File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
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Sun Nov 15 14:31:58 2020 UTC (5 months, 4 weeks ago) by gdt
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Rewrite PVH.  Add sections

    1: [[!meta title="Xen HowTo"]]
    3: Xen is a Type 1 hypervisor which supports running multiple guest operating
    4: systems on a single physical machine. One uses the Xen kernel to control the
    5: CPU, memory and console, a dom0 operating system which mediates access to
    6: other hardware (e.g., disks, network, USB), and one or more domU operating
    7: systems which operate in an unprivileged virtualized environment. IO requests
    8: from the domU systems are forwarded by the Xen hypervisor to the dom0 to be
    9: fulfilled.
   11: Xen supports different styles of guests; see [PV on HVM]( and [PVH(v2)](\)_Domu) for upstream documentation.
   13: [[!table data="""
   14: Style of guest	|Supported by NetBSD
   15: PV		|Yes (dom0, domU)
   16: HVM		|Yes (domU)
   17: PVHVM		|current-only (domU)
   18: PVH		|current-only (domU, dom0 not yet)
   19: """]]
   21: In Para-Virtualized (PV) mode, the guest OS does not attempt to access
   22: hardware directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor; PV
   23: guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   25: In HVM mode, no guest modification is required; however, hardware
   26: support is required, such as VT-x on Intel CPUs and SVM on AMD CPUs.
   27: The dom0 runs qemu to emulate hardware.
   29: In PVHVM mode, the guest runs as HVM, but additionally can use PV
   30: drivers for efficiency.
   32: There have been two PVH modes: original PVH and PVHv2.  Original PVH
   33: was based on PV mode and is no longer relevant at all.  PVHv2 is
   34: basically lightweight HVM with PV drivers.  A critical feature of it
   35: is that qemu is not needed; the hypervisor can do the emulation that
   36: is required.  Thus, a dom0 can be PVHv2.
   38: The source code uses PVH and config files use pvh; this refers to PVHv2.
   40: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
   41: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   42: in the dom0 section.)
   44: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   45: architecture, with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64 hardware, and with
   46: installing software from pkgsrc.  See also the [Xen
   47: website](
   49: [[!toc]]
   51: # Versions and Support
   53: In NetBSD, Xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
   54: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   55: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
   56: matching versions.
   58: Versions available in pkgsrc:
   60: [[!table data="""
   61: Xen Version	|Package Name	|Xen CPU Support	|xm?	|EOL'ed By Upstream
   62: 4.11		|xenkernel411	|x86_64			|	|No
   63: 4.13		|xenkernel413	|x86_64			|	|No
   64: """]]
   66: See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](
   68: Multiprocessor (SMP) support in NetBSD differs depending on the domain:
   70: [[!table data="""
   71: Domain		|Supports SMP
   72: dom0		|No
   73: domU		|Yes
   74: """]]
   76: Note: NetBSD support is called XEN3.  However, it does support Xen 4,
   77: because the hypercall interface has remained identical.
   79: Older Xen had a python-based management tool called xm, now replaced
   80: by xl.
   82: Architecture
   83: ------------
   85: Xen 4.5 and later runs on x86_64 hardware (the NetBSD amd64 port).
   86: There is a concept of Xen running on ARM, but there are no reports of this working with NetBSD.
   88: The dom0 system should be amd64.  (Instructions for i386PAE dom0 have been removed from the HOWTO.)
   90: The domU can be i386PAE or amd64.
   91: i386PAE at one point was considered as [faster]( than amd64.
   93: # Creating a dom0
   95: In order to install a NetBSD as a dom0, one must first install a normal
   96: NetBSD system, and then pivot the install to a dom0 install by changing
   97: the kernel and boot configuration.
   99: In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was reported with 256M of RAM: with
  100: 512M it worked reliably.  This does not make sense, but if you see
  101: "not ELF" after Xen boots, try increasing dom0 RAM.
  103: Installation of NetBSD
  104: ----------------------
  106: [Install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
  107: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
  109: Installation of Xen
  110: -------------------
  112: We will consider that you chose to use Xen 4.13, with NetBSD/amd64 as
  113: dom0. In the dom0, install xenkernel48 and xentools48 from pkgsrc.
  115: Once this is done, install the Xen kernel itself:
  117: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  118: # cp /usr/pkg/xen48-kernel/xen.gz /
  119: """]]
  121: Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel in the `/` directory. Such kernel
  122: can either be compiled manually, or downloaded from the NetBSD FTP, for
  123: example at:
  125: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  127: """]]
  129: Add a line to /boot.cfg to boot Xen:
  131: [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
  132: menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
  133: """]]
  135: This specifies that the dom0 should have 512MB of ram, leaving the rest
  136: to be allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use:
  138: [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
  139: menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
  140: """]]
  142: which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
  143: from 1, unlike NetBSD which counts starting from 0), forcing
  144: speed/parity.  Because the NetBSD command line lacks a
  145: "console=pc" argument, it will use the default "xencons" console device,
  146: which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen
  147: itself uses (in this case, the serial port).
  149: In an attempt to add performance, one can also add `dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin`,
  150: to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
  151: more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU. Xen has
  152: [many boot options](,
  153: and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
  154: necessary.
  156: Copy the boot scripts into `/etc/rc.d`:
  158: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  159: # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xen* /etc/rc.d/
  160: """]]
  162: Enable `xencommons`:
  164: [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
  165: xencommons=YES
  166: """]]
  168: Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
  169: than GENERIC without Xen.
  171: TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
  173: Once the reboot is done, use `xl` to inspect Xen's boot messages,
  174: available resources, and running domains.  For example:
  176: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  177: # xl dmesg
  178: ... xen's boot info ...
  179: # xl info
  180: ... available memory, etc ...
  181: # xl list
  182: Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  183: Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  184: """]]
  186: Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.
  188: ### Issues with xencommons
  190: `xencommons` starts `xenstored`, which stores data on behalf of dom0 and
  191: domUs.  It does not currently work to stop and start xenstored.
  192: Certainly all domUs should be shutdown first, following the sort order
  193: of the rc.d scripts.  However, the dom0 sets up state with xenstored,
  194: and is not notified when xenstored exits, leading to not recreating
  195: the state when the new xenstored starts.  Until there's a mechanism to
  196: make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
  197: (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that
  198: this will get fixed any time soon.
  200: anita (for testing NetBSD)
  201: --------------------------
  203: With the setup so far, one should be able to run
  204: anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
  205: root, because anita must create a domU):
  207: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  208: anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
  209: """]]
  211: Xen-specific NetBSD issues
  212: --------------------------
  214: There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
  215: dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
  217: One is that the module ABI is different because some of the #defines
  218: change, so one must build modules for Xen.  As of netbsd-7, the build
  219: system does this automatically.
  221: The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
  222: options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a
  223: bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
  224: items if desired.
  226: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
  227: -------------------------
  229: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
  230: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
  231: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
  232: and adjusts `/etc`.
  234: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
  235: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
  237: Converting from grub to /boot
  238: -----------------------------
  240: These instructions were used to convert a system from
  241: grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of
  242: 2006 with a RAID1 setup and grub to boot Xen 2, and has been updated
  243: over time.  Before these commands, it was running NetBSD 6 i386, Xen
  244: 4.1 and grub, much like the message linked earlier in the grub
  245: section.
  247: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  248: # Install MBR bootblocks on both disks.
  249: fdisk -i /dev/rwd0d
  250: fdisk -i /dev/rwd1d
  251: # Install NetBSD primary boot loader (/ is FFSv1) into RAID1 components.
  252: installboot -v /dev/rwd0d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  253: installboot -v /dev/rwd1d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  254: # Install secondary boot loader
  255: cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /
  256: # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:
  257: menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
  258: menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=512M
  259: menu=GENERIC:boot
  260: menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s
  261: menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok
  262: menu=GENERIC.ok single-user:boot netbsd.ok -s
  263: menu=Drop to boot prompt:prompt
  264: default=1
  265: timeout=30
  266: """]]
  268: Upgrading Xen versions
  269: ---------------------
  271: Minor version upgrades are trivial.  Just rebuild/replace the
  272: xenkernel version and copy the new xen.gz to `/` (where `/boot.cfg`
  273: references it), and reboot.
  275: #Unprivileged domains (domU)
  277: This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
  278: address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
  279: config files for domUs are typically in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`, and are
  280: typically named so that the file name, domU name and the domU's host
  281: name match.
  283: The domU is provided with CPU and memory by Xen, configured by the
  284: dom0.  The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
  285: mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
  287: Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
  288: the dom0.  NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
  290: Config files
  291: ------------
  293: See /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xlexample*
  294: for a small number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
  295: GNU/Linux.
  297: The following is an example minimal domain configuration file. The domU
  298: serves as a network file server.
  300: [[!template id=filecontent name="/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo" text="""
  301: name = "domU-id"
  302: kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
  303: memory = 1024
  304: vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
  305: disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
  306:          'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
  307: """]]
  309: The domain will have name given in the `name` setting.  The kernel has the
  310: host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
  311: domUs independently.  The `vif` line causes an interface to be provided,
  312: with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
  313: mode.  Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
  314: are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
  315: dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device
  316: without needing explicit configuration.
  318: By convention, domain config files are kept in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`.  Note
  319: that "xl create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
  320: take the name of a domain.
  322: Examples of commands:
  324: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  325: xl create /usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo
  326: xl console domU-id
  327: xl create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo
  328: xl shutdown domU-id
  329: xl list
  330: """]]
  332: Typing `^]` will exit the console session.  Shutting down a domain is
  333: equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
  334: power-press event and do a clean shutdown.  Shutting down the dom0
  335: will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
  337: CPU and memory
  338: --------------
  340: A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, up to the number
  341: of CPUs seen by the hypervisor. For a domU, it is controlled
  342: from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
  344: A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
  345: file by "memory = N" (in megabytes).  In the straightforward case, the
  346: sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
  347: than the available memory.
  349: Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
  350: use more memory temporarily.
  352: Virtual disks
  353: -------------
  355: In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples:
  357:  * The first element is "method:/path/to/disk". Common methods are
  358:    "file:" for a file-backed vnd, and "phy:" for something that is already
  359:    a device, such as an LVM logical volume.
  361:  * The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
  362:    Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage.  Linux domUs
  363:    are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
  364:    "hda1" or "sda1" are common.  In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
  365:    as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on.  However, xl demands a
  366:    second argument.  The name given is converted to a major/minor by
  367:    calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
  368:    In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
  369:    systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
  370:    numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev.  With NetBSD
  371:    as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
  372:    for the second works fine and avoids this issue.  For a GNU/Linux
  373:    guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
  374:    /dev/hda1.
  376:  * The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
  377:    disks.
  379: Example:
  380: [[!template id=filecontent name="/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo" text="""
  381: disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w' ]
  382: """]]
  384: Note that NetBSD by default creates only vnd[0123].  If you need more
  385: than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the
  386: dom0.
  388: Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd[0123].  If you need more
  389: virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.
  391: Virtual Networking
  392: ------------------
  394: Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
  395: domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
  396: the dom0, and a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD name) in domU index N.
  397: The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
  398: adapters connected.  From this primitive, one can construct various
  399: configurations.  We focus on two common and useful cases for which
  400: there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
  402: With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
  403: on the same network as the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is
  404: usually best.  Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
  405: and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
  406: interfaces to the bridge.  One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
  407: config file.  The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
  408: example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
  410: [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/ifconfig.bridge0" text="""
  411: create
  412: up
  413: !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
  414: """]]
  416: With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
  417: dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
  418: TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
  420: The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
  421: domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
  422: 00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
  424: Starting domains automatically
  425: ------------------------------
  427: To start domains `domU-netbsd` and `domU-linux` at boot and shut them
  428: down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the following in rc.conf:
  430: [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
  431: xendomains="domU-netbsd domU-linux"
  432: """]]
  434: # Creating a domU
  436: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
  437: have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must
  438: have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" works.
  440: Creating a NetBSD PV domU
  441: --------------------------
  443: See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
  444: storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or LVM).
  446: While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 file system, the same
  447: file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
  448: savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
  450: The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The
  451: i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
  453:         i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
  454:         amd64 XEN3_DOMU
  456: This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
  457: empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
  458: (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
  459: system you can't run the installer on).
  461: A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
  462: and can load sets from the network.  To do this, copy the INSTALL
  463: kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
  465:         kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  467: Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configfile".
  469: Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
  470: line should be used in the config file.
  472:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  474: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  475: selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
  477: Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
  478: it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  479: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
  480: and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
  481: xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
  483: TODO: check if this is still accurate.
  484: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  485: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  486: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
  487: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
  489:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  490:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  491:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  492:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  493:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  495: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
  497: It is also desirable to add
  499:         powerd=YES
  501: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
  502: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the dom0.
  504: It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU
  505: file system.  However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that
  506: kernel to look up symbols to read from kernel virtual memory.  If
  507: /netbsd is not the running kernel, those lookups will fail.  (This is
  508: not really a Xen-specific issue, but because the domU kernel is
  509: obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
  510: missing with Xen.)
  512: Creating a Linux domU
  513: ---------------------
  515: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  516: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  518: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  519: the example below)
  521:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  523: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  524: for hda).  Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
  525: So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
  526: device number 0x301.  Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
  527: hdb, ...)  as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
  528: numbers.  To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  530:         disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  531:         root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  533: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  534: partition.
  536: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
  537: guest domain, the following method can be used: install
  538: sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc.  Use mke2fs to format the partition
  539: that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
  540: Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
  541: `/etc` (fstab, network config).  It should also be possible to extract
  542: binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
  543: using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
  544: emulation.  Once the file system has been populated, umount it.  If
  545: desirable, the file system can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
  546: It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
  547: the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
  549: To get the Linux console right, you need to add:
  551:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
  553: to your configuration since not all Linux distributions auto-attach a
  554: tty to the xen console.
  556: ## Creating a NetBSD HVM domU
  558: Use type='hmv', probably.  Use a GENERIC kernel within the disk image.
  560: ## Creating a NetBSD PVH domU
  562: Use type='pvh'.
  564: \todo Explain where the kernel comes from.
  567: Creating a Solaris domU
  568: -----------------------
  570: See possibly outdated
  571: [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
  574: PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
  575: ---------------------------------------------------
  577: NB: PCI passthrough only works on some Xen versions and as of 2020 it
  578: is not clear that it works on any version in pkgsrc.  Reports
  579: confirming or denying this notion should be sent to port-xen@.
  581: The dom0 can give other domains access to selected PCI
  582: devices. This can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have
  583: access to a physical network interface or disk controller.  However,
  584: keep in mind that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely
  585: will give the domain read/write access to the whole physical memory,
  586: as PCs don't have an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable
  587: device.  Also, it's not possible to export ISA devices to non-dom0
  588: domains, which means that the primary VGA adapter can't be exported.
  589: A guest domain trying to access the VGA registers will panic.
  591: If the dom0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as support has
  592: not been ported to later versions at this time.
  594: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to
  595: the "pciback" driver in dom0.  Devices passed to the dom0 via the
  596: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to "pciback" instead of the
  597: usual driver.  The list of devices is specified as "(bus:dev.func)",
  598: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
  599: single-digit number:
  601:         pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
  603: pciback devices should show up in the dom0's boot messages, and the
  604: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
  606: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the "pci" array of
  607: the domU's config file, with the format "0000:bus:dev.func".
  609:         pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
  611: In the domU an "xpci" device will show up, to which one or more pci
  612: buses will attach.  Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI buses as
  613: usual.  Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have "xpci"
  614: or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own
  615: kernel to use PCI devices in a domU.  Here's a kernel config example;
  616: note that only the "xpci" lines are unusual.
  618:         include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
  620:         # Add support for PCI buses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
  621:         xpci* at xenbus ?
  622:         pci* at xpci ?
  624:         # PCI USB controllers
  625:         uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
  627:         # USB bus support
  628:         usb*    at uhci?
  630:         # USB Hubs
  631:         uhub*   at usb?
  632:         uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  634:         # USB Mass Storage
  635:         umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  636:         wd*     at umass?
  637:         # SCSI controllers
  638:         ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
  640:         # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
  641:         scsibus* at scsi?
  643:         # SCSI devices
  644:         sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
  645:         cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
  648: # Specific Issues
  650: ## domU
  652: [NetBSD 5 is known to panic.](
  653: (However, NetBSD 5 systems should be updated to a supported version.)
  655: # NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
  657: The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
  658: hardware.  This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
  659: virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
  660: dom0.  This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of VPS providers;
  661: only a few are mentioned that specifically support NetBSD.
  663: VPS operators provide varying degrees of access and mechanisms for
  664: configuration.  The big issue is usually how one controls which kernel
  665: is booted, because the kernel is nominally in the dom0 file system (to
  666: which VPS users do not normally have access).  A second issue is how
  667: to install NetBSD.
  668: A VPS user may want to compile a kernel for security updates, to run
  669: npf, run IPsec, or any other reason why someone would want to change
  670: their kernel.
  672: One approach is to have an administrative interface to upload a kernel,
  673: or to select from a prepopulated list.  Other approaches are pygrub
  674: (deprecated) and pvgrub, which are ways to have a bootloader obtain a
  675: kernel from the domU file system.  This is closer to a regular physical
  676: computer, where someone who controls a machine can replace the kernel.
  678: A second issue is multiple CPUs.  With NetBSD 6, domUs support
  679: multiple vcpus, and it is typical for VPS providers to enable multiple
  680: CPUs for NetBSD domUs.
  682: ## Complexities due to Xen changes
  684: Xen has many security advisories and people running Xen systems make
  685: different choices.
  687: ### stub domains
  689: Some (Linux only?) dom0 systems use something called "stub domains" to
  690: isolate qemu from the dom0 system, as a security and reliabilty
  691: mechanism when running HVM domUs.  Somehow, NetBSD's GENERIC kernel
  692: ends up using PIO for disks rather than DMA.  Of course, all of this
  693: is emulated, but emulated PIO is unusably slow.  This problem is not
  694: currently understood.
  696: ### Grant tables
  698: There are multiple versions of using grant tables, and some security
  699: advisories have suggested disabling some versions.  Some versions of
  700: NetBSD apparently only use specific versions and this can lead to
  701: "NetBSD current doesn't run on hosting provider X" situations.
  703: \todo Explain better.
  705: pvgrub
  706: ------
  708: pvgrub is a version of grub that uses PV operations instead of BIOS
  709: calls.  It is booted from the dom0 as the domU kernel, and then reads
  710: /grub/menu.lst and loads a kernel from the domU file system.
  712: [Panix]( lets users use pvgrub.  Panix reports
  713: that pvgrub works with FFsv2 with 16K/2K and 32K/4K block/frag sizes
  714: (and hence with defaults from "newfs -O 2").  See [Panix's pvgrub
  715: page](, which describes only
  716: Linux but should be updated to cover NetBSD :-).
  718: []( also lets users with pvgrub to boot
  719: their own kernel.  See then [ NetBSD
  720: HOWTO](
  721: (which is in need of updating).
  723: It appears that [grub's FFS
  724: code](
  725: does not support all aspects of modern FFS, but there are also reports
  726: that FFSv2 works fine.  At prgmr, typically one has an ext2 or FAT
  727: partition for the kernel with the intent that grub can understand it,
  728: which leads to /netbsd not being the actual kernel.  One must remember
  729: to update the special boot partition.
  731: pygrub
  732: -------
  734: pygrub runs in the dom0 and looks into the domU file system.  This
  735: implies that the domU must have a kernel in a file system in a format
  736: known to pygrub.
  738: pygrub doesn't seem to work to load Linux images under NetBSD dom0,
  739: and is inherently less secure than pvgrub due to running inside dom0. For both these
  740: reasons, pygrub should not be used, and is only still present so that
  741: historical DomU images using it still work.
  743: As of 2014, pygrub seems to be of mostly historical
  744: interest. New DomUs should use pvgrub.
  746: Amazon
  747: ------
  749: See the [Amazon EC2 page](/amazon_ec2/).

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