/25/0006.html>  <http://mail-index.netbsd.org/tech-userlevel/2007/08/25/0006.html>
   
   
 #  Securing your system  #  Securing your system 
   
 As far as the document goes now, this setup is unprotected in that anyone listening in to the packets travelling trough your network would be able to find the unencrypted messages of your ldap users. Not a happy thought.  As far as the document goes now, this setup is unprotected in that anyone listening in to the packets travelling trough your network would be able to find the unencrypted messages of your ldap users. Not a happy thought. 
   
 So we'll want to enable SSL encryption of the traffic between your clients and the server.  So we'll want to enable SSL encryption of the traffic between your clients and the server. 
   
 In order to do this you will need to create an SSL certificate for your server and also distribute it to the client machines, so that they will be able to certify the authenticity of the server.  In order to do this you will need to create an SSL certificate for your server and also distribute it to the client machines, so that they will be able to certify the authenticity of the server. 
   
 We'll also need to configure slapd to use it, I put my keys in the /etc/openssl hierachy, since it seemed made for it.  We'll also need to configure slapd to use it, I put my keys in the /etc/openssl hierachy, since it seemed made for it. 
          
     TLSCipherSuite          HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv2      TLSCipherSuite          HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv2
     TLSCertificateFile      /etc/openssl/certs/openldap.pem      TLSCertificateFile      /etc/openssl/certs/openldap.pem
     TLSCertificateKeyFile   /etc/openssl/private/openldap.pem      TLSCertificateKeyFile   /etc/openssl/private/openldap.pem
     TLSCACertificateFile    /etc/openssl/certs/openldap.pem      TLSCACertificateFile    /etc/openssl/certs/openldap.pem
          
   
 And we'll also have to change the way slapd is started, so add this to your /etc/rc.conf  And we'll also have to change the way slapd is started, so add this to your /etc/rc.conf 
          
     slapd_flags="-h ldaps://"      slapd_flags="-h ldaps://"
          
   
 Note that this will make slapd answer only to ldaps!  Note that this will make slapd answer only to ldaps! 
   
 Next we'll need to change the clients setup so that they will use ldaps. Enable ssl in ${LOCALBASE}/etc/{nss_,pam_}ldap.conf;  Next we'll need to change the clients setup so that they will use ldaps. Enable ssl in ${LOCALBASE}/etc/{nss_,pam_}ldap.conf; 
          
     ssl on      ssl on
          
   
 Next if you're like me using the ${LOCALBASE}/etc/openldap/ldap.conf file, telling the client libs where to find the cert file is enough, we don't have to put it in the nss/pam config:  Next if you're like me using the ${LOCALBASE}/etc/openldap/ldap.conf file, telling the client libs where to find the cert file is enough, we don't have to put it in the nss/pam config: 
          
     URI         ldaps://my.server      URI         ldaps://my.server
     TLS_CACERT  /etc/openssl/certs/openldap.pem      TLS_CACERT  /etc/openssl/certs/openldap.pem
          
   
 If you can still use getent, encryption is happening. You can of course also tcpdump your network traffic to see what's going on.  If you can still use getent, encryption is happening. You can of course also tcpdump your network traffic to see what's going on. 
   
 #  ACL  #  ACL 
   
 I left access control lists of the server to the last, because they are the easiest to get wrong and often cause problems that you might attribute to other things in the various setups.  I left access control lists of the server to the last, because they are the easiest to get wrong and often cause problems that you might attribute to other things in the various setups. 
   
 The syntax is fairly straightforward;  The syntax is fairly straightforward; 
          
     acceess to [something] by [someone] [access]      acceess to [something] by [someone] [access]
          
   
 The order is important; if something matches, later tests will not be run.  The order is important; if something matches, later tests will not be run. 
   
 The one I use looks like this:  The one I use looks like this: 
          
      #       #
      # Protect passwords from prying eyes       # Protect passwords from prying eyes
      #       #
      access to attrs=userPassword       access to attrs=userPassword
         by dn="cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org" write          by dn="cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org" write
         by anonymous auth          by anonymous auth
         by self write          by self write
         by * none          by * none
             
      #       #
      # set read-only attributes       # set read-only attributes
      #       #
      access to attrs=uidNumber,gidNumber,uid,homeDirectory       access to attrs=uidNumber,gidNumber,uid,homeDirectory
         by dn="cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org" write          by dn="cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org" write
         by self read          by self read
         by * read          by * read
             
      #       #
      # For all else, let the user edit his own entry and everyone else watch       # For all else, let the user edit his own entry and everyone else watch
      #       #
      access to *       access to *
         by dn="cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org" write          by dn="cn=nss,dc=example,dc=org" write
         by self write          by self write
         by * read          by * read
             
          
   
 Note that access to the user password can be set to auth; so that the database can authenticate a user without letting them see the password hash using an anonymous bind.  Note that access to the user password can be set to auth; so that the database can authenticate a user without letting them see the password hash using an anonymous bind. 
   

Removed from v.1.1  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.2


CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb