Annotation of wikisrc/tutorials/how_to_install_a_server_with_a_root_lfs_partition.mdwn, revision 1.1

1.1     ! mspo        1: In this article I will explain, step by step, how to install a NetBSD server with a root LFS partition. 
        !             2: 
        !             3: **Contents**
        !             4: 
        !             5: [[!toc]]
        !             6: 
        !             7: #Foreword
        !             8: 
        !             9: Since LFS is considered experimental, it is highly advised to test this setup on a testbed / Virtual Machine. Use at your own risk.
        !            10: 
        !            11: In this setup, the server will solely run under LFS without any FFS partitions.
        !            12: 
        !            13: There are a lot of ways to accomplish this task. This is how I do it.
        !            14: #What is LFS
        !            15: 
        !            16: LFS is an implementation of a [log-structured file system](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Log-structured_File_System_%28BSD%29).
        !            17: 
        !            18: For example [Sun's ZFS](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZFS) is a log-structured file system.
        !            19: #What are the advantages
        !            20: 
        !            21: LFS can recover faster from a crash, because it does not need to fsck the whole disk. It is faster than FFS.
        !            22: #What are the disadvantages
        !            23: 
        !            24:     It has never worked reliably.
        !            25:     It is limited to 2 Terabytes.
        !            26:     It does not perform very well at constant high disk activity like ftp uploads/downloads.
        !            27:     It can't handle situations where the disc is almost full, i.e. it usually crashes requiring a newfs, though most data can be recovered manually. 
        !            28:        
        !            29: #How do we aproach
        !            30: 
        !            31: We need to install a NetBSD system from scratch without sysinst, since sysinst is lacking LFS support at the moment. This may change in the future.
        !            32: Requirements
        !            33: 
        !            34: Physical access to the server.
        !            35: 
        !            36: We need a NetBSD [liveCD](http://www.jibbed.org/) to access the hard disks. Only liveCDs with LFS support compiled in will work. Therefore please download the Jibbed LiveCD from <http://www.jibbed.org>.
        !            37: 
        !            38: We will also need the NetBSD sets (base.tgz, comp.tgz, etc.tgz, man.tgz, misc.tgz, text.tgz ...). It is recommended to download all sets.
        !            39: 
        !            40: You can either download the latest sets from the NetBSD autobuild cluster (<ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/>) or you can build your own release and use your own sets. I recommend to use the latest NetBSD sources.
        !            41: 
        !            42: A tutorial on how to build current can be found here: [[How to build NetBSD-current]].
        !            43: 
        !            44: The sets have to be accessible from the liveCD in some way. For example via http, ftp or scp. 
        !            45: 
        !            46: #Booting from the liveCD
        !            47: 
        !            48: Please boot into the liveCD on the server you want to install.
        !            49: 
        !            50: Gain root privileges (su -).
        !            51: #fdisk
        !            52: 
        !            53: Use fdisk to create an active NetBSD (ID 169) partition.
        !            54: 
        !            55:     # fdisk -iu wd0
        !            56: 
        !            57: #disklabel
        !            58: 
        !            59: Use disklabel to prepare your disk. This part of the tutorial is with purpose not very detailed. You should get comfortable with disklabel beforehand.
        !            60: 
        !            61: Enter
        !            62: 
        !            63:     # disklabel -i -I wd0
        !            64: 
        !            65: on the command line to enter the interactive disklabel menu. I am assuming you are using wd0. Otherwise substitute with your drive (sd0, ld0...)
        !            66: 
        !            67: We will create one big "a" partition in this example. Feel free to try another setup in your second try.
        !            68: 
        !            69: In disklabel create one big partition "a" spanning the whole disk starting from sector 63 (63s) until the end minus the space you want to give to the swap partition.
        !            70: 
        !            71: Use 4.4LFS as your file system.
        !            72: 
        !            73: Partition b is used as swap. Start from the end of partition a until the end ($).
        !            74: 
        !            75: Partition c and d are the disks itself and should be of type **unused** starting from 0 to the end.
        !            76: 
        !            77: Remove all other partitions (e-p).
        !            78: 
        !            79: When you are finished your label should look like this:
        !            80: <pre><code>
        !            81: #        size    offset     fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
        !            82:  a:  73400320        63     4.4LFS      0     0     0  # (Cyl.      0*-  72817*)
        !            83:  b:   2097152  73400383       swap                     # (Cyl.  72817*-  77504*)
        !            84:  c:  78124937        63     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0*-  77504*)
        !            85:  d:  78125000         0     unused      0     0        # (Cyl.      0 -  77504*)
        !            86: </code></pre>
        !            87: Label the disk (N), Write changes to disk (W), and quit (Q).
        !            88: #newfs_lfs
        !            89: 
        !            90: You can now create the LFS filesystem on the disk you just labeled.
        !            91: 
        !            92:     # newfs_lfs wd0a
        !            93: 
        !            94: There are more options like -A and different segment and frag sizes. But we will stick to the default 1M segment size, since other values may get LFS unstable.
        !            95: #mounting
        !            96: 
        !            97: The rest is trivial. We mount the filesystem and extract our sets.
        !            98: 
        !            99:     # mkdir /tmp/targetroot
        !           100:     # mount /dev/wd0a /tmp/targetroot
        !           101: 
        !           102: Create another directory to store the sets in.
        !           103: 
        !           104:     # mkdir /tmp/sets 
        !           105: 
        !           106: Change in that directory
        !           107: 
        !           108:     # cd /tmp/sets
        !           109: 
        !           110: And download your sets, for example via ftp. This are the sets you have prepared upfront by either compiling a release or downloading them from the autobuild cluster.
        !           111: 
        !           112:     # ftp 192.168.0.200
        !           113: 
        !           114:     ...
        !           115: #extracting the sets
        !           116: 
        !           117: extract your sets using option -p (important).
        !           118: 
        !           119:     # cd /tmp/sets
        !           120:     # tar xvzpf base.tgz -C /tmp/targetroot
        !           121: 
        !           122: repeat with all your sets, but extract only one GENERIC kernel named kern-GENERIC.tgz
        !           123: #configure the new system
        !           124: 
        !           125: change into /tmp/targetroot and do a base configuration. Edit etc/fstab
        !           126: 
        !           127:     /dev/wd0a       /               lfs     rw      1 1
        !           128:     /dev/wd0b       none            swap    sw      0 0
        !           129:     ptyfs           /dev/pts        ptyfs   rw      0 0
        !           130:     tmpfs           /tmp            tmpfs   rw
        !           131: 
        !           132: ptyfs and tmpfs are optional, but recommended.
        !           133: 
        !           134: Edit etc/rc.conf
        !           135: 
        !           136:     rc_configured=yes
        !           137: 
        !           138: #bootstrap
        !           139: 
        !           140: Copy boot to the targetroot.
        !           141: 
        !           142:     # cp /tmp/targetroot/usr/mdec/boot /tmp/targetroot 
        !           143: 
        !           144: And bootstrap
        !           145: 
        !           146:     # /usr/sbin/installboot -v -m i386 -o timeout=5,console=pc /dev/rwd0a /tmp/targetroot/usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv2
        !           147: 
        !           148: #creating devices
        !           149: 
        !           150: Don't forget to create all devices.
        !           151: 
        !           152:     # cd /tmp/targetroot/dev
        !           153:     # ./MAKEDEV all
        !           154: 
        !           155: this may take a while.
        !           156: #reboot
        !           157: 
        !           158: That's it. Sync and reboot.
        !           159: 
        !           160:     # sync
        !           161:     # sync
        !           162:     # sync
        !           163:     # reboot
        !           164: 
        !           165: If everything went well, your system should boot. Once you have logged in, you can configure your system and do all the fine tuning.
        !           166: #Disk capacity
        !           167: 
        !           168: You should not fill up your LFS partition over 75%. This could damage the file system (at the moment).
        !           169: #Remote installation
        !           170: 
        !           171: If you want to install an LFS root file system on your server in your data center remotely, console access is beneficial, but not necessary. The minimum requirement is a rescue console. This is mostly a linux ramdisk. One way is to build a custom boot floppy including LFS and newfs_lfs. Because newfs_lfs does not fit on the disk, you have to exclude unnecessary tools. Then write a small shell script that is executed when you boot the floppy, summing up all steps in the tutorial including adding a user account and setting up ifconfig, resolv.conf, default gateway, to be able to log in afterwards. Make a backup of the first 5 MB you are going to overwrite with dd. Now just dd the floppy image to server harddisk and reboot. Good luck. 

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