Annotation of wikisrc/tutorials/how_to_install_netbsd_from_an_usb_memory_stick.mdwn, revision 1.2

1.1       mspo        1: This describes how to install NetBSD (i386/amd64) using a Memory Stick instead of a CD-ROM Drive.
                      2: 
                      3: 
                      4: 
                      5: **Contents**
                      6: 
                      7: 
                      8: 
                      9: [[!toc levels=3]]
                     10: 
                     11: 
1.2     ! jdf        12: #With an downloaded image
        !            13: From NetBSD 5.1.2 on for the i386 and amd64 ports it is possible to download a 
        !            14: memory stick image for installing instead of the CD-ROM image.
        !            15: NetBSD using a memory stick instead of a CD-ROM drive
        !            16: From NetBSD 5.1.2 on it is possible to download a memory stick image directly 
        !            17: for installing instead of downloading and transforming a CD image.
        !            18: 
        !            19: This section describes in detail how to use this method. If you want to create 
        !            20: an image yourself, please see below.
        !            21: 
        !            22: ##Downloading the installation image
        !            23: Installation images are available on the [NetBSD
        !            24: mirrors](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/) under the images/ directory, their
        !            25: filenames match the *install.img.gz pattern.
        !            26: 
        !            27: For example if we want to download NetBSD 6.0_BETA2 for i386:
        !            28: 
        !            29:     # ftp ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.0_BETA2/images/NetBSD-6.0_BETA2-i386-install.img.gz
        !            30: 
        !            31: ##Copying the installation image to the memory stick
        !            32: To prepare the memory stick under a Unix system you can just use
        !            33: [[!template id=man name="dd" section="1"]].
        !            34: For example if the memory stick is recognized as sd0 (**Warning: this will
        !            35: overwrite all the contents on your memory stick**):
        !            36: 
        !            37:     # gunzip NetBSD-6.0_BETA2-i386-install.img.gz
        !            38:     # dd if=NetBSD-6.0_BETA2-i386-install.img of=/dev/rsd0d
        !            39: 
        !            40: Whenever using dd(1), remember to set the blocksize by specifying the 
        !            41: <code>bs</code> parameter, at least with a value of 4K, i.e. the call would end 
        !            42: up with:
        !            43: 
        !            44:     # dd if=NetBSD-6.0_BETA2-i386-install.img of=/dev/rsd0d bs=4K
        !            45: 
        !            46: ##Installation process
        !            47: After NetBSD is booted from the memory stick the installation process is
        !            48: usual (you can find an example in
        !            49: [The NetBSD Guide](http://netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html)).
        !            50: Just pay attention when choosing the installation media: if you want
        !            51: to install using the installation sets on the memory stick when
        !            52: [choosing the installation 
        !            53: media](http://www.netbsd.org/docs/guide/en/chap-exinst.html#exinst-choose-media)
        !            54: select <code>g: local directory</code> and then clear the *base* (by default it points
        !            55: to release/).
        !            56: 
1.1       mspo       57: 
                     58: #Easy method using mkmemstick.sh
                     59: 
                     60: 
                     61: 
                     62: [Create an image using mkmemstick.sh](http://jmcneill.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!F507161C07E89CBE!170.entry)
                     63: 
                     64: 
                     65: 
                     66: This script depends on the sysutils/cdrtools package.
                     67: 
                     68: 
                     69: 
                     70: 1 Fetch a copy of the ISO you wish to install along with [mkmemstick.sh](http://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/misc/jmcneill/mkmemstick.sh)
                     71: 
                     72: 
                     73: 
                     74: 2 Create a disk image from the ISO:
                     75: 
                     76: 
                     77: 
                     78:     $ sh mkmemstick.sh i386cd-5.0.1.iso i386memstick-5.0.1.img
                     79: 
                     80: 
                     81: 
                     82: 3 Write the newly created image to the memory stick as root:
                     83: 
                     84: 
                     85: 
                     86:     # dd if=i386memstick-5.0.1.img of=/dev/sd0d
                     87: 
                     88: 4 Boot from the USB device and follow the [installation process below](/How_to_install_NetBSD_from_an_USB_Memory_Stick/#index3h2). 
                     89: 
                     90: 
                     91: 
                     92: #Manual method
                     93: 
                     94: ##Make the Memory Stick bootable
                     95: 
                     96: 
                     97: 
                     98: 1 Install the Master Boot Record (MBR):
                     99: 
                    100: 
                    101: 
                    102:     # fdisk -i /dev/rsd0d
                    103: 
                    104: 
                    105: 
                    106: 2 Create an fdisk partition for NetBSD:
                    107: 
                    108: <pre><code>
                    109: 
                    110: # fdisk -u /dev/rsd0d
                    111: 
                    112: Disk: /dev/rsd0d
                    113: 
                    114: NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
                    115: 
                    116: cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
                    117: 
                    118: total sectors: 997375
                    119: 
                    120: BIOS disk geometry:
                    121: 
                    122: cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
                    123: 
                    124: total sectors: 997375
                    125: 
                    126: Do you want to change our idea of what BIOS thinks? [n] n
                    127: 
                    128: Partition table:
                    129: 
                    130: 0: Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
                    131: 
                    132:    start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
                    133: 
                    134: 1: <UNUSED>
                    135: 
                    136: 2: <UNUSED>
                    137: 
                    138: 3: <UNUSED>
                    139: 
                    140: Bootselector disabled.
                    141: 
                    142: Which partition do you want to change?: [none] 0
                    143: 
                    144: The data for partition 0 is:
                    145: 
                    146: Primary DOS with 32 bit FAT (sysid 11)
                    147: 
                    148:    start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
                    149: 
                    150: sysid: [0..255 default: 11] 169
                    151: 
                    152: start: [0..974cyl default: 8, 0cyl, 0MB] (RETURN)
                    153: 
                    154: size: [0..974cyl default: 997367, 974cyl, 487MB]
                    155: 
                    156: bootmenu: [] (RETURN)
                    157: 
                    158: Partition table:
                    159: 
                    160: 0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
                    161: 
                    162:    start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
                    163: 
                    164: 1: <UNUSED>
                    165: 
                    166: 2 :<UNUSED>
                    167: 
                    168: 3: <UNUSED>
                    169: 
                    170: Bootselector disabled.
                    171: 
                    172: Which partition do you want to change?: [none] (RETURN)
                    173: 
                    174: We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
                    175: 
                    176: Partition table:
                    177: 
                    178: 0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
                    179: 
                    180:    start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
                    181: 
                    182: 1: <UNUSED>
                    183: 
                    184: 2: <UNUSED>
                    185: 
                    186: 3: <UNUSED>
                    187: 
                    188: Bootselector disabled.
                    189: 
                    190: Should we write new partition table? [n] y
                    191: 
                    192: </code></pre>
                    193: 
                    194: 
                    195: 
                    196: 3 Set the NetBSD partition active (it's partition Number 0):
                    197: 
                    198: <pre><code>
                    199: 
                    200: # fdisk -a /dev/rsd0d
                    201: 
                    202: Disk: /dev/rsd0d
                    203: 
                    204: NetBSD disklabel disk geometry:
                    205: 
                    206: cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
                    207: 
                    208: total sectors: 997375
                    209: 
                    210: BIOS disk geometry:
                    211: 
                    212: cylinders: 974, heads: 128, sectors/track: 8 (1024 sectors/cylinder)
                    213: 
                    214: total sectors: 997375
                    215: 
                    216: Partition table:
                    217: 
                    218: 0: NetBSD (sysid 169)
                    219: 
                    220:    start 8, size 997367 (487 MB, Cyls 0-973/127/8)
                    221: 
                    222: 1: <UNUSED>
                    223: 
                    224: 2: <UNUSED>
                    225: 
                    226: 3: <UNUSED>
                    227: 
                    228: Bootselector disabled.
                    229: 
                    230: Do you want to change the active partition? [n] y
                    231: 
                    232: Choosing 4 will make no partition active.
                    233: 
                    234: active partition: [0..4 default: 4] 0
                    235: 
                    236: Are you happy with this choice? [n] y
                    237: 
                    238: </code></pre>
                    239: 
                    240: 
                    241: 
                    242: 4 Create the NetBSD disklabel and add the partitions "a" and "d":
                    243: 
                    244: <pre><code>
                    245: 
                    246: # disklabel -i -I sd0
                    247: 
                    248: partition> a
                    249: 
                    250: Filesystem type [?] [MSDOS]: 4.2BSD
                    251: 
                    252: Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0.0078125c, 8s, 0.00390625M]: 63
                    253: 
                    254: Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.991c, 997367s, 486.996M]: $
                    255: 
                    256: partition> d
                    257: 
                    258: Filesystem type [?] [unused]: (RETURN)
                    259: 
                    260: Start offset ('x' to start after partition 'x') [0c, 0s, 0M]: (RETURN)
                    261: 
                    262: Partition size ('$' for all remaining) [973.999c, 997375s, 487M]: (RETURN)
                    263: 
                    264: partition> W
                    265: 
                    266: Label disk [n]? y
                    267: 
                    268: Label written
                    269: 
                    270: We haven't written the MBR back to disk yet.  This is your last chance.
                    271: 
                    272: Should we write new partition table? [n] y
                    273: 
                    274: </code></pre>
                    275: 
                    276: 
                    277: 
                    278: 5 Create a new NetBSD filesystem on partition sd0a:
                    279: 
                    280: 
                    281: 
                    282:     # newfs /dev/rsd0a
                    283: 
                    284: 
                    285: 
                    286: 
                    287: 
                    288: 6 Make the partition sd0a bootable:
                    289: 
                    290: <pre><code>
                    291: 
                    292: # mkdir /stick
                    293: 
                    294: # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
                    295: 
                    296: # cp /usr/mdec/boot /stick
                    297: 
                    298: # umount /stick
                    299: 
                    300: # installboot -v -o timeout=1 /dev/rsd0a /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
                    301: 
                    302: </code></pre>
                    303: 
                    304: ##Copy the installation sets to the Memory Stick
                    305: 
                    306: 
                    307: 
                    308: 7 For the installation you need an installation kernel and the installation sets. To get them, fetch for example a NetBSD CD-image file from a local FTP-Mirror [1](http://www.netbsd.org/mirrors/#ftp):
                    309: 
                    310: 
                    311: 
                    312:     $ cd /home/mark
                    313: 
                    314:     $ ftp -a ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/iso/4.0.1/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
                    315: 
                    316: 
                    317: 
                    318: 
                    319: 
                    320: 8 Mount the CD-image file:
                    321: 
                    322: 
                    323: 
                    324:     $ su
                    325: 
                    326:     # mkdir /image
                    327: 
                    328:     # vnconfig -c vnd0 /home/mark/i386cd-4.0.1.iso
                    329: 
                    330:     # mount_cd9660 /dev/vnd0d /image
                    331: 
                    332: 
                    333: 
                    334: 9 Mount the Memory Stick and copy the **Install kernel** and **sets**:
                    335: 
                    336: 
                    337: 
                    338:     # mount /dev/sd0a /stick
                    339: 
                    340:     # cp /image/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-INSTALL.gz /stick/netbsd.gz
                    341: 
                    342:     # cp -R /image/i386/binary/sets /stick/sets
                    343: 
                    344:     # umount /stick
                    345: 
                    346:     # rmdir /stick
                    347: 
                    348: 
                    349: 
                    350: 10 Umount the CD-image:
                    351: 
                    352: 
                    353: 
                    354:     # umount /image
                    355: 
                    356:     # vnconfig -u vnd0
                    357: 
                    358:     # rmdir /image
                    359: 
                    360: 
                    361: 
                    362: The Memory Stick is now ready to boot the NetBSD-Install system. Just reboot and change your BIOS to boot the USB Memory Stick.
                    363: 
                    364: ##The installation process
                    365: 
                    366: 
                    367: 
                    368: If the Memory Stick boots fine, proceed with the Installation as usual, but the selection of the Install-sets is not quite intuitive:
                    369: 
                    370: 
                    371: 
                    372:     "Your disk is now ready for installing the kernel and the distributions sets [...]"
                    373: 
                    374:     [...]
                    375: 
                    376:     Install from
                    377: 
                    378:     f: Unmounted fs
                    379: 
                    380: 
                    381: 
                    382: 
                    383: 
                    384: Press RETURN and the following screen appears:
                    385: 
                    386: 
                    387: 
                    388:     "Enter the unmounted local device and directory on that device where the distribution is located. [...]"
                    389: 
                    390: 
                    391: 
                    392: 
                    393: 
                    394: Choose the following options:
                    395: 
                    396: 
                    397: 
                    398:     a: Device             sd0a
                    399: 
                    400:     b: File system        ffs
                    401: 
                    402:     c: Base directory       
                    403: 
                    404:     d: Set directory      /sets
                    405: 
                    406: 
                    407: 
                    408: Yes, "c: Base directory" is left empty, because we had copied the distribution .tgz files to the /sets directory on the Memory Stick (9.)
                    409: 
                    410: 
                    411: 
                    412: Now continue with the installation as usual. Good luck!
                    413: 
                    414: ###Alternative Method
                    415: 
                    416: 
                    417: 
                    418: An alternative setup method saves space on the Stick at the expense of sysinst automation and is therefore more advanced. This method skips the sysinst tool by copying the sets and the **normal** GENERIC Kernel instead of the install-Kernel.
                    419: 
                    420: 
                    421: 
                    422: Extract the sets from the harddisk directly on to the Memory stick (/mnt).
                    423: 
                    424: 
                    425: 
                    426:     # tar xvfzp sets.tgz -C /mnt 
                    427: 
                    428: 
                    429: 
                    430: Extract the Kernel to the target root
                    431: 
                    432: 
                    433: 
                    434:     # tar xvfzp GENERIC-kernel.tgz -C /mnt
                    435: 
                    436: 
                    437: 
                    438: All you need to do is now to create a valid /etc/fstab and modify /etc/rc.conf to RC_CONFIGURED=yes on the target root (/mnt) and reboot. All fine tuning can be done, when you're logged in. 

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