Annotation of wikisrc/tutorials/how_to_install_netbsd_from_an_usb_memory_stick.mdwn, revision 1.7

1.1       mspo        1: This describes how to install NetBSD (i386/amd64) using a Memory Stick instead of a CD-ROM Drive.
                      2: 
                      3: **Contents**
                      4: 
                      5: [[!toc levels=3]]
                      6: 
                      7: 
1.7     ! wiki        8: # With an downloaded image
1.2       jdf         9: From NetBSD 5.1.2 on for the i386 and amd64 ports it is possible to download a 
1.4       wiki       10: memory stick image for installing instead of downloading and transforming a CD image.
1.2       jdf        11: 
                     12: This section describes in detail how to use this method. If you want to create 
                     13: an image yourself, please see below.
                     14: 
1.7     ! wiki       15: ## Downloading the installation image
1.2       jdf        16: Installation images are available on the [NetBSD
                     17: mirrors](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/) under the images/ directory, their
                     18: filenames match the *install.img.gz pattern.
                     19: 
1.3       wiki       20: For example if we want to download NetBSD 6.0 for i386:
1.2       jdf        21: 
1.3       wiki       22:     # ftp ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.0/images/NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img.gz
1.2       jdf        23: 
1.7     ! wiki       24: ## Copying the installation image to the memory stick
1.2       jdf        25: To prepare the memory stick under a Unix system you can just use
                     26: [[!template id=man name="dd" section="1"]].
                     27: For example if the memory stick is recognized as sd0 (**Warning: this will
                     28: overwrite all the contents on your memory stick**):
                     29: 
1.3       wiki       30:     # gunzip NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img.gz
                     31:     # dd if=NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img of=/dev/rsd0d
1.2       jdf        32: 
                     33: Whenever using dd(1), remember to set the blocksize by specifying the 
                     34: <code>bs</code> parameter, at least with a value of 4K, i.e. the call would end 
                     35: up with:
                     36: 
1.3       wiki       37:     # dd if=NetBSD-6.0-i386-install.img of=/dev/rsd0d bs=4K
1.2       jdf        38: 
1.7     ! wiki       39: ## Installation process
1.2       jdf        40: After NetBSD is booted from the memory stick the installation process is
                     41: usual (you can find an example in
1.5       wiki       42: [The NetBSD Guide](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html)).
1.2       jdf        43: Just pay attention when choosing the installation media: if you want
                     44: to install using the installation sets on the memory stick when
                     45: [choosing the installation 
                     46: media](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html#exinst-choose-media)
                     47: select <code>g: local directory</code> and then clear the *base* (by default it points
                     48: to release/).
                     49: 
1.1       mspo       50: 
1.7     ! wiki       51: # Build your own image
1.6       wiki       52: Use <code>build.sh -U release install-image</code>
1.5       wiki       53: with your usual build settings from your src directory.
1.1       mspo       54: 
1.5       wiki       55: Carry on with [the instructions after download](#index2h2) above.
1.1       mspo       56: 
                     57: 
1.7     ! wiki       58: # Manual method
1.1       mspo       59: 
1.7     ! wiki       60: ## Make the Memory Stick bootable
1.1       mspo       61: 
1.7     ! wiki       62: First, install the Master Boot Record (MBR):
1.1       mspo       63: 
                     64:     # fdisk -i /dev/rsd0d
                     65: 
1.7     ! wiki       66: Then, create an fdisk partition for NetBSD:
1.1       mspo       67: 
1.7     ! wiki       68:     # fdisk -u /dev/rsd0d
        !            69:     Disk: /dev/rsd0d
        !            70:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
        !            71:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
        !            72:     total sectors: 997375
        !            73:     BIOS disk geometry:
        !            74:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
        !            75:     total sectors: 997375
        !            76:     Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n] n
        !            77:     Partition table:
        !            78:     0: Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
        !            79:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
        !            80:     1: <UNUSED>
        !            81:     2: <UNUSED>
        !            82:     3: <UNUSED>
        !            83:     Bootselector disabled.
        !            84:     Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 0
        !            85:     The data for partition 0 is:
        !            86:     Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
        !            87:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
        !            88:     sysid: [0..255 default: 11] 169
        !            89:     start: [0..974cyl default: 8, 0cyl, 0MB] (RETURN)
        !            90:     size: [0..974cyl default: 997367, 974cyl, 487MB]
        !            91:     bootmenu: [] (RETURN)
        !            92:     Partition table:
        !            93:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
        !            94:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
        !            95:     1: <UNUSED>
        !            96:     2 :<UNUSED>
        !            97:     3: <UNUSED>
        !            98:     Bootselector disabled.
        !            99:     Which partition do you want to change?: [none] (RETURN)
        !           100:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
        !           101:     Partition table:
        !           102:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
        !           103:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
        !           104:     1: <UNUSED>
        !           105:     2: <UNUSED>
        !           106:     3: <UNUSED>
        !           107:     Bootselector disabled.
        !           108:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
        !           109: 
        !           110: 
        !           111: 
        !           112: After that, set the NetBSD partition active (it's partition Number 0):
        !           113: 
        !           114:     # fdisk -a /dev/rsd0d
        !           115:     Disk: /dev/rsd0d
        !           116:     NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
        !           117:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
        !           118:     total sectors: 997375
        !           119:     BIOS disk geometry:
        !           120:     cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
        !           121:     total sectors: 997375
        !           122:     Partition table:
        !           123:     0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
        !           124:        start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
        !           125:     1: <UNUSED>
        !           126:     2: <UNUSED>
        !           127:     3: <UNUSED>
        !           128:     Bootselector disabled.
        !           129:     Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
        !           130:     Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
        !           131:     active partition: [0..4 default: 4] 0
        !           132:     Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
        !           133: 
        !           134: Then, create the NetBSD disklabel and add the partitions "a" and "d":
        !           135: 
        !           136:     # disklabel -i -I sd0
        !           137:     partition> a
        !           138:     Filesystem type [?] [MSDOS]: 4.2BSD
        !           139:     Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0.0078125c, 8s, 0.00390625M]: 63
        !           140:     Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.991c, 997367s, 486.996M]: $
        !           141:     partition> d
        !           142:     Filesystem type [?] [unused]: (RETURN)
        !           143:     Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: (RETURN)
        !           144:     Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.999c, 997375s, 487M]: (RETURN)
        !           145:     partition> W
        !           146:     Label disk [n]? y
        !           147:     Label written
        !           148:     We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
        !           149:     Should we write new partition table? [n] y
1.1       mspo      150: 
1.7     ! wiki      151: Next, create a new NetBSD filesystem on partition sd0a:
1.1       mspo      152: 
                    153:     # newfs /dev/rsd0a
                    154: 
1.7     ! wiki      155: Now, make the partition sd0a bootable:
1.1       mspo      156: 
1.7     ! wiki      157:     # mkdir /stick
        !           158:     # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
        !           159:     # cp /usr/mdec/boot /stick
        !           160:     # umount /stick
        !           161:     # installboot -v -o timeout=1 /dev/rsd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
1.1       mspo      162: 
                    163: 
1.7     ! wiki      164: ## Copy the installation sets to the Memory Stick
1.1       mspo      165: 
1.7     ! wiki      166: For the installation you need an installation kernel and the installation sets. To get them, fetch for example a NetBSD CD-image file from a local FTP-Mirror [1](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/#ftp):
1.1       mspo      167: 
                    168:     $ cd /home/mark
                    169:     $ ftp -a ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/4.0.1/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
                    170: 
1.7     ! wiki      171: Now mount the CD-image file:
1.1       mspo      172: 
                    173:     $ su
                    174:     # mkdir /image
                    175:     # vnconfig -c vnd0 /home/mark/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
                    176:     # mount_cd9660 /dev/vnd0d /image
                    177: 
1.7     ! wiki      178: And then, mount the Memory Stick and copy the **Install kernel** and **sets**:
1.1       mspo      179: 
                    180:     # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
                    181:     # cp /image/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz /stick/netbsd.gz
                    182:     # cp -R /image/i386/binary/sets /stick/sets
                    183:     # umount /stick
                    184:     # rmdir /stick
                    185: 
1.7     ! wiki      186: Now you can unmount the CD-image:
1.1       mspo      187: 
                    188:     # umount /image
                    189:     # vnconfig -u vnd0
                    190:     # rmdir /image
                    191: 
                    192: The Memory Stick is now ready to boot the NetBSD-Install system. Just reboot and change your BIOS to boot the USB Memory Stick.
                    193: 
1.7     ! wiki      194: ## The installation process
1.1       mspo      195: 
                    196: If the Memory Stick boots fine, proceed with the Installation as usual, but the selection of the Install-sets is not quite intuitive:
                    197: 
                    198:     "Your disk is now ready for installing the kernel and the distributions sets [...]"
                    199:     [...]
                    200:     Install from
                    201:     f: Unmounted fs
                    202: 
                    203: Press RETURN and the following screen appears:
                    204: 
                    205:     "Enter the unmounted local device and directory on that device where the distribution is located. [...]"
                    206: 
                    207: Choose the following options:
                    208: 
                    209:     a: Device             sd0a
                    210:     b: File system        ffs
                    211:     c: Base directory       
                    212:     d: Set directory      /sets
                    213: 
                    214: Yes, "c: Base directory" is left empty, because we had copied the distribution .tgz files to the /sets directory on the Memory Stick (9.)
                    215: 
                    216: Now continue with the installation as usual. Good luck!
                    217: 
                    218: 
1.7     ! wiki      219: ## Alternative Method
1.1       mspo      220: 
                    221: An alternative setup method saves space on the Stick at the expense of sysinst automation and is therefore more advanced. This method skips the sysinst tool by copying the sets and the **normal** GENERIC Kernel instead of the install-Kernel.
                    222: 
1.7     ! wiki      223: Extract the sets from the harddisk directly on to the Memory stick (/mnt):
1.1       mspo      224: 
                    225:     # tar xvfzp sets.tgz -C /mnt 
                    226: 
1.7     ! wiki      227: Extract the Kernel to the target root:
1.1       mspo      228: 
                    229:     # tar xvfzp GENERIC-kernel.tgz -C /mnt
                    230: 
                    231: All you need to do is now to create a valid /etc/fstab and modify /etc/rc.conf to RC_CONFIGURED=yes on the target root (/mnt) and reboot. All fine tuning can be done, when you're logged in. 

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