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    1: This describes how to install NetBSD (i386/amd64) using a Memory Stick instead of a CD-ROM Drive.
    2: 
    3: **Contents**
    4: 
    5: [[!toc levels=3]]
    6: 
    7: 
    8: # With an downloaded image
    9: From NetBSD 5.1.2 on for the i386 and amd64 ports it is possible to download a 
   10: memory stick image for installing instead of downloading and transforming a CD image.
   11: 
   12: This section describes in detail how to use this method. If you want to create 
   13: an image yourself, please see below.
   14: 
   15: ## Downloading the installation image
   16: Installation images are available on the [NetBSD
   17: mirrors](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/) under the images/ directory, their
   18: filenames match the *install.img.gz pattern.
   19: 
   20: For example if we want to download NetBSD 6.0 for i386:
   21: 
   22:     # ftp ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.0/images/NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img.gz
   23: 
   24: ## Copying the installation image to the memory stick
   25: To prepare the memory stick under a Unix system you can just use
   26: [[!template id=man name="dd" section="1"]].
   27: For example if the memory stick is recognized as sd0 (**Warning: this will
   28: overwrite all the contents on your memory stick**):
   29: 
   30:     # gunzip NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img.gz
   31:     # dd if=NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img of=/dev/rsd0d
   32: 
   33: Whenever using dd(1), remember to set the blocksize by specifying the 
   34: <code>bs</code> parameter, at least with a value of 4K, i.e. the call would end 
   35: up with:
   36: 
   37:     # dd if=NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img of=/dev/rsd0d bs=4K
   38: 
   39: ## Installation process
   40: After NetBSD is booted from the memory stick the installation process is
   41: usual (you can find an example in
   42: [The NetBSD Guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html)).
   43: Just pay attention when choosing the installation media: if you want
   44: to install using the installation sets on the memory stick when
   45: [choosing the installation 
   46: media](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html#exinst-choose-media)
   47: select <code>g: local directory</code> and then clear the *base* (by default it points
   48: to release/).
   49: 
   50: 
   51: # Build your own image
   52: Use <code>build.sh -U release install-image</code>
   53: with your usual build settings from your src directory.
   54: 
   55: Carry on with [the instructions after download](#index2h2) above.
   56: 
   57: 
   58: # Manual method
   59: 
   60: ## Make the Memory Stick bootable
   61: 
   62: First, install the Master Boot Record (MBR):
   63: 
   64:     # fdisk -i /dev/rsd0d
   65: 
   66: Then, create an fdisk partition for NetBSD:
   67: 
   68:     # fdisk -u /dev/rsd0d
   69:     Disk: /dev/rsd0d
   70:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
   71:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
   72:     total sectors: 997375
   73:     BIOS disk geometry:
   74:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
   75:     total sectors: 997375
   76:     Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n] n
   77:     Partition table:
   78:     0: Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
   79:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
   80:     1: <UNUSED>
   81:     2: <UNUSED>
   82:     3: <UNUSED>
   83:     Bootselector disabled.
   84:     Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 0
   85:     The data for partition 0 is:
   86:     Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
   87:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
   88:     sysid: [0..255 default: 11] 169
   89:     start: [0..974cyl default: 8, 0cyl, 0MB] (RETURN)
   90:     size: [0..974cyl default: 997367, 974cyl, 487MB]
   91:     bootmenu: [] (RETURN)
   92:     Partition table:
   93:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
   94:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
   95:     1: <UNUSED>
   96:     2 :<UNUSED>
   97:     3: <UNUSED>
   98:     Bootselector disabled.
   99:     Which partition do you want to change?: [none] (RETURN)
  100:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
  101:     Partition table:
  102:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  103:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
  104:     1: <UNUSED>
  105:     2: <UNUSED>
  106:     3: <UNUSED>
  107:     Bootselector disabled.
  108:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
  109: 
  110: 
  111: 
  112: After that, set the NetBSD partition active (it's partition Number 0):
  113: 
  114:     # fdisk -a /dev/rsd0d
  115:     Disk: /dev/rsd0d
  116:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
  117:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
  118:     total sectors: 997375
  119:     BIOS disk geometry:
  120:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
  121:     total sectors: 997375
  122:     Partition table:
  123:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
  124:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
  125:     1: <UNUSED>
  126:     2: <UNUSED>
  127:     3: <UNUSED>
  128:     Bootselector disabled.
  129:     Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
  130:     Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
  131:     active partition: [0..4 default: 4] 0
  132:     Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
  133: 
  134: Then, create the NetBSD disklabel and add the partitions "a" and "d":
  135: 
  136:     # disklabel -i -I sd0
  137:     partition> a
  138:     Filesystem type [?] [MSDOS]: 4.2BSD
  139:     Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0.0078125c, 8s, 0.00390625M]: 63
  140:     Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.991c, 997367s, 486.996M]: $
  141:     partition> d
  142:     Filesystem type [?] [unused]: (RETURN)
  143:     Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: (RETURN)
  144:     Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.999c, 997375s, 487M]: (RETURN)
  145:     partition> W
  146:     Label disk [n]? y
  147:     Label written
  148:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
  149:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
  150: 
  151: Next, create a new NetBSD filesystem on partition sd0a:
  152: 
  153:     # newfs /dev/rsd0a
  154: 
  155: Now, make the partition sd0a bootable:
  156: 
  157:     # mkdir /stick
  158:     # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
  159:     # cp /usr/mdec/boot /stick
  160:     # umount /stick
  161:     # installboot -v -o timeout=1 /dev/rsd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  162: 
  163: 
  164: ## Copy the installation sets to the Memory Stick
  165: 
  166: For the installation you need an installation kernel and the installation sets. To get them, fetch for example a NetBSD CD-image file from a local FTP-Mirror [1](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/#ftp):
  167: 
  168:     $ cd /home/mark
  169:     $ ftp -a ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/4.0.1/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
  170: 
  171: Now mount the CD-image file:
  172: 
  173:     $ su
  174:     # mkdir /image
  175:     # vnconfig -c vnd0 /home/mark/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
  176:     # mount_cd9660 /dev/vnd0d /image
  177: 
  178: And then, mount the Memory Stick and copy the **Install kernel** and **sets**:
  179: 
  180:     # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
  181:     # cp /image/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz /stick/netbsd.gz
  182:     # cp -R /image/i386/binary/sets /stick/sets
  183:     # umount /stick
  184:     # rmdir /stick
  185: 
  186: Now you can unmount the CD-image:
  187: 
  188:     # umount /image
  189:     # vnconfig -u vnd0
  190:     # rmdir /image
  191: 
  192: The Memory Stick is now ready to boot the NetBSD-Install system. Just reboot and change your BIOS to boot the USB Memory Stick.
  193: 
  194: ## The installation process
  195: 
  196: If the Memory Stick boots fine, proceed with the Installation as usual, but the selection of the Install-sets is not quite intuitive:
  197: 
  198:     "Your disk is now ready for installing the kernel and the distributions sets [...]"
  199:     [...]
  200:     Install from
  201:     f: Unmounted fs
  202: 
  203: Press RETURN and the following screen appears:
  204: 
  205:     "Enter the unmounted local device and directory on that device where the distribution is located. [...]"
  206: 
  207: Choose the following options:
  208: 
  209:     a: Device             sd0a
  210:     b: File system        ffs
  211:     c: Base directory       
  212:     d: Set directory      /sets
  213: 
  214: Yes, "c: Base directory" is left empty, because we had copied the distribution .tgz files to the /sets directory on the Memory Stick (9.)
  215: 
  216: Now continue with the installation as usual. Good luck!
  217: 
  218: 
  219: ## Alternative Method
  220: 
  221: An alternative setup method saves space on the Stick at the expense of sysinst automation and is therefore more advanced. This method skips the sysinst tool by copying the sets and the **normal** GENERIC Kernel instead of the install-Kernel.
  222: 
  223: Extract the sets from the harddisk directly on to the Memory stick (/mnt):
  224: 
  225:     # tar xvfzp sets.tgz -C /mnt 
  226: 
  227: Extract the Kernel to the target root:
  228: 
  229:     # tar xvfzp GENERIC-kernel.tgz -C /mnt
  230: 
  231: All you need to do is now to create a valid /etc/fstab and modify /etc/rc.conf to RC_CONFIGURED=yes on the target root (/mnt) and reboot. All fine tuning can be done, when you're logged in. 

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