File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / tutorials / how_to_install_netbsd_from_an_usb_memory_stick.mdwn
Revision 1.9: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Mon Dec 7 10:58:54 2015 UTC (4 years, 11 months ago) by leot
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
regen

    1: This describes how to install NetBSD (i386/amd64) using a Memory Stick instead
    2: of a CD-ROM Drive.
    3: 
    4: **Contents**
    5: 
    6: [[!toc levels=3]]
    7: 
    8: 
    9: # With an downloaded image
   10: From NetBSD 5.1.2 on for the i386 and amd64 ports it is possible to download a 
   11: memory stick image for installing instead of downloading and transforming a CD image.
   12: 
   13: This section describes in detail how to use this method. If you want to create 
   14: an image yourself, please see below.
   15: 
   16: ## Downloading the installation image
   17: Installation images are available on the [NetBSD
   18: mirrors](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/) under the images/ directory, their
   19: filenames match the *install.img.gz pattern.
   20: 
   21: For example if we want to download NetBSD 6.0 for i386:
   22: 
   23:     # ftp ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.0/images/NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img.gz
   24: 
   25: ## Copying the installation image to the memory stick
   26: To prepare the memory stick under a Unix system you can just use
   27: [[!template id=man name="dd" section="1"]].
   28: Whenever using dd(1), remember to set the blocksize by specifying the 
   29: <code>bs</code> parameter in order to speed up the write to the installation
   30: media a bit (e.g. 1m).
   31: For example if the memory stick is recognized as sd0 (**Warning: this will
   32: overwrite all the contents on your memory stick**):
   33: 
   34:     # gunzip NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img.gz
   35:     # dd if=NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img of=/dev/rsd0d bs=1m
   36: 
   37: ## Installation process
   38: After NetBSD is booted from the memory stick the installation process is
   39: usual (you can find an example in
   40: [The NetBSD Guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html)).
   41: Just pay attention when choosing the installation media: if you want
   42: to install using the installation sets on the memory stick when
   43: [choosing the installation 
   44: media](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html#exinst-choose-media)
   45: select <code>g: local directory</code> and then clear the *base* (by default it points
   46: to release/).
   47: 
   48: 
   49: # Build your own image
   50: Use <code>build.sh -U release install-image</code>
   51: with your usual build settings from your src directory.
   52: 
   53: Carry on with [the instructions after download](#index2h2) above.
   54: 
   55: 
   56: # Manual method
   57: 
   58: ## Make the Memory Stick bootable
   59: 
   60: First, install the Master Boot Record (MBR):
   61: 
   62:     # fdisk -i /dev/rsd0d
   63: 
   64: Then, create an fdisk partition for NetBSD:
   65: 
   66:     # fdisk -u /dev/rsd0d
   67:     Disk: /dev/rsd0d
   68:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
   69:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
   70:     total sectors: 997375
   71:     BIOS disk geometry:
   72:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
   73:     total sectors: 997375
   74:     Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n] n
   75:     Partition table:
   76:     0: Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
   77:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
   78:     1: <UNUSED>
   79:     2: <UNUSED>
   80:     3: <UNUSED>
   81:     Bootselector disabled.
   82:     Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 0
   83:     The data for partition 0 is:
   84:     Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
   85:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
   86:     sysid: [0..255 default: 11] 169
   87:     start: [0..974cyl default: 8, 0cyl, 0MB] (RETURN)
   88:     size: [0..974cyl default: 997367, 974cyl, 487MB]
   89:     bootmenu: [] (RETURN)
   90:     Partition table:
   91:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
   92:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
   93:     1: <UNUSED>
   94:     2 :<UNUSED>
   95:     3: <UNUSED>
   96:     Bootselector disabled.
   97:     Which partition do you want to change?: [none] (RETURN)
   98:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
   99:     Partition table:
  100:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  101:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
  102:     1: <UNUSED>
  103:     2: <UNUSED>
  104:     3: <UNUSED>
  105:     Bootselector disabled.
  106:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
  107: 
  108: 
  109: 
  110: After that, set the NetBSD partition active (it's partition Number 0):
  111: 
  112:     # fdisk -a /dev/rsd0d
  113:     Disk: /dev/rsd0d
  114:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  115:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
  116:     total sectors: 997375
  117:     BIOS disk geometry:
  118:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
  119:     total sectors: 997375
  120:     Partition table:
  121:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  122:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
  123:     1: <UNUSED>
  124:     2: <UNUSED>
  125:     3: <UNUSED>
  126:     Bootselector disabled.
  127:     Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
  128:     Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
  129:     active partition: [0..4 default: 4] 0
  130:     Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
  131: 
  132: Then, create the NetBSD disklabel and add the partitions "a" and "d":
  133: 
  134:     # disklabel -i -I sd0
  135:     partition> a
  136:     Filesystem type [?] [MSDOS]: 4.2BSD
  137:     Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0.0078125c, 8s, 0.00390625M]: 63
  138:     Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.991c, 997367s, 486.996M]: $
  139:     partition> d
  140:     Filesystem type [?] [unused]: (RETURN)
  141:     Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: (RETURN)
  142:     Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.999c, 997375s, 487M]: (RETURN)
  143:     partition> W
  144:     Label disk [n]? y
  145:     Label written
  146:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
  147:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
  148: 
  149: Next, create a new NetBSD filesystem on partition sd0a:
  150: 
  151:     # newfs /dev/rsd0a
  152: 
  153: Now, make the partition sd0a bootable:
  154: 
  155:     # mkdir /stick
  156:     # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
  157:     # cp /usr/mdec/boot /stick
  158:     # umount /stick
  159:     # installboot -v -o timeout=1 /dev/rsd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  160: 
  161: 
  162: ## Copy the installation sets to the Memory Stick
  163: 
  164: For the installation you need an installation kernel and the installation sets. To get them, fetch for example a NetBSD CD-image file from a local FTP-Mirror [1](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/#ftp):
  165: 
  166:     $ cd /home/mark
  167:     $ ftp -a ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/4.0.1/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
  168: 
  169: Now mount the CD-image file:
  170: 
  171:     $ su
  172:     # mkdir /image
  173:     # vnconfig -c vnd0 /home/mark/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
  174:     # mount_cd9660 /dev/vnd0d /image
  175: 
  176: And then, mount the Memory Stick and copy the **Install kernel** and **sets**:
  177: 
  178:     # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
  179:     # cp /image/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz /stick/netbsd.gz
  180:     # cp -R /image/i386/binary/sets /stick/sets
  181:     # umount /stick
  182:     # rmdir /stick
  183: 
  184: Now you can unmount the CD-image:
  185: 
  186:     # umount /image
  187:     # vnconfig -u vnd0
  188:     # rmdir /image
  189: 
  190: The Memory Stick is now ready to boot the NetBSD-Install system. Just reboot and change your BIOS to boot the USB Memory Stick.
  191: 
  192: ## The installation process
  193: 
  194: If the Memory Stick boots fine, proceed with the Installation as usual, but the selection of the Install-sets is not quite intuitive:
  195: 
  196:     "Your disk is now ready for installing the kernel and the distributions sets [...]"
  197:     [...]
  198:     Install from
  199:     f: Unmounted fs
  200: 
  201: Press RETURN and the following screen appears:
  202: 
  203:     "Enter the unmounted local device and directory on that device where the distribution is located. [...]"
  204: 
  205: Choose the following options:
  206: 
  207:     a: Device             sd0a
  208:     b: File system        ffs
  209:     c: Base directory       
  210:     d: Set directory      /sets
  211: 
  212: Yes, "c: Base directory" is left empty, because we had copied the distribution .tgz files to the /sets directory on the Memory Stick (9.)
  213: 
  214: Now continue with the installation as usual. Good luck!
  215: 
  216: 
  217: ## Alternative Method
  218: 
  219: An alternative setup method saves space on the Stick at the expense of sysinst automation and is therefore more advanced. This method skips the sysinst tool by copying the sets and the **normal** GENERIC Kernel instead of the install-Kernel.
  220: 
  221: Extract the sets from the harddisk directly on to the Memory stick (/mnt):
  222: 
  223:     # tar xvfzp sets.tgz -C /mnt 
  224: 
  225: Extract the Kernel to the target root:
  226: 
  227:     # tar xvfzp GENERIC-kernel.tgz -C /mnt
  228: 
  229: All you need to do is now to create a valid /etc/fstab and modify /etc/rc.conf to RC_CONFIGURED=yes on the target root (/mnt) and reboot. All fine tuning can be done, when you're logged in. 

CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb