Annotation of wikisrc/tutorials/how_to_install_a_server_with_a_root_lfs_partition.mdwn, revision 1.1
1.1 ! mspo 1: In this article I will explain, step by step, how to install a NetBSD server with a root LFS partition.
! 3: **Contents**
! 5: [[!toc]]
! 7: #Foreword
! 9: Since LFS is considered experimental, it is highly advised to test this setup on a testbed / Virtual Machine. Use at your own risk.
! 11: In this setup, the server will solely run under LFS without any FFS partitions.
! 13: There are a lot of ways to accomplish this task. This is how I do it.
! 14: #What is LFS
! 16: LFS is an implementation of a [log-structured file system](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Log-structured_File_System_%28BSD%29).
! 18: For example [Sun's ZFS](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZFS) is a log-structured file system.
! 19: #What are the advantages
! 21: LFS can recover faster from a crash, because it does not need to fsck the whole disk. It is faster than FFS.
! 22: #What are the disadvantages
! 24: It has never worked reliably.
! 25: It is limited to 2 Terabytes.
! 26: It does not perform very well at constant high disk activity like ftp uploads/downloads.
! 27: It can't handle situations where the disc is almost full, i.e. it usually crashes requiring a newfs, though most data can be recovered manually.
! 29: #How do we aproach
! 31: We need to install a NetBSD system from scratch without sysinst, since sysinst is lacking LFS support at the moment. This may change in the future.
! 32: Requirements
! 34: Physical access to the server.
! 36: We need a NetBSD [liveCD](http://www.jibbed.org/) to access the hard disks. Only liveCDs with LFS support compiled in will work. Therefore please download the Jibbed LiveCD from <http://www.jibbed.org>.
! 38: We will also need the NetBSD sets (base.tgz, comp.tgz, etc.tgz, man.tgz, misc.tgz, text.tgz ...). It is recommended to download all sets.
! 40: You can either download the latest sets from the NetBSD autobuild cluster (<ftp://ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/>) or you can build your own release and use your own sets. I recommend to use the latest NetBSD sources.
! 42: A tutorial on how to build current can be found here: [[How to build NetBSD-current]].
! 44: The sets have to be accessible from the liveCD in some way. For example via http, ftp or scp.
! 46: #Booting from the liveCD
! 48: Please boot into the liveCD on the server you want to install.
! 50: Gain root privileges (su -).
! 51: #fdisk
! 53: Use fdisk to create an active NetBSD (ID 169) partition.
! 55: # fdisk -iu wd0
! 57: #disklabel
! 59: Use disklabel to prepare your disk. This part of the tutorial is with purpose not very detailed. You should get comfortable with disklabel beforehand.
! 61: Enter
! 63: # disklabel -i -I wd0
! 65: on the command line to enter the interactive disklabel menu. I am assuming you are using wd0. Otherwise substitute with your drive (sd0, ld0...)
! 67: We will create one big "a" partition in this example. Feel free to try another setup in your second try.
! 69: In disklabel create one big partition "a" spanning the whole disk starting from sector 63 (63s) until the end minus the space you want to give to the swap partition.
! 71: Use 4.4LFS as your file system.
! 73: Partition b is used as swap. Start from the end of partition a until the end ($).
! 75: Partition c and d are the disks itself and should be of type **unused** starting from 0 to the end.
! 77: Remove all other partitions (e-p).
! 79: When you are finished your label should look like this:
! 80: <pre><code>
! 81: # size offset fstype [fsize bsize cpg/sgs]
! 82: a: 73400320 63 4.4LFS 0 0 0 # (Cyl. 0*- 72817*)
! 83: b: 2097152 73400383 swap # (Cyl. 72817*- 77504*)
! 84: c: 78124937 63 unused 0 0 # (Cyl. 0*- 77504*)
! 85: d: 78125000 0 unused 0 0 # (Cyl. 0 - 77504*)
! 86: </code></pre>
! 87: Label the disk (N), Write changes to disk (W), and quit (Q).
! 88: #newfs_lfs
! 90: You can now create the LFS filesystem on the disk you just labeled.
! 92: # newfs_lfs wd0a
! 94: There are more options like -A and different segment and frag sizes. But we will stick to the default 1M segment size, since other values may get LFS unstable.
! 95: #mounting
! 97: The rest is trivial. We mount the filesystem and extract our sets.
! 99: # mkdir /tmp/targetroot
! 100: # mount /dev/wd0a /tmp/targetroot
! 102: Create another directory to store the sets in.
! 104: # mkdir /tmp/sets
! 106: Change in that directory
! 108: # cd /tmp/sets
! 110: And download your sets, for example via ftp. This are the sets you have prepared upfront by either compiling a release or downloading them from the autobuild cluster.
! 112: # ftp 192.168.0.200
! 114: ...
! 115: #extracting the sets
! 117: extract your sets using option -p (important).
! 119: # cd /tmp/sets
! 120: # tar xvzpf base.tgz -C /tmp/targetroot
! 122: repeat with all your sets, but extract only one GENERIC kernel named kern-GENERIC.tgz
! 123: #configure the new system
! 125: change into /tmp/targetroot and do a base configuration. Edit etc/fstab
! 127: /dev/wd0a / lfs rw 1 1
! 128: /dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0
! 129: ptyfs /dev/pts ptyfs rw 0 0
! 130: tmpfs /tmp tmpfs rw
! 132: ptyfs and tmpfs are optional, but recommended.
! 134: Edit etc/rc.conf
! 136: rc_configured=yes
! 138: #bootstrap
! 140: Copy boot to the targetroot.
! 142: # cp /tmp/targetroot/usr/mdec/boot /tmp/targetroot
! 144: And bootstrap
! 146: # /usr/sbin/installboot -v -m i386 -o timeout=5,console=pc /dev/rwd0a /tmp/targetroot/usr/mdec/bootxx_lfsv2
! 148: #creating devices
! 150: Don't forget to create all devices.
! 152: # cd /tmp/targetroot/dev
! 153: # ./MAKEDEV all
! 155: this may take a while.
! 156: #reboot
! 158: That's it. Sync and reboot.
! 160: # sync
! 161: # sync
! 162: # sync
! 163: # reboot
! 165: If everything went well, your system should boot. Once you have logged in, you can configure your system and do all the fine tuning.
! 166: #Disk capacity
! 168: You should not fill up your LFS partition over 75%. This could damage the file system (at the moment).
! 169: #Remote installation
! 171: If you want to install an LFS root file system on your server in your data center remotely, console access is beneficial, but not necessary. The minimum requirement is a rescue console. This is mostly a linux ramdisk. One way is to build a custom boot floppy including LFS and newfs_lfs. Because newfs_lfs does not fit on the disk, you have to exclude unnecessary tools. Then write a small shell script that is executed when you boot the floppy, summing up all steps in the tutorial including adding a user account and setting up ifconfig, resolv.conf, default gateway, to be able to log in afterwards. Make a backup of the first 5 MB you are going to overwrite with dd. Now just dd the floppy image to server harddisk and reboot. Good luck.
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