Diff for /wikisrc/security/cgdroot.mdwn between versions 1.3 and 1.7

version 1.3, 2016/06/22 07:40:39 version 1.7, 2016/06/22 09:08:50
Line 3  Root filesystem encryption Line 3  Root filesystem encryption
   
 It is possible to run NetBSD with [complete root filesystem encryption][1], thanks to the `cgdroot.kmod` kernel module. It really is a memory disk (also knows as RAM disk) that is expected to be loaded in the kernel while booting.  It is possible to run NetBSD with [complete root filesystem encryption][1], thanks to the `cgdroot.kmod` kernel module. It really is a memory disk (also knows as RAM disk) that is expected to be loaded in the kernel while booting.
   
 It still requires one unencrypted partition to boot from (typically `wd0a`).  Full disk encryption makes it more difficult for an attacker to modify the unencrypted part of the disk to plant a backdoor. With only partial encryption, the original [[!template id=man name="cgdconfig" section="8"]] binary may be modified to send the passphrase away, allowing an attacker with a disk dump to recover the data.
   
   The mechanism described here still requires one unencrypted partition to boot from (typically `wd0a`).
   
 The boot process  The boot process
 ----------------  ----------------
   
 Instead of booting normally the GENERIC kernel and using the root filesystem, a  Instead of booting normally the GENERIC kernel and using the root filesystem, a kernel module is loaded at boot-time containing a memory disk. This minimal filesystem image is then considered the actual root filesystem.
 kernel module is loaded at boot-time containing a memory disk. It contains a  
 minimal filesystem image, which is then considered the actual root filesystem:  
   
 The boot partition on disk only needs to contain:  The boot partition on disk only needs to contain:
   
 * [[!template id=man name="boot" section="8"]], the second-stage bootloader  * [[!template id=man name="boot" section="8"]], the second-stage bootloader
 * [[!template id=man name="boot.cfg" section="5"]], the configuration file for the bootloader (optional)  * [[!template id=man name="boot.cfg" section="5"]], the configuration file for the bootloader (optional)
 * a GENERIC kernel  * a GENERIC kernel
Line 66  src/distrib/amd64/kmod-cgdroot$ /path/to Line 67  src/distrib/amd64/kmod-cgdroot$ /path/to
 Caveats  Caveats
 -------  -------
   
 The biggest (known) issue with this setup occurs when firmware needs to be loaded early in the boot process (such as graphics drivers for the console). At the moment they need to be built as part of the memory disk. Some network interfaces, of which some wireless devices in particular, also require loading firmware to work properly.  The biggest (known) issue with this setup occurs when firmware needs to be loaded early in the boot process (such as graphics drivers for the console). At the moment they need to be provided as part of the memory disk. Some network interfaces, of which some wireless devices in particular, also require loading firmware to work properly.
   
 This setup is not entirely safe against physical attacks. An attacker can modify the boot process to store the passphrase for later retrieval, or insert a backdoor while booting.  This setup is not entirely safe against physical attacks. An attacker can modify the boot process to store the passphrase for later retrieval, or insert a backdoor while booting. To defend against such attacks, the bootloader, kernel and ramdisk all need to be signed and their integrity checked before booting (eg with [[!template id=man name="tpm" section="4"]]). Alternatively, it is possible to boot from a removable medium (eg USB stick), which can be protected against tampering attacks (eg secure storage, read-only volume...).
   
   It is also possible to boot a Xen DOM0 system with root filesystem encryption. However, Xen-enabled NetBSD kernels currently do not support loading modules at boot-time. The memory disk has to be placed directly inside the kernel instead (with [[!template id=man name="mdconfig" section="8"]] or a new kernel configuration).
   
 References  References
 ----------  ----------
   
   * [Full Disk Encryption with cgd (well, almost)][1]
   
 [1]: https://mail-index.netbsd.org/current-users/2013/03/21/msg022311.html "Full Disk Encryption with cgd (well, almost)"  [1]: https://mail-index.netbsd.org/current-users/2013/03/21/msg022311.html "Full Disk Encryption with cgd (well, almost)"

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changed lines
  Added in v.1.7


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