File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
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Thu Oct 31 12:20:57 2013 UTC (6 years, 1 month ago) by mspo
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
add xen howto and link to it

    1: NetBSD/xen Howto
    2: ================
    3: 
    4: [![BSD
    5: daemon](../../images/BSD-daemon.jpg)](../../about/disclaimer.html#bsd-daemon)
    6: 
    7: Table Of Contents
    8: -----------------
    9: 
   10: -   [Introduction](#introduction)
   11: -   [Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)](#netbsd-dom0)
   12: -   [Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)](#netbsd-domU)
   13: -   [Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)](#linux-domU)
   14: -   [Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)](#solaris-domU)
   15: -   [Using PCI devices in guest domains](#pci-pass-through)
   16: -   [Links and further information](#links-and-more)
   17: 
   18: * * * * *
   19: 
   20: ### Introduction
   21: 
   22: [![[Xen
   23: screenshot]](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
   24: 
   25: Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class
   26: CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a
   27: single machine. Guest OSes (also called <E2><80><9C>domains<E2><80><9D>) require a modified
   28: kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the
   29: physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen
   30: hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel
   31: for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded
   32: using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for
   33: this, or alternatively the **grub** boot loader (**grub** has some
   34: limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access
   35: the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains
   36: and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that
   37: lack those privileges. For more details, see
   38: [http://www.xen.org/](http://www.xen.org/).
   39: 
   40: NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged
   41: (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains
   42: accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices
   43: to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single
   44: privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much
   45: like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console
   46: (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only
   47: virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`{.code}) and virtual network
   48: interfaces (`xennet`{.code}) provided by a privileged domain (usually
   49: *domain0*). xbd devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a
   50: partition of a disk, raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain.
   51: xennet devices are connected to virtual devices in the privileged
   52: domain, named xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g.,
   53: xvif1.0. Both xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet
   54: devices (they can be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be
   55: assigned addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...)
   56: or be added as part of a bridge.
   57: 
   58: * * * * *
   59: ### Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)
   60: 
   61: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
   62: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
   63: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
   64: available from
   65: [ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/).
   66: Binary snapshots for current and the stable branches are available on
   67: [daily autobuilds](http://nyftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/). If you
   68: plan to use the **grub** boot loader, when partitioning the disk you
   69: have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
   70: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
   71: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
   72: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
   73: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
   74: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
   75: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
   76: other domains.
   77: 
   78: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
   79: packages. See [the pkgsrc
   80: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
   81: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
   82: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
   83: not. You'll need either
   84: [`sysutils/xentools3`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools3/README.html)
   85: and
   86: [`sysutils/xenkernel3`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel3/README.html)
   87: for Xen 3.1,
   88: [`sysutils/xentools33`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools33/README.html)
   89: and
   90: [`sysutils/xenkernel33`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel33/README.html)
   91: for Xen 3.3,
   92: [`sysutils/xentools41`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools41/README.html)
   93: and
   94: [`sysutils/xenkernel41`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel41/README.html)
   95: for Xen 4.1. or
   96: [`sysutils/xentools42`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools42/README.html)
   97: and
   98: [`sysutils/xenkernel42`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel42/README.html)
   99: for Xen 4.2. You'll also need
  100: [`sysutils/grub`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/grub/README.html)
  101: if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If using Xen 3.1, you may also
  102: want to install
  103: [`sysutils/xentools3-hvm`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools3-hvm/README.html)
  104: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
  105: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
  106: [`sysutils/xentools`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools/README.html)).
  107: Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel CPUs must have the 'VT'
  108: instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You can easily find out if
  109: your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl command:
  110: 
  111: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  112: # cpuctl identify 0
  113: cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
  114: cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
  115: cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
  116: cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
  117: cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,VMX,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
  118: cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
  119: cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
  120: cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
  121: cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
  122: cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
  123: cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
  124: cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
  125: cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
  126: cpu0: Core ID 0
  127: cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
  128: ~~~
  129: 
  130: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
  131: SVM or VMX.
  132: 
  133: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
  134: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`{.filename}. The file you're looking
  135: for is `xen.gz`{.filename}. Copy it to your root file system.
  136: `xen-debug.gz`{.filename} is a kernel with more consistency checks and
  137: more details printed on the serial console. It is useful for debugging
  138: crashing guests if you use a serial console. It is not useful with a VGA
  139: console.
  140: 
  141: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
  142: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
  143: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
  144: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
  145: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and
  146: `/kern`{.filename} must be mounted because *xend* needs access to
  147: `/kern/xen/privcmd`{.filename}.
  148: 
  149: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz`{.filename}
  150: kernel, and the NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be
  151: **grub** or NetBSD's boot loader. Below is a detailled example for grub,
  152: see the boot.cfg(5) manual page for an example using the latter.
  153: 
  154: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
  155: console to use, etc ...
  156: 
  157: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst`{.filename} file:
  158: 
  159: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  160: #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
  161: # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
  162: #
  163: # The default entry to load will be the first one
  164: default=0
  165: 
  166: # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
  167: timeout=10
  168: 
  169: # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
  170: serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
  171: 
  172: # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
  173: # to serial after 10s
  174: terminal --timeout=10 serial console
  175: 
  176: # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
  177: # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
  178: # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
  179: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
  180:   root(hd0,0)
  181:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
  182:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
  183: 
  184: # Same as above, but using VGA console
  185: # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
  186: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
  187:   root(hd0,0)
  188:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
  189:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
  190: 
  191: # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
  192: # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
  193: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
  194:   root(hd0,0)
  195:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
  196:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
  197: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
  198:   root(hd0,0)
  199:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
  200:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
  201: 
  202: #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
  203: #nonworking /xen.gz
  204: title NetBSD 5.1
  205:   root (hd0,a)
  206:   kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
  207: 
  208: #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
  209: #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
  210: #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
  211: title NetBSD chain
  212:   root        (hd0,0)
  213:   chainloader +1
  214: 
  215: ## end of grub config file.
  216:       
  217: ~~~
  218: 
  219: Install grub with the following command:
  220: 
  221: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  222: # grub --no-floppy
  223: 
  224: grub> root (hd0,a)
  225:  Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
  226: 
  227: grub> setup (hd0)
  228:  Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
  229:  Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
  230:  Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
  231:  Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
  232:  Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
  233: succeeded
  234:  Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
  235:  succeeded
  236: Done.
  237:       
  238: ~~~
  239: 
  240: * * * * *
  241: 
  242: ### Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)
  243: 
  244: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
  245: (**/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start**) and the xen backend daemon
  246: (**/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start** for Xen3\*,
  247: **/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start** for Xen4.\*). Make
  248: sure that `/dev/xencons`{.filename} and `/dev/xenevt`{.filename} exist
  249: before starting **xend**. You can create them with this command:
  250: 
  251: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  252: # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
  253: ~~~
  254: 
  255: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log`{.filename} and
  256: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`{.filename}. You can then control xen with the
  257: xm tool. 'xm list' will show something like:
  258: 
  259: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  260: # xm list
  261: Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  262: Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  263: ~~~
  264: 
  265: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
  266: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
  267: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`{.filename}. On creation, a kernel has to be
  268: specified, which will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in
  269: the *domain0* file system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but
  270: please note, you should install the same kernel into *domainU* as
  271: `/netbsd`{.filename} in order to make your system tools, like
  272: [savecore(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?savecore+8+NetBSD-6.0+i386),
  273: work). A suitable kernel is provided as part of the i386 and amd64
  274: binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
  275: 
  276: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
  277: 
  278: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  279: #  -*- mode: python; -*-
  280: #============================================================================
  281: # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
  282: # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
  283: #============================================================================
  284: 
  285: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  286: # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
  287: kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
  288: #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  289: 
  290: # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
  291: memory = 128
  292: 
  293: # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
  294: # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
  295: # number. All domains must have different names.
  296: #
  297: name = "nbsd"
  298: 
  299: # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
  300: #
  301: vcpus = 1
  302: 
  303: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  304: # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
  305: 
  306: # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
  307: nics = 1
  308: 
  309: # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
  310: #
  311: # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
  312: # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
  313: # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
  314: # MACs are assigned if not given.
  315: #
  316: # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
  317: # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
  318: # the new xvif interface in domain0.
  319: #
  320: # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
  321: # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
  322: # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
  323: #
  324: vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
  325: 
  326: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  327: # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
  328: # what you want them accessible as.
  329: #
  330: # Each disk entry is of the form:
  331: #
  332: #       phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
  333: #
  334: # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
  335: # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
  336: # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
  337: #
  338: #       file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
  339: #
  340: # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
  341: # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
  342: #
  343: # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
  344: # but it does for Linux.
  345: # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
  346: # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
  347: # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
  348: # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
  349: # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
  350: # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
  351: 
  352: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  353: #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
  354: #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
  355: 
  356: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  357: # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
  358: 
  359: # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
  360: root = "xbd0"
  361: # extra parameters passed to the kernel
  362: # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
  363: #extra = ""
  364: 
  365: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  366: # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
  367: # The default is False.
  368: #autorestart = True
  369: 
  370: # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
  371: ~~~
  372: 
  373: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
  374: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge`{.filename} script for each virtual network
  375: interface created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically
  376: configure the xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these
  377: will be bridged with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has
  378: to exist first. To do this, create the file
  379: `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0`{.filename} and make it look like this:
  380: 
  381: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  382: create
  383: !brconfig $int add ex0 up
  384: ~~~
  385: 
  386: (replace `ex0`{.literal} with the name of your physical interface). Then
  387: bridge0 will be created on boot. See the
  388: [bridge(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?bridge+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
  389: man page for details.
  390: 
  391: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge`{.filename} for
  392: xvif?.? (a working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20)
  393: configuring:
  394: 
  395: 
  396: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  397: #!/bin/sh
  398: #============================================================================
  399: # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.1 2013/10/31 12:20:57 mspo Exp $
  400: #
  401: # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
  402: #
  403: # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
  404: # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
  405: # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
  406: # in the ``vif-script'' field.
  407: #
  408: # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
  409: #
  410: # Actions:
  411: #    up         Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
  412: #    down       Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
  413: #
  414: # Variables:
  415: #    domain     name of the domain the interface is on (required).
  416: #    vifq       vif interface name (required).
  417: #    mac        vif MAC address (required).
  418: #    bridge     bridge to add the vif to (required).
  419: #
  420: # Example invocation:
  421: #
  422: # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
  423: #
  424: #============================================================================
  425: 
  426: # Exit if anything goes wrong
  427: set -e
  428: 
  429: echo "vif-bridge $*"
  430: 
  431: # Operation name.
  432: OP=$1; shift
  433: 
  434: # Pull variables in args into environment
  435: for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
  436: 
  437: # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
  438: domain=${domain:?}
  439: vif=${vif:?}
  440: mac=${mac:?}
  441: bridge=${bridge:?}
  442: 
  443: # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
  444: ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
  445: 
  446: # Are we going up or down?
  447: case $OP in
  448: up)     brcmd='add' ;;
  449: down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
  450: *)
  451:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
  452:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
  453:         exit 1
  454:         ;;
  455: esac
  456: 
  457: # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
  458: if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
  459:         exit
  460: fi
  461: 
  462: # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
  463: if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
  464:         exit
  465: fi
  466: 
  467: # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
  468: ifconfig x${vif} $OP
  469: brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
  470: ~~~
  471: 
  472: Now, running
  473: 
  474: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  475: xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
  476: ~~~
  477: 
  478: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note:
  479: `-c`{.code} causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.)
  480: The kernel will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e)
  481: which hasn't been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the
  482: new domain, so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to
  483: wd0e in *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or
  484: amd64 tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
  485: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU`{.filename} kernel provided in the NetBSD
  486: binary sets. Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with
  487: sysinst, so you can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
  488: 
  489: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
  490: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd`{.filename} file:
  491: 
  492: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  493: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  494: ~~~
  495: 
  496: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  497: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to **xbd1d**.
  498: 
  499: Once done installing, **halt -p** the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
  500: it would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  501: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
  502: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use **root on
  503: xbd0a** and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your
  504: xen installation.
  505: 
  506: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  507: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  508: `/etc/ttys`{.filename} and `/etc/wscons.conf`{.filename}. You must
  509: disable all terminals in `/etc/ttys`{.filename}, except *console*, like
  510: this:
  511: 
  512: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  513: console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  514: ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  515: ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  516: ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  517: ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  518: ~~~
  519: 
  520: Finally, all screens must be commented out from
  521: `/etc/wscons.conf`{.filename}.
  522: 
  523: It is also desirable to add
  524: 
  525: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  526: powerd=YES
  527: ~~~
  528: 
  529: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if **xm
  530: shutdown -R** or **xm shutdown -H** is used on the domain0.
  531: 
  532: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
  533: 
  534: * * * * *
  535: 
  536: ### Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)
  537: 
  538: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  539: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  540: 
  541: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  542: the example below)
  543: 
  544: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  545: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  546: ~~~
  547: 
  548: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  549: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
  550: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
  551: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
  552: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
  553: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  554: 
  555: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  556: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  557: root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  558: ~~~
  559: 
  560: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  561: partition.
  562: 
  563: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
  564: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
  565: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
  566: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
  567: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc`{.filename} (fstab,
  568: network config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages
  569: such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the
  570: appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once
  571: the filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the
  572: filesystem can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be
  573: possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the
  574: vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
  575: 
  576: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
  577: 
  578: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  579: extra = "xencons=tty1"
  580: ~~~
  581: 
  582: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
  583: tty to the xen console.
  584: 
  585: * * * * *
  586: 
  587: ### Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)
  588: 
  589: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
  590: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
  591: image to a
  592: [vnd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vnd+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
  593: device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem image to your dom0
  594: filesystem.
  595: 
  596: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  597: dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
  598: dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
  599: dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
  600: 
  601: ## for a 64-bit guest
  602: dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  603: dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
  604: 
  605: ## for a 32-bit guest
  606: dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  607: dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
  608: 
  609: dom0# umount /mnt
  610:       
  611: ~~~
  612: 
  613: Keep the
  614: [vnd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vnd+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
  615: configured. For some reason the boot process stalls unless the DVD image
  616: is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create an initial
  617: configuration file with the following contents. Substitute */dev/wd0k*
  618: with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
  619: 
  620: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  621: memory = 640
  622: name = 'solaris'
  623: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  624: disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
  625: vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  626: kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  627: ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  628: # for a 64-bit guest
  629: extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  630: # for a 32-bit guest
  631: #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  632:       
  633: ~~~
  634: 
  635: Start the guest.
  636: 
  637: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  638: dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  639: Started domain solaris
  640:                       v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  641: SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  642: Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  643: Use is subject to license terms.
  644: Hostname: opensolaris
  645: Remounting root read/write
  646: Probing for device nodes ...
  647: WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  648: Preparing live image for use
  649: Done mounting Live image
  650:       
  651: ~~~
  652: 
  653: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
  654: the xnf0 interface to appear.
  655: 
  656: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  657: opensolaris console login: jack
  658: Password: jack
  659: Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
  660: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
  661: sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
  662: sh-3.2# exit
  663:       
  664: ~~~
  665: 
  666: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
  667: display where the installation program runs.
  668: 
  669: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  670: jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
  671: Password: solaris
  672: Verify: solaris
  673: jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
  674: jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
  675:       
  676: ~~~
  677: 
  678: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use **ifconfig xnf0**
  679: on the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
  680: 
  681: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  682: remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
  683:       
  684: ~~~
  685: 
  686: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
  687: 
  688: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  689: jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
  690: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
  691:        
  692: ~~~
  693: 
  694: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
  695: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
  696: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
  697: console.
  698: 
  699: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  700: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
  701:                 bootfs = 43
  702: ^C
  703: jack@opensolaris:~$
  704:        
  705: ~~~
  706: 
  707: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
  708: the last line.
  709: 
  710: 
  711: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  712: memory = 640
  713: name = 'solaris'
  714: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  715: vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  716: kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  717: ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  718: extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
  719:        
  720: ~~~
  721: 
  722: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
  723: 
  724: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  725: dom0# xm destroy solaris
  726: dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  727: Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
  728: v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  729: Started domain solaris
  730: SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  731: Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  732: Use is subject to license terms.
  733: WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  734: Hostname: osol
  735: Configuring devices.
  736: Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
  737: svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
  738: Reading ZFS config: done.
  739: Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
  740: Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
  741: Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
  742: 
  743: osol console login:
  744:        
  745: ~~~
  746: 
  747: Using PCI devices in guest domains
  748: ----------------------------------
  749: 
  750: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
  751: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
  752: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
  753: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
  754: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
  755: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
  756: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
  757: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
  758: access the VGA registers will panic).
  759: 
  760: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
  761: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
  762: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
  763: 
  764: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
  765: `pciback`{.literal} driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via
  766: the pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback`{.literal}
  767: instead of the usual driver. The list of devices is specified as
  768: `(bus:dev.func)`{.literal}, where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal
  769: numbers, and func a single-digit number:
  770: 
  771: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  772: pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
  773: ~~~
  774: 
  775: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
  776: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci`{.filename} directory.
  777: 
  778: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci`{.literal}
  779: array of the domU's config file, with the format
  780: `'0000:bus:dev.func'`{.literal}
  781: 
  782: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  783: pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
  784: ~~~
  785: 
  786: In the domU an `xpci`{.literal} device will show up, to which one or
  787: more pci busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI
  788: busses as usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have
  789: `xpci`{.literal} or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to
  790: build your own kernel to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel
  791: config example:
  792: 
  793: ~~~ {.programlisting}
  794: include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
  795: #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
  796: 
  797: # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
  798: xpci* at xenbus ?
  799: pci* at xpci ?
  800: 
  801: # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
  802: # USB Controller and Devices
  803: 
  804: # PCI USB controllers
  805: uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
  806: 
  807: # USB bus support
  808: usb*    at uhci?
  809: 
  810: # USB Hubs
  811: uhub*   at usb?
  812: uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  813: 
  814: # USB Mass Storage
  815: umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  816: wd*     at umass?
  817: # SCSI controllers
  818: ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
  819: 
  820: # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
  821: scsibus* at scsi?
  822: 
  823: # SCSI devices
  824: sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
  825: cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
  826: ~~~
  827: 
  828: Links and further information
  829: -----------------------------
  830: 
  831: -   The HowTo on [Installing into
  832:     RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
  833:     gives some hints on using Xen (grub) with NetBSD's RAIDframe
  834: -   Harold Gutch wrote documentation on [setting up a Linux DomU with a
  835:     NetBSD Dom0](http://www.gutch.de/NetBSD/docs/xen.html)
  836: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
  837:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64
  838:     [boot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?boot+8+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
  839:     and
  840:     [boot.cfg(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?boot.cfg+5+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
  841:     manpages.
  842: 
  843: 

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