1: [[!meta title="Xen HowTo"]]
3: Xen is a Type 1 hypervisor which supports running multiple guest operating
4: systems on a single physical machine. One uses the Xen kernel to control the
5: CPU, memory and console, a dom0 operating system which mediates access to
6: other hardware (e.g., disks, network, USB), and one or more domU operating
7: systems which operate in an unprivileged virtualized environment. IO requests
8: from the domU systems are forwarded by the Xen hypervisor to the dom0 to be
11: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
12: architecture, with installing NetBSD on amd64 hardware, and with
13: installing software from pkgsrc. See also the [Xen
18: # Overview
20: The basic concept of Xen is that the hypervisor (xenkernel) runs on
21: the hardware, and runs a privileged domain ("dom0") that can access
22: disks/networking/etc. One then runs additonal unprivileged domains
23: (each a "domU"), presumably to do something useful.
25: This HOWTO addresses how to run a NetBSD dom0 (and hence also build
26: xen itself). It also addresses how to run domUs in that environment,
27: and how to deal with having a domU in a Xen environment run by someone
28: else and/or not running NetBSD.
30: ## Guest Styles
32: Xen supports different styles of guests.
34: [[!table data="""
35: Style of guest |Supported by NetBSD
36: PV |Yes (dom0, domU)
37: HVM |Yes (domU)
38: PVHVM |current-only (domU)
39: PVH |current-only (domU, dom0 not yet)
42: In Para-Virtualized (PV) mode, the guest OS does not attempt to access
43: hardware directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor; PV
44: guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
45: See [PV](https://wiki.xen.org/wiki/Paravirtualization_(PV\)).
47: In HVM mode, no guest modification is required; however, hardware
48: support is required, such as VT-x on Intel CPUs and SVM on AMD CPUs.
49: The dom0 runs qemu to emulate hardware.
51: In PVHVM mode, the guest runs as HVM, but additionally can use PV
52: drivers for efficiency.
53: See [PV on HVM](https://wiki.xen.org/wiki/PV_on_HVM).
55: There have been two PVH modes: original PVH and PVHv2. Original PVH
56: was based on PV mode and is no longer relevant at all. PVHv2 is
57: basically lightweight HVM with PV drivers. A critical feature of it
58: is that qemu is not needed; the hypervisor can do the emulation that
59: is required. Thus, a dom0 can be PVHv2.
60: The source code uses PVH and config files use pvh; this refers to PVHv2.
61: See [PVH(v2)](https://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/PVH_(v2\)_Domu).
63: At system boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
64: The dom0 can start one or more domUs. (Booting is explained in detail
65: in the dom0 section.)
67: ## CPU Architecture
69: Xen runs on x86_64 hardware (the NetBSD amd64 port).
71: There is a concept of Xen running on ARM, but there are no reports of this working with NetBSD.
73: The dom0 system should be amd64. (Instructions for i386PAE dom0 have been removed from the HOWTO.)
75: The domU can be i386PAE or amd64.
76: i386PAE at one point was considered as [faster](https://lists.xen.org/archives/html/xen-devel/2012-07/msg00085.html) than amd64.
78: ## Xen Versions
80: In NetBSD, Xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
81: xenkernel and xentools. We will refer only to the kernel versions,
82: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
83: matching versions.
85: Versions available in pkgsrc:
87: [[!table data="""
88: Xen Version |Package Name |Xen CPU Support |EOL'ed By Upstream
89: 4.11 |xenkernel411 |x86_64 |No
90: 4.13 |xenkernel413 |x86_64 |No
93: See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).
95: Older Xen had a python-based management tool called xm, now replaced
96: by xl.
98: ## NetBSD versions
100: Xen has been supported in NetBSD for a long time, at least since 2005.
101: Initially Xen was PV only.
103: NetBSD 8 and up support PV and HVM modes.
105: Support for PVHVM and PVH is available only in NetBSD-current.
107: NetBSD as a dom0 does not run SMP, because some drivers are not yet
108: safe for this. \todo Link to more information about what needs work.
110: NetBSD, when run as a domU, can and does typically run SMP.
112: Note: NetBSD support is called XEN3. However, it does support Xen 4,
113: because the hypercall interface has remained identical.
115: # Creating a dom0
117: In order to install a NetBSD as a dom0, one must first install a normal
118: NetBSD system, and then pivot the install to a dom0 install by changing
119: the kernel and boot configuration.
121: In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was reported with 256M of RAM: with
122: 512M it worked reliably. This does not make sense, but if you see
123: "not ELF" after Xen boots, try increasing dom0 RAM.
125: ## Installation of NetBSD
127: [Install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
128: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
130: ## Installation of Xen
132: We will consider that you chose to use Xen 4.13, with NetBSD/amd64 as
133: dom0. In the dom0, install xenkernel48 and xentools48 from pkgsrc.
135: Once this is done, install the Xen kernel itself:
137: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
138: # cp /usr/pkg/xen48-kernel/xen.gz /
141: Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel in the `/` directory. Such kernel
142: can either be compiled manually, or downloaded from the NetBSD FTP, for
143: example at:
145: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
149: Add a line to /boot.cfg to boot Xen:
151: [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
152: menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
155: This specifies that the dom0 should have 512MB of ram, leaving the rest
156: to be allocated for domUs. To use a serial console, use:
158: [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
159: menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
162: which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
163: from 1, unlike NetBSD which counts starting from 0), forcing
164: speed/parity. Because the NetBSD command line lacks a
165: "console=pc" argument, it will use the default "xencons" console device,
166: which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen
167: itself uses (in this case, the serial port).
169: In an attempt to add performance, one can also add `dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin`,
170: to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
171: more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU. Xen has
172: [many boot options](http://xenbits.xenproject.org/docs/4.13-testing/misc/xen-command-line.html),
173: and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
176: Copy the boot scripts into `/etc/rc.d`:
178: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
179: # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xen* /etc/rc.d/
182: Enable `xencommons`:
184: [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
188: Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
189: than GENERIC without Xen.
191: TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
193: Once the reboot is done, use `xl` to inspect Xen's boot messages,
194: available resources, and running domains. For example:
196: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
197: # xl dmesg
198: ... xen's boot info ...
199: # xl info
200: ... available memory, etc ...
201: # xl list
202: Name Id Mem(MB) CPU State Time(s) Console
203: Domain-0 0 64 0 r---- 58.1
206: Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.
208: ### Issues with xencommons
210: `xencommons` starts `xenstored`, which stores data on behalf of dom0 and
211: domUs. It does not currently work to stop and start xenstored.
212: Certainly all domUs should be shutdown first, following the sort order
213: of the rc.d scripts. However, the dom0 sets up state with xenstored,
214: and is not notified when xenstored exits, leading to not recreating
215: the state when the new xenstored starts. Until there's a mechanism to
216: make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
217: (and thus xencommons). There is currently no reason to expect that
218: this will get fixed any time soon.
220: ## anita (for testing NetBSD)
222: With the setup so far, one should be able to run
223: anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
224: root, because anita must create a domU):
226: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
227: anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
230: ## Xen-specific NetBSD issues
232: There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
233: dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
235: One is that the module ABI is different because some of the #defines
236: change, so one must build modules for Xen. As of netbsd-7, the build
237: system does this automatically.
239: The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
240: options as GENERIC. While it is debatable whether or not this is a
241: bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
242: items if desired.
244: ## Updating NetBSD in a dom0
246: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
247: version supports the version of Xen you are running. Generally, one
248: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
249: and adjusts `/etc`.
251: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
252: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
254: ## Converting from grub to /boot
256: These instructions were used to convert a system from
257: grub to /boot. The system was originally installed in February of
258: 2006 with a RAID1 setup and grub to boot Xen 2, and has been updated
259: over time. Before these commands, it was running NetBSD 6 i386, Xen
260: 4.1 and grub, much like the message linked earlier in the grub
263: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
264: # Install MBR bootblocks on both disks.
265: fdisk -i /dev/rwd0d
266: fdisk -i /dev/rwd1d
267: # Install NetBSD primary boot loader (/ is FFSv1) into RAID1 components.
268: installboot -v /dev/rwd0d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
269: installboot -v /dev/rwd1d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
270: # Install secondary boot loader
271: cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /
272: # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:
273: menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
274: menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=512M
276: menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s
277: menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok
278: menu=GENERIC.ok single-user:boot netbsd.ok -s
279: menu=Drop to boot prompt:prompt
284: ## Upgrading Xen versions
286: Minor version upgrades are trivial. Just rebuild/replace the
287: xenkernel version and copy the new xen.gz to `/` (where `/boot.cfg`
288: references it), and reboot.
290: #Unprivileged domains (domU)
292: This section describes general concepts about domUs. It does not
293: address specific domU operating systems or how to install them. The
294: config files for domUs are typically in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`, and are
295: typically named so that the file name, domU name and the domU's host
296: name match.
298: The domU is provided with CPU and memory by Xen, configured by the
299: dom0. The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
300: mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
302: Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
303: the dom0. NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
305: ## Config files
307: See /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xlexample*
308: for a small number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
311: The following is an example minimal domain configuration file. The domU
312: serves as a network file server.
314: [[!template id=filecontent name="/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo" text="""
315: name = "domU-id"
316: kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
317: memory = 1024
318: vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
319: disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
320: 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
323: The domain will have name given in the `name` setting. The kernel has the
324: host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
325: domUs independently. The `vif` line causes an interface to be provided,
326: with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
327: mode. Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
328: are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
329: dom0 on domain creation. The system treats xbd0 as the boot device
330: without needing explicit configuration.
332: By convention, domain config files are kept in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`. Note
333: that "xl create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
334: take the name of a domain.
336: Examples of commands:
338: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
339: xl create /usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo
340: xl console domU-id
341: xl create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo
342: xl shutdown domU-id
343: xl list
346: Typing `^]` will exit the console session. Shutting down a domain is
347: equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
348: power-press event and do a clean shutdown. Shutting down the dom0
349: will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
351: ## CPU and memory
353: A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, up to the number
354: of CPUs seen by the hypervisor. For a domU, it is controlled
355: from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
357: A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
358: file by "memory = N" (in megabytes). In the straightforward case, the
359: sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
360: than the available memory.
362: Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
363: use more memory temporarily.
365: ## Virtual disks
367: In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples:
369: * The first element is "method:/path/to/disk". Common methods are
370: "file:" for a file-backed vnd, and "phy:" for something that is already
371: a device, such as an LVM logical volume.
373: * The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
374: Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage. Linux domUs
375: are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
376: "hda1" or "sda1" are common. In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
377: as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on. However, xl demands a
378: second argument. The name given is converted to a major/minor by
379: calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
380: In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
381: systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
382: numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev. With NetBSD
383: as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
384: for the second works fine and avoids this issue. For a GNU/Linux
385: guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
388: * The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
392: [[!template id=filecontent name="/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo" text="""
393: disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w' ]
396: Note that NetBSD by default creates only vnd. If you need more
397: than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the
400: Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd. If you need more
401: virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.
403: Virtual Networking
406: Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
407: domU. For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
408: the dom0, and a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD name) in domU index N.
409: The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
410: adapters connected. From this primitive, one can construct various
411: configurations. We focus on two common and useful cases for which
412: there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
414: With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
415: on the same network as the dom0. For server virtualization, this is
416: usually best. Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
417: and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
418: interfaces to the bridge. One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
419: config file. The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
420: example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
422: [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/ifconfig.bridge0" text="""
425: !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
428: With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
429: dom0. This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
430: TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
432: The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
433: domain. The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
434: 00:00:00:01:00:00. Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
436: Starting domains automatically
439: To start domains `domU-netbsd` and `domU-linux` at boot and shut them
440: down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the following in rc.conf:
442: [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
443: xendomains="domU-netbsd domU-linux"
446: # Creating a domU
448: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system. We
449: have already presented the basics of config files. Note that you must
450: have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" works.
452: Creating a NetBSD PV domU
455: See the earlier config file, and adjust memory. Decide on how much
456: storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or LVM).
458: While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 file system, the same
459: file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
460: savecore(8) can work. (This is helpful but not necessary.)
462: The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU. The
463: i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
465: i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
466: amd64 XEN3_DOMU
468: This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
469: empty. One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
470: (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
471: system you can't run the installer on).
473: A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
474: and can load sets from the network. To do this, copy the INSTALL
475: kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
477: kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
479: Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configfile".
481: Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
482: line should be used in the config file.
484: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
486: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
487: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
489: Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
490: it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
491: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
492: and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
493: xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
495: TODO: check if this is still accurate.
496: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
497: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
498: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
499: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
501: console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt100 on secure
502: ttyE0 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
503: ttyE1 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
504: ttyE2 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
505: ttyE3 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" vt220 off secure
507: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
509: It is also desirable to add
513: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
514: `xl shutdown -R` or `xl shutdown -H` is used on the dom0.
515: \todo Check the translation to xl.
517: It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU
518: file system. However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that
519: kernel to look up symbols to read from kernel virtual memory. If
520: /netbsd is not the running kernel, those lookups will fail. (This is
521: not really a Xen-specific issue, but because the domU kernel is
522: obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
523: missing with Xen.)
525: Creating a Linux domU
528: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
529: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
531: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
532: the example below)
534: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
536: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
537: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
538: So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
539: device number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
540: hdb, ...) as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
541: numbers. To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
543: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
544: root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
546: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
549: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
550: guest domain, the following method can be used: install
551: sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition
552: that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
553: Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
554: `/etc` (fstab, network config). It should also be possible to extract
555: binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
556: using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
557: emulation. Once the file system has been populated, umount it. If
558: desirable, the file system can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
559: It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
560: the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
562: To get the Linux console right, you need to add:
564: extra = "xencons=tty1"
566: to your configuration since not all Linux distributions auto-attach a
567: tty to the xen console.
569: ## Creating a NetBSD HVM domU
571: Use type='hmv', probably. Use a GENERIC kernel within the disk image.
573: ## Creating a NetBSD PVH domU
575: Use type='pvh'.
577: \todo Explain where the kernel comes from.
580: Creating a Solaris domU
583: See possibly outdated
584: [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
587: PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
590: NB: PCI passthrough only works on some Xen versions and as of 2020 it
591: is not clear that it works on any version in pkgsrc. Reports
592: confirming or denying this notion should be sent to port-xen@.
594: The dom0 can give other domains access to selected PCI
595: devices. This can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have
596: access to a physical network interface or disk controller. However,
597: keep in mind that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely
598: will give the domain read/write access to the whole physical memory,
599: as PCs don't have an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable
600: device. Also, it's not possible to export ISA devices to non-dom0
601: domains, which means that the primary VGA adapter can't be exported.
602: A guest domain trying to access the VGA registers will panic.
604: If the dom0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as support has
605: not been ported to later versions at this time.
607: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to
608: the "pciback" driver in dom0. Devices passed to the dom0 via the
609: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to "pciback" instead of the
610: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as "(bus:dev.func)",
611: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
612: single-digit number:
616: pciback devices should show up in the dom0's boot messages, and the
617: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
619: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the "pci" array of
620: the domU's config file, with the format "0000:bus:dev.func".
622: pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
624: In the domU an "xpci" device will show up, to which one or more pci
625: buses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI buses as
626: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have "xpci"
627: or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own
628: kernel to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example;
629: note that only the "xpci" lines are unusual.
631: include "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
633: # Add support for PCI buses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
634: xpci* at xenbus ?
635: pci* at xpci ?
637: # PCI USB controllers
638: uhci* at pci? dev ? function ? # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
640: # USB bus support
641: usb* at uhci?
643: # USB Hubs
644: uhub* at usb?
645: uhub* at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
647: # USB Mass Storage
648: umass* at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
649: wd* at umass?
650: # SCSI controllers
651: ahc* at pci? dev ? function ? # Adaptec 94x, aic78x0 SCSI
653: # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
654: scsibus* at scsi?
656: # SCSI devices
657: sd* at scsibus? target ? lun ? # SCSI disk drives
658: cd* at scsibus? target ? lun ? # SCSI CD-ROM drives
661: # Specific Issues
663: ## domU
665: [NetBSD 5 is known to panic.](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/port-xen/2018/04/17/msg009181.html)
666: (However, NetBSD 5 systems should be updated to a supported version.)
668: # NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
670: The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
671: hardware. This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
672: virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
673: dom0. This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of VPS providers;
674: only a few are mentioned that specifically support NetBSD.
676: VPS operators provide varying degrees of access and mechanisms for
677: configuration. The big issue is usually how one controls which kernel
678: is booted, because the kernel is nominally in the dom0 file system (to
679: which VPS users do not normally have access). A second issue is how
680: to install NetBSD.
681: A VPS user may want to compile a kernel for security updates, to run
682: npf, run IPsec, or any other reason why someone would want to change
683: their kernel.
685: One approach is to have an administrative interface to upload a kernel,
686: or to select from a prepopulated list. Other approaches are pygrub
687: (deprecated) and pvgrub, which are ways to have a bootloader obtain a
688: kernel from the domU file system. This is closer to a regular physical
689: computer, where someone who controls a machine can replace the kernel.
691: A second issue is multiple CPUs. With NetBSD 6, domUs support
692: multiple vcpus, and it is typical for VPS providers to enable multiple
693: CPUs for NetBSD domUs.
695: ## Complexities due to Xen changes
697: Xen has many security advisories and people running Xen systems make
698: different choices.
700: ### stub domains
702: Some (Linux only?) dom0 systems use something called "stub domains" to
703: isolate qemu from the dom0 system, as a security and reliabilty
704: mechanism when running HVM domUs. Somehow, NetBSD's GENERIC kernel
705: ends up using PIO for disks rather than DMA. Of course, all of this
706: is emulated, but emulated PIO is unusably slow. This problem is not
707: currently understood.
709: ### Grant tables
711: There are multiple versions of using grant tables, and some security
712: advisories have suggested disabling some versions. Some versions of
713: NetBSD apparently only use specific versions and this can lead to
714: "NetBSD current doesn't run on hosting provider X" situations.
716: \todo Explain better.
718: ## Boot methods
720: ### pvgrub
722: pvgrub is a version of grub that uses PV operations instead of BIOS
723: calls. It is booted from the dom0 as the domU kernel, and then reads
724: /grub/menu.lst and loads a kernel from the domU file system.
726: [Panix](http://www.panix.com/) lets users use pvgrub. Panix reports
727: that pvgrub works with FFsv2 with 16K/2K and 32K/4K block/frag sizes
728: (and hence with defaults from "newfs -O 2"). See [Panix's pvgrub
729: page](http://www.panix.com/v-colo/grub.html), which describes only
730: Linux but should be updated to cover NetBSD :-).
732: [prgmr.com](http://prgmr.com/) also lets users with pvgrub to boot
733: their own kernel. See then [prgmr.com NetBSD
735: (which is in need of updating).
737: It appears that [grub's FFS
739: does not support all aspects of modern FFS, but there are also reports
740: that FFSv2 works fine. At prgmr, typically one has an ext2 or FAT
741: partition for the kernel with the intent that grub can understand it,
742: which leads to /netbsd not being the actual kernel. One must remember
743: to update the special boot partition.
745: ### pygrub
747: pygrub runs in the dom0 and looks into the domU file system. This
748: implies that the domU must have a kernel in a file system in a format
749: known to pygrub.
751: pygrub doesn't seem to work to load Linux images under NetBSD dom0,
752: and is inherently less secure than pvgrub due to running inside dom0. For both these
753: reasons, pygrub should not be used, and is only still present so that
754: historical DomU images using it still work.
756: As of 2014, pygrub seems to be of mostly historical
757: interest. New DomUs should use pvgrub.
759: ## Specific Providers
761: ### Amazon
763: See the [Amazon EC2 page](/amazon_ec2/).
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