File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
Revision 1.20: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Wed Dec 24 01:06:43 2014 UTC (4 years, 11 months ago) by gdt
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
Trim installation.

Don't open-code "install amd64" or pkgsrc.

Demote grub text to howto-grub.

Explain PCI passthrough early on.

Recommend only /boot (but grub has a pointer in the history section).

    1: Introduction
    2: ============
    3: 
    4: [![[Xen
    5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
    6: 
    7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
    8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
    9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
   10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
   11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
   12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
   13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
   14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
   15: fulfilled.
   16: 
   17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
   18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
   19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
   22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
   23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   24: 
   25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
   26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
   27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
   28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   29: 
   30: Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  For HVM
   31: guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT (amd64) is
   32: needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  TODO: Clean up and check
   33: the above features.  TODO: Explain if i386 (non-amd64) machines can
   34: still be used - I think that witthe requirement to use PAE kernels is
   35: about the hypervisor being amd64 only.
   36: 
   37: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
   38: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   39: in the dom0 section.)
   40: 
   41: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   42: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   43: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   44: and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
   45: 
   46: Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
   47: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
   48: of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
   49: network interface or other peripheral.
   50: 
   51: Prerequisites
   52: -------------
   53: 
   54: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   55: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   56: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
   57: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
   58: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
   59: 
   60: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   61: architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
   62: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
   63: See also the [Xen website](http://www.xen.org/).
   64: 
   65: History
   66: -------
   67: 
   68: NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
   69: 
   70: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
   71: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
   72: [old grub information](/xen/howto-grub/).
   73: 
   74: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
   75: ==========================
   76: 
   77: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent of
   78: Xen version.  This section gives advice on which version to choose.
   79: Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported versions of NetBSD are
   80: inentionally ignored.
   81: 
   82: Xen
   83: ---
   84: 
   85: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
   86: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   87: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
   88: matching versions.
   89: 
   90: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
   91: receive security patches and should not be used.  Xen 3.1 supports PCI
   92: passthrough.
   93: 
   94: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
   95: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
   96: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
   97: 
   98: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
   99: of 2014-12.
  100: 
  101: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
  102: 
  103: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3; it works with 3.1 through
  104: 4.2, because the hypercall interface has been stable.
  105: 
  106: Xen command program
  107: -------------------
  108: 
  109: Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
  110: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
  111: called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2, "xm" is no longer available.
  112: 
  113: NetBSD
  114: ------
  115: 
  116: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
  117: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
  118: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
  119: of the most recent release.
  120: 
  121: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
  122: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
  123: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
  124: a normal computer.)
  125: 
  126: Architecture
  127: ------------
  128: 
  129: Xen is basically amd64 only at this point.  One can either run i386
  130: domains or amd64 domains.  If running i386, PAE versions are required,
  131: for both dom0 and domU.  These versions are built by default in NetBSD
  132: releases.  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is recommended as more
  133: normal.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when
  134: built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump
  135: code.)
  136: 
  137: Recommendation
  138: --------------
  139: 
  140: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
  141: xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use amd64 as the dom0.  Either
  142: the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
  143: 
  144: NetBSD as a dom0
  145: ================
  146: 
  147: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
  148: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
  149: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
  150: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
  151: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
  152: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
  153: configuration.
  154: 
  155: Styles of dom0 operation
  156: ------------------------
  157: 
  158: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
  159: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
  160: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
  161: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
  162: 
  163: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
  164: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
  165: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
  166: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
  167: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
  168: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
  169: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
  170: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
  171: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
  172: 
  173: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
  174: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
  175: 
  176: Installation of NetBSD
  177: ----------------------
  178: 
  179: First,
  180: [install NetBSD/amd64](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html)
  181: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
  182: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
  183: 
  184: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
  185: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
  186: domU systems are unaware of RAID.
  187: 
  188: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
  189: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
  190: 
  191: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
  192: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
  193: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
  194: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
  195: 
  196: One can use lvm(8) to create logical devices to use for domU disks.
  197: This is almost as efficient sa raw disk partitions and more flexible.
  198: Hence raw disk partitions should typically not be used.
  199: 
  200: One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
  201: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
  202: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
  203: between dom0 hosts.
  204: 
  205: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
  206: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
  207: HOWTO page.)
  208: 
  209: Installation of Xen
  210: -------------------
  211: 
  212: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
  213: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
  214: See [the pkgsrc
  215: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
  216: 
  217: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
  218: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
  219: package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
  220: 
  221: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
  222: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
  223: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
  224: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
  225: useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
  226: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
  227: of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
  228: using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
  229: 
  230: In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
  231: kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.
  232: 
  233: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
  234: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
  235: beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
  236: /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
  237: 
  238: See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
  239: 
  240: "menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M"
  241: 
  242: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
  243: allocated for domUs.
  244: 
  245: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
  246: kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
  247: kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
  248: 
  249: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
  250: -------------------------
  251: 
  252: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
  253: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
  254: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
  255: and adjusts /etc.
  256: 
  257: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
  258: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
  259: 
  260: Updating Xen versions
  261: ---------------------
  262: 
  263: TODO: write
  264: 
  265: Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
  266: ====================================
  267: 
  268: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
  269: first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
  270: 
  271: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
  272: ---------------------------------------------
  273: 
  274: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
  275: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
  276: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
  277: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
  278: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
  279: can create them with this command:
  280: 
  281:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
  282: 
  283: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
  284: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
  285: 'xm list' will show something like:
  286: 
  287:     # xm list
  288:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  289:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  290: 
  291: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
  292: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
  293: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
  294: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
  295: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
  296: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
  297: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
  298: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
  299: 
  300: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
  301: 
  302:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
  303:     #============================================================================
  304:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
  305:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
  306:     #============================================================================
  307: 
  308:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  309:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
  310:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
  311:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  312: 
  313:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
  314:     memory = 128
  315: 
  316:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
  317:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
  318:     # number. All domains must have different names.
  319:     #
  320:     name = "nbsd"
  321: 
  322:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
  323:     #
  324:     vcpus = 1
  325: 
  326:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  327:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
  328: 
  329:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
  330:     nics = 1
  331: 
  332:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
  333:     #
  334:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
  335:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
  336:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
  337:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
  338:     #
  339:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
  340:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
  341:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
  342:     #
  343:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
  344:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
  345:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
  346:     #
  347:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
  348: 
  349:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  350:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
  351:     # what you want them accessible as.
  352:     #
  353:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
  354:     #
  355:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
  356:     #
  357:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
  358:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
  359:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
  360:     #
  361:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
  362:     #
  363:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
  364:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
  365:     #
  366:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
  367:     # but it does for Linux.
  368:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
  369:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
  370:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
  371:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
  372:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
  373:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
  374: 
  375:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  376:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
  377:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
  378: 
  379:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  380:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
  381: 
  382:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
  383:     root = "xbd0"
  384:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
  385:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
  386:     #extra = ""
  387: 
  388:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  389:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
  390:     # The default is False.
  391:     #autorestart = True
  392: 
  393:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
  394: 
  395: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
  396: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
  397: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
  398: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
  399: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
  400: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
  401: like this:
  402: 
  403:     create
  404:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
  405: 
  406: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
  407: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
  408: 
  409: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
  410: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
  411: 
  412:     #!/bin/sh
  413:     #============================================================================
  414:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.20 2014/12/24 01:06:43 gdt Exp $
  415:     #
  416:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
  417:     #
  418:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
  419:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
  420:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
  421:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
  422:     #
  423:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
  424:     #
  425:     # Actions:
  426:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
  427:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
  428:     #
  429:     # Variables:
  430:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
  431:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
  432:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
  433:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
  434:     #
  435:     # Example invocation:
  436:     #
  437:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
  438:     #
  439:     #============================================================================
  440: 
  441:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
  442:     set -e
  443: 
  444:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
  445: 
  446:     # Operation name.
  447:     OP=$1; shift
  448: 
  449:     # Pull variables in args into environment
  450:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
  451: 
  452:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
  453:     domain=${domain:?}
  454:     vif=${vif:?}
  455:     mac=${mac:?}
  456:     bridge=${bridge:?}
  457: 
  458:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
  459:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
  460: 
  461:     # Are we going up or down?
  462:     case $OP in
  463:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
  464:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
  465:     *)
  466:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
  467:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
  468:         exit 1
  469:         ;;
  470:     esac
  471: 
  472:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
  473:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
  474:         exit
  475:     fi
  476: 
  477:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
  478:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
  479:         exit
  480:     fi
  481: 
  482:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
  483:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
  484:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
  485: 
  486: Now, running
  487: 
  488:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
  489: 
  490: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
  491: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
  492: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
  493: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
  494: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
  495: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
  496: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
  497: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
  498: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
  499: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
  500: 
  501: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
  502: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
  503: 
  504:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  505: 
  506: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  507: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
  508: 
  509: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
  510: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  511: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
  512: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
  513: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
  514: installation.
  515: 
  516: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  517: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  518: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
  519: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
  520: 
  521:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  522:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  523:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  524:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  525:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  526: 
  527: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
  528: 
  529: It is also desirable to add
  530: 
  531:     powerd=YES
  532: 
  533: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
  534: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
  535: 
  536: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
  537: 
  538: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
  539: --------------------------------------------
  540: 
  541: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  542: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  543: 
  544: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  545: the example below)
  546: 
  547:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  548: 
  549: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  550: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
  551: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
  552: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
  553: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
  554: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  555: 
  556:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  557:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  558: 
  559: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  560: partition.
  561: 
  562: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
  563: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
  564: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
  565: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
  566: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
  567: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
  568: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
  569: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
  570: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
  571: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
  572: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
  573: available in the Xen binary distribution.
  574: 
  575: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
  576: 
  577:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
  578: 
  579: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
  580: tty to the xen console.
  581: 
  582: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
  583: ----------------------------------------------
  584: 
  585: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
  586: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
  587: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
  588: image to your dom0 filesystem.
  589: 
  590:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
  591:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
  592:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
  593: 
  594:     ## for a 64-bit guest
  595:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  596:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
  597: 
  598:     ## for a 32-bit guest
  599:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  600:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
  601: 
  602:     dom0# umount /mnt
  603:           
  604: 
  605: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
  606: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
  607: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
  608: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
  609: 
  610:     memory = 640
  611:     name = 'solaris'
  612:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  613:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
  614:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  615:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  616:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  617:     # for a 64-bit guest
  618:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  619:     # for a 32-bit guest
  620:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  621:           
  622: 
  623: Start the guest.
  624: 
  625:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  626:     Started domain solaris
  627:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  628:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  629:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  630:     Use is subject to license terms.
  631:     Hostname: opensolaris
  632:     Remounting root read/write
  633:     Probing for device nodes ...
  634:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  635:     Preparing live image for use
  636:     Done mounting Live image
  637:           
  638: 
  639: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
  640: the xnf0 interface to appear.
  641: 
  642:     opensolaris console login: jack
  643:     Password: jack
  644:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
  645:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
  646:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
  647:     sh-3.2# exit
  648:           
  649: 
  650: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
  651: display where the installation program runs.
  652: 
  653:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
  654:     Password: solaris
  655:     Verify: solaris
  656:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
  657:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
  658:           
  659: 
  660: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
  661: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
  662: 
  663:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
  664:           
  665: 
  666: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
  667: 
  668:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
  669:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
  670:            
  671: 
  672: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
  673: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
  674: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
  675: console.
  676: 
  677:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
  678:                     bootfs = 43
  679:     ^C
  680:     jack@opensolaris:~$
  681:            
  682: 
  683: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
  684: the last line.
  685: 
  686:     memory = 640
  687:     name = 'solaris'
  688:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  689:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  690:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  691:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  692:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
  693:            
  694: 
  695: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
  696: 
  697:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
  698:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  699:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
  700:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  701:     Started domain solaris
  702:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  703:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  704:     Use is subject to license terms.
  705:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  706:     Hostname: osol
  707:     Configuring devices.
  708:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
  709:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
  710:     Reading ZFS config: done.
  711:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
  712:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
  713:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
  714: 
  715:     osol console login:
  716:            
  717: 
  718: Using PCI devices in guest domains
  719: ----------------------------------
  720: 
  721: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
  722: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
  723: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
  724: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
  725: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
  726: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
  727: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
  728: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
  729: access the VGA registers will panic).
  730: 
  731: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
  732: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
  733: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
  734: 
  735: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
  736: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
  737: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
  738: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
  739: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
  740: single-digit number:
  741: 
  742:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
  743: 
  744: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
  745: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
  746: 
  747: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
  748: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
  749: 
  750:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
  751: 
  752: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
  753: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
  754: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
  755: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
  756: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
  757: 
  758:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
  759:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
  760: 
  761:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
  762:     xpci* at xenbus ?
  763:     pci* at xpci ?
  764: 
  765:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
  766:     # USB Controller and Devices
  767: 
  768:     # PCI USB controllers
  769:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
  770: 
  771:     # USB bus support
  772:     usb*    at uhci?
  773: 
  774:     # USB Hubs
  775:     uhub*   at usb?
  776:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  777: 
  778:     # USB Mass Storage
  779:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  780:     wd*     at umass?
  781:     # SCSI controllers
  782:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
  783: 
  784:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
  785:     scsibus* at scsi?
  786: 
  787:     # SCSI devices
  788:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
  789:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
  790: 
  791: Links and further information
  792: =============================
  793: 
  794: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
  795:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
  796:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
  797:     NetBSD's native boot.)
  798: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
  799:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
  800:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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