7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
9: operating systems on a single physical machine. With Xen, one uses
10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
13: an unprivileged virtualized environment. IO requests from the domU
14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
17: Xen supports two styles of guests. The original is Para-Virtualized
18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor. This is
20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls. (The dom0
21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
23: and network.) PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated. This
28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
30: Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests. In
31: theory i386 computers without amd64 support can be used for Xen <=
32: 4.2, but we have no recent reports of this working (this is a hint).
33: For HVM guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT
34: (amd64) is needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this. TODO: Clean up
35: and check the above features.
37: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
38: The dom0 can start one or more domUs. (Booting is explained in detail
39: in the dom0 section.)
41: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
42: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc. This HOWTO
43: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
44: and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
45: as a domU in a VPS.
47: Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
48: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
49: of the dom0. This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
50: network interface or other peripheral.
55: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
56: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
57: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
58: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
59: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
61: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
62: architecture. This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
63: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
64: See also the [Xen website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
69: NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
71: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
72: grub was recommended. If necessary, see the
73: [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
75: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
78: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
79: of Xen version and NetBSD version. This section gives advice on
80: which version to choose. Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
81: versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
86: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
87: xenkernel and xentools. We will refer only to the kernel versions,
88: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
89: matching versions.
91: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3. These no longer
92: receive security patches and should not be used. Xen 3.1 supports PCI
93: passthrough. Xen 3.1 supports non-PAE on i386.
95: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1. This is no longer maintained by Xen,
96: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches. It is a
97: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
99: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2. This is maintained by Xen, but old as
100: of 2014-12.
102: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
104: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3. It works with 3.1 through
105: 4.2 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
107: Xen command program
110: Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
111: dom0. Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
112: called "xl" is provided. In 4.2 and later, "xl" is preferred. 4.4 is
113: the last version that has "xm".
118: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
119: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
120: non-Xen use. Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
121: of the most recent release for production use. For those wanting to
122: learn Xen or without production stability concerns, netbsd-7 is likely
123: most appropriate.
125: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus. There is
126: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0. (The dom0 itself doesn't really
127: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
128: a normal computer.)
133: Xen itself can run on i386 or amd64 machines. (Practically, almost
134: any computer where one would want to run Xen supports amd64.) If
135: using an i386 NetBSD kernel for the dom0, PAE is required (PAE
136: versions are built by default). While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is
137: recommended as more normal.
139: Xen 4.2 is the last version to support i386 as a host. TODO: Clarify
140: if this is about the CPU having to be amd64, or about the dom0 kernel
141: having to be amd64.
143: One can then run i386 domUs and amd64 domUs, in any combination. If
144: running an i386 NetBSD kernel as a domU, the PAE version is required.
145: (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when built
146: without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump code.)
151: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
152: xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the
153: dom0. Either the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
155: Build problems
158: Ideally, all versions of Xen in pkgsrc would build on all versions of
159: NetBSD on both i386 and amd64. However, that isn't the case. Besides
160: aging code and aging compilers, qemu (included in xentools for HVM
161: support) is difficult to build. The following are known to fail:
163: xenkernel3 netbsd-6 i386
164: xentools42 netbsd-6 i386
166: The following are known to work:
168: xenkernel41 netbsd-5 amd64
169: xentools41 netbsd-5 amd64
170: xenkernel41 netbsd-6 i386
171: xentools41 netbsd-6 i386
173: NetBSD as a dom0
176: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well. The following
177: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
178: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
179: without also installing Xen itself. We first address installing
180: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
181: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
184: For experimenting with Xen, a machine with as little as 1G of RAM and
185: 100G of disk can work. For running many domUs in productions, far
186: more will be needed.
188: Styles of dom0 operation
191: There are two basic ways to use Xen. The traditional method is for
192: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
193: number of domUs. Such a system was probably installed for the sole
194: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
196: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
197: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
198: desktop or laptop. Then, one can run domUs at will. Purists will
199: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
200: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right. But Xen and a
201: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
202: things running without Xen. One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
203: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
204: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
206: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs. This will
207: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
209: Installation of NetBSD
213: [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
214: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
215: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
217: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
218: for Xen. Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
219: domU systems are unaware of RAID. The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
220: over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
221: partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
223: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
224: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
226: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
227: each virtual disk to be used by the domU. (If you are able to predict
228: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
229: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
231: One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
232: for domU disks. This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
233: and more flexible. Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
234: be used.
236: One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
237: /dev/zero to create a specific size. This is somewhat less efficient,
238: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
239: between dom0 hosts.
241: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
242: SAN. (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
243: HOWTO page.)
245: Installation of Xen
248: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
249: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
250: See [the pkgsrc
251: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
253: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm. More
254: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
255: package. It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
257: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
258: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz". Copy it to /.
259: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
260: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD. xen-debug.gz is basically only
261: useful with a serial console. Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
262: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
263: of a NetBSD build. Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed. (If
264: using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
266: With Xen as the kernel, you must provide a dom0 NetBSD kernel to be
267: used as a module; place this in /. Suitable kernels are provided in
270: i386 XEN3_DOM0
271: i386 XEN3PAE_DOM0
272: amd64 XEN3_DOM0
274: The first one is only for use with Xen 3.1 and i386-mode Xen (and you
275: should not do this). Current Xen always uses PAE on i386, but you
276: should generally use amd64 for the dom0. In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is
277: mandatory for xend to comunicate with the kernel, so ensure that /kern
278: is in fstab. TODO: Say this is default, or file a PR and give a
281: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
282: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
283: beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
284: /boot.cfg. (If not, fix before continuing!)
286: See boot.cfg(5) for an example. The basic line is
288: menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
290: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
291: allocated for domUs. In an attempt to add performance, one can also
294: dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
296: to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
297: more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical cpu. TODO: benchmark this.
299: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
300: kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
301: kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
303: The [HowTo on Installing into
305: explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with
306: NetBSD's RAIDframe. (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native
309: Configuring Xen
312: Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, and
313: just run the dom0 kernel. There will be no domUs, and none can be
314: started because you still have to configure the dom0 tools. The
315: daemons which should be run vary with Xen version and with whether one
316: is using xm or xl. Note that xend is for supporting "xm", and should
317: only be used if you plan on using "xm". Do NOT enable xend if you
318: plan on using "xl" as it will cause problems.
320: The installation of NetBSD should already have created devices for xen
321: (xencons, xenevt), but if they are not present, create them:
323: cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
325: TODO: Give 3.1 advice (or remove it from pkgsrc).
327: For 3.3 (and thus xm), add to rc.conf (but note that you should have
328: installed 4.1 or 4.2):
333: For 4.1 (and thus xm; xl is believed not to work well), add to rc.conf:
338: TODO: Explain why if xm is preferred on 4.1, rc.d/xendomains has xl.
339: Or fix the package.
341: For 4.2 with xm, add to rc.conf
346: For 4.2 with xl (preferred), add to rc.conf:
348: TODO: explain if there is a xend replacement
351: TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
353: After you have configured the daemons and either started them or
354: rebooted, run the following (or use xl) to inspect Xen's boot
355: messages, available resources, and running domains:
357: # xm dmesg
358: [xen's boot info]
359: # xm info
360: [available memory, etc.]
361: # xm list
362: Name Id Mem(MB) CPU State Time(s) Console
363: Domain-0 0 64 0 r---- 58.1
365: anita (for testing NetBSD)
368: With the setup so far, one should be able to run anita (see
369: pkgsrc/sysutils/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as root,
370: because anita must create a domU):
372: anita --vmm=xm test file:///usr/obj/i386/
374: Alternatively, one can use --vmm=xl to use xl-based domU creation instead.
375: TODO: check this.
377: Xen-specific NetBSD issues
380: There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
381: dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
383: One is that modules are not usable in DOM0 kernels, so one must
384: compile in what's needed. It's not really that modules cannot work,
385: but that modules must be built for XEN3_DOM0 because some of the
386: defines change and the normal module builds don't do this. Basically,
387: enabling Xen changes the kernel ABI, and the module build system
388: doesn't cope with this.
390: The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
391: options as GENERIC. While it is debatable whether or not this is a
392: bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
393: items if desired.
395: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
398: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
399: version supports the version of Xen you are running. Generally, one
400: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
401: and adjusts /etc.
403: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
404: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
406: To convert from grub to /boot, install an mbr bootblock with fdisk,
407: bootxx_ with installboot, /boot and /boot.cfg. This really should be
408: no different than completely reinstalling boot blocks on a non-Xen
411: Updating Xen versions
414: Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
415: issues found when installing Xen. Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
416: remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
417: xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages. Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
419: Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct. Enable the
420: correct set of daemons. Ensure that the domU config files are valid
421: for the new version.
424: Unprivileged domains (domU)
427: This section describes general concepts about domUs. It does not
428: address specific domU operating systems or how to install them. The
429: config files for domUs are typically in /usr/pkg/etc/xen, and are
430: typically named so that the file anme, domU name and the domU's host
431: name match.
433: The domU is provided with cpu and memory by Xen, configured by the
434: dom0. The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
435: mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
437: Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
438: the dom0. NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
440: Config files
443: There is no good order to present config files and the concepts
444: surrounding what is being configured. We first show an example config
445: file, and then in the various sections give details.
447: See (at least in xentools41) /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xmexample*,
448: for a large number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
451: The following is an example minimal domain configuration file
452: "/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo". It is (with only a name change) an actual
453: known working config file on Xen 4.1 (NetBSD 5 amd64 dom0 and NetBSD 5
454: i386 domU). The domU serves as a network file server.
456: # -*- mode: python; -*-
458: kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
459: memory = 1024
460: vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
461: disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
462: 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
464: The domain will have the same name as the file. The kernel has the
465: host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
466: domUs independently. The vif line causes an interface to be provided,
467: with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
468: mode. Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
469: are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
470: dom0 on domain creation. The system treates xbd0 as the boot device
471: without needing explicit configuration.
473: By default xm looks for domain config files in /usr/pkg/etc/xen. Note
474: that "xm create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
475: take the name of a domain. To create the domain, connect to the
476: console, create the domain while attaching the console, shutdown the
477: domain, and see if it has finished stopping, do (or xl with Xen >=
480: xm create foo
481: xm console foo
482: xm create -c foo
483: xm shutdown foo
484: xm list
486: Typing ^] will exit the console session. Shutting down a domain is
487: equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
488: power-press event and do a clean shutdown. Shutting down the dom0
489: will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
491: domU kernels
494: On a physical computer, the BIOS reads sector 0, and a chain of boot
495: loaders finds and loads a kernel. Normally this comes from the root
496: filesystem. With Xen domUs, the process is totally different. The
497: normal path is for the domU kernel to be a file in the dom0's
498: filesystem. At the request of the dom0, Xen loads that kernel into a
499: new domU instance and starts execution. While domU kernels can be
500: anyplace, reasonable places to store domU kernels on the dom0 are in /
501: (so they are near the dom0 kernel), in /usr/pkg/etc/xen (near the
502: config files), or in /u0/xen (where the vdisks are).
504: See the VPS section near the end for discussion of alternate ways to
505: obtain domU kernels.
507: CPU and memory
510: A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, less than the number
511: of cpus seen by the hypervisor. (For a dom0, this is controlled by
512: the boot argument "dom0_max_vcpus=1".) For a domU, it is controlled
513: from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
515: A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
516: file by "memory = N" (in megabytes). In the straightforward case, the
517: sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
518: than the available memory.
520: Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
521: use more memory temporarily. TODO: Explain better, and explain how
522: well it works with NetBSD.
524: Virtual disks
527: With the file/vnd style, typically one creates a directory,
528: e.g. /u0/xen, on a disk large enough to hold virtual disks for all
529: domUs. Then, for each domU disk, one writes zeros to a file that then
530: serves to hold the virtual disk's bits; a suggested name is foo-xbd0
531: for the first virtual disk for the domU called foo. Writing zeros to
532: the file serves two purposes. One is that preallocating the contents
533: improves performance. The other is that vnd on sparse files has
534: failed to work. TODO: give working/notworking NetBSD versions for
535: sparse vnd. Note that the use of file/vnd for Xen is not really
536: different than creating a file-backed virtual disk for some other
537: purpose, except that xentools handles the vnconfig commands. To
538: create an empty 4G virtual disk, simply do
540: dd if=/dev/zero of=foo-xbd0 bs=1m count=4096
542: With the lvm style, one creates logical devices. They are then used
543: similarly to vnds. TODO: Add an example with lvm.
545: In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples.
546: The first element is "method:/path/to/disk". Common methods are
547: "file:" for file-backed vnd. and "phy:" for something that is already
548: a (TODO: character or block) device.
550: The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
551: Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage. Linux domUs
552: are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
553: "hda1" or "sda1" are common. In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
554: as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on. However, xm/xl demand a
555: second argument. The name given is converted to a major/minor by
556: calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
557: In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
558: systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
559: numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev. With NetBSD
560: as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
561: for the second works fine and avoids this issue. For a GNU/Linux
562: guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
565: The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
568: Virtual Networking
571: Xen provides virtual ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
572: domU. For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
573: the dom0, and in domU index N, a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD
574: name). The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
575: adaptors connected. From this primitive, one can construct various
576: configurations. We focus on two common and useful cases for which
577: there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
579: With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
580: on the same network as the dom0. For server virtualization, this is
581: usually best. Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
582: and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
583: interfaces to the bridge. One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
584: config file. The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
585: example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
589: !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
591: With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
592: dom0. This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
593: TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
595: The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
596: domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd with
597: 00:00:00:01:00:00. Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
599: Sizing domains
602: Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources. However, many
603: virtual servers can function just fine on far less. A system with
604: 256M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice. Note that it is
605: far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones. For
606: memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot. For disk, one can
607: create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,
608: just like updating physical disks, but without having to be there and
609: without those pesky connectors.
611: Starting domains automatically
614: To start domains foo at bar at boot and shut them down cleanly on dom0
615: shutdown, in rc.conf add:
617: xendomains="foo bar"
619: TODO: Explain why 4.1 rc.d/xendomains has xl, when one should use xm
620: on 4.1. Or fix the xentools41 package to have xm
622: Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)
625: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system. We
626: have already presented the basics of config files. Note that you must
627: have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" (or "xm list")
630: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
633: See the earlier config file, and adjust memory. Decide on how much
634: storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or lvm).
636: While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 filesystem, the same
637: file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
638: savecore(8) can work. (This is helpful but not necessary.)
640: The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU. The
641: i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
643: i386 XEN3_DOMU
644: i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
645: amd64 XEN3_DOMU
647: Unless using Xen 3.1 (and you shouldn't) with i386-mode Xen, you must
648: use the PAE version of the i386 kernel.
650: This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
651: empty. One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
652: (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
653: system you can't run the installer on).
655: A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
656: and can load sets from the network. To do this, copy the INSTALL
657: kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
659: kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
661: Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configname".
663: Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
664: line should be used in the config file.
666: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
668: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
669: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
671: Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
672: it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
673: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
674: and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
675: xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
677: TODO: check if this is still accurate.
678: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
679: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
680: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
681: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
683: console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt100 on secure
684: ttyE0 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
685: ttyE1 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
686: ttyE2 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
687: ttyE3 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
689: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
691: It is also desirable to add
695: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
696: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
698: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
700: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
703: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
704: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
706: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
707: the example below)
709: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
711: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
712: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
713: So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
714: device number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
715: hdb, ...) as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
716: numbers. To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
718: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
719: root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
721: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
724: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
725: guest domain, the following method can be used: install
726: sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition
727: that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
728: Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
729: `/etc` (fstab, network config). It should also be possible to extract
730: binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
731: using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
732: emulation. Once the filesystem has been populated, umount it. If
733: desirable, the filesystem can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
734: It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
735: the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
737: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
739: extra = "xencons=tty1"
741: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
742: tty to the xen console.
744: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
747: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
748: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
749: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
750: image to your dom0 filesystem.
752: dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
753: dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
754: dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
756: ## for a 64-bit guest
757: dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
758: dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
760: ## for a 32-bit guest
761: dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
762: dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
764: dom0# umount /mnt
767: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
768: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
769: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
770: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
772: memory = 640
773: name = 'solaris'
774: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
775: disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
776: vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
777: kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
778: ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
779: # for a 64-bit guest
780: extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
781: # for a 32-bit guest
782: #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
785: Start the guest.
787: dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
788: Started domain solaris
789: v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
790: SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
791: Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
792: Use is subject to license terms.
793: Hostname: opensolaris
794: Remounting root read/write
795: Probing for device nodes ...
796: WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
797: Preparing live image for use
798: Done mounting Live image
801: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
802: the xnf0 interface to appear.
804: opensolaris console login: jack
805: Password: jack
806: Sun Microsystems Inc. SunOS 5.11 snv_124 November 2008
807: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
808: sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
809: sh-3.2# exit
812: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
813: display where the installation program runs.
815: jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
816: Password: solaris
817: Verify: solaris
818: jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
819: jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
822: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
823: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
825: remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
828: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
830: jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
831: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
834: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
835: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
836: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
839: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
840: bootfs = 43
845: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
846: the last line.
848: memory = 640
849: name = 'solaris'
850: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
851: vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
852: kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
853: ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
854: extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
857: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
859: dom0# xm destroy solaris
860: dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
861: Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
862: v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
863: Started domain solaris
864: SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
865: Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
866: Use is subject to license terms.
867: WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
868: Hostname: osol
869: Configuring devices.
870: Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
871: svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
872: Reading ZFS config: done.
873: Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
874: Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
875: Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
877: osol console login:
880: Using PCI devices in guest domains
883: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
884: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
885: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
886: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
887: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
888: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
889: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
890: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
891: access the VGA registers will panic).
893: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
894: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
895: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
897: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
898: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
899: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
900: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
901: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
902: single-digit number:
906: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
907: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
909: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
910: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
912: pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
914: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
915: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
916: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
917: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
918: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
920: include "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
921: #include "arch/i386/conf/XENU" # in NetBSD 3.0
923: # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
924: xpci* at xenbus ?
925: pci* at xpci ?
927: # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
928: # USB Controller and Devices
930: # PCI USB controllers
931: uhci* at pci? dev ? function ? # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
933: # USB bus support
934: usb* at uhci?
936: # USB Hubs
937: uhub* at usb?
938: uhub* at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
940: # USB Mass Storage
941: umass* at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
942: wd* at umass?
943: # SCSI controllers
944: ahc* at pci? dev ? function ? # Adaptec 94x, aic78x0 SCSI
946: # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
947: scsibus* at scsi?
949: # SCSI devices
950: sd* at scsibus? target ? lun ? # SCSI disk drives
951: cd* at scsibus? target ? lun ? # SCSI CD-ROM drives
954: NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
957: The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
958: hardware. This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
959: virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
962: TODO: Perhaps reference panix, prmgr, amazon as interesting examples.
964: TODO: Somewhere, discuss pvgrub and py-grub to load the domU kernel
965: from the domU filesystem.
967: Using npf
970: In standard kernels, npf is a module, and thus cannot be loadeed in a
971: DOMU kernel.
973: TODO: explain how to compile npf into a custom kernel, answering:
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