File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
Revision 1.12: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Tue Dec 23 23:37:56 2014 UTC (4 years, 11 months ago) by gdt
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
rewrite Intro

I was heavy-handed.  Please let me know if you object.

    1: Introduction
    2: ------------
    3: 
    4: [![[Xen
    5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
    6: 
    7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
    8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
    9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
   10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
   11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
   12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
   13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
   14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
   15: fulfilled.
   16: 
   17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
   18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
   19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
   22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
   23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   24: 
   25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
   26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
   27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
   28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   29: 
   30: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
   31: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   32: in the dom0 section.)
   33: 
   34: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   35: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   36: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   37: and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
   38: 
   39: Prerequisites
   40: =============
   41: 
   42: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   43: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   44: 
   45: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   46: architecture.
   47: 
   48: This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64
   49: hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
   50: 
   51: For more details on Xen, see [](http://www.xen.org/).
   52: 
   53: Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)
   54: ---------------------------------------------
   55: 
   56: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
   57: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
   58: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
   59: available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots
   60: for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.
   61: If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk
   62: you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
   63: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
   64: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
   65: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
   66: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
   67: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
   68: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
   69: other domains.
   70: 
   71: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
   72: packages. See [the pkgsrc
   73: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
   74: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
   75: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
   76: not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`
   77: for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen
   78: 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or
   79: `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll
   80: also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If
   81: using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`
   82: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
   83: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
   84: `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel
   85: CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You
   86: can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl
   87: command:
   88: 
   89:     # cpuctl identify 0
   90:     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
   91:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
   92:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
   93:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
   94:     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
   95:     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
   96:     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
   97:     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
   98:     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
   99:     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
  100:     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
  101:     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
  102:     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
  103:     cpu0: Core ID 0
  104:     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
  105: 
  106: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
  107: SVM or VMX.
  108: 
  109: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
  110: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is
  111: `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel
  112: with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial
  113: console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial
  114: console. It is not useful with a VGA console.
  115: 
  116: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
  117: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
  118: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
  119: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
  120: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`
  121: must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.
  122: 
  123: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the
  124: NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot
  125: loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)
  126: manual page for an example using the latter.
  127: 
  128: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
  129: console to use, etc ...
  130: 
  131: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:
  132: 
  133:     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
  134:     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
  135:     #
  136:     # The default entry to load will be the first one
  137:     default=0
  138: 
  139:     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
  140:     timeout=10
  141: 
  142:     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
  143:     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
  144: 
  145:     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
  146:     # to serial after 10s
  147:     terminal --timeout=10 serial console
  148: 
  149:     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
  150:     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
  151:     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
  152:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
  153:       root(hd0,0)
  154:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
  155:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
  156: 
  157:     # Same as above, but using VGA console
  158:     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
  159:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
  160:       root(hd0,0)
  161:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
  162:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
  163: 
  164:     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
  165:     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
  166:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
  167:       root(hd0,0)
  168:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
  169:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
  170:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
  171:       root(hd0,0)
  172:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
  173:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
  174: 
  175:     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
  176:     #nonworking /xen.gz
  177:     title NetBSD 5.1
  178:       root (hd0,a)
  179:       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
  180: 
  181:     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
  182:     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
  183:     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
  184:     title NetBSD chain
  185:       root        (hd0,0)
  186:       chainloader +1
  187: 
  188:     ## end of grub config file.
  189:           
  190: 
  191: Install grub with the following command:
  192: 
  193:     # grub --no-floppy
  194: 
  195:     grub> root (hd0,a)
  196:      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
  197: 
  198:     grub> setup (hd0)
  199:      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
  200:      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
  201:      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
  202:      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
  203:      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
  204:     succeeded
  205:      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
  206:      succeeded
  207:     Done.
  208:           
  209: 
  210: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)
  211: ---------------------------------------------
  212: 
  213: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
  214: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
  215: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
  216: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
  217: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
  218: can create them with this command:
  219: 
  220:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
  221: 
  222: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
  223: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
  224: 'xm list' will show something like:
  225: 
  226:     # xm list
  227:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  228:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  229: 
  230: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
  231: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
  232: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
  233: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
  234: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
  235: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
  236: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
  237: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
  238: 
  239: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
  240: 
  241:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
  242:     #============================================================================
  243:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
  244:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
  245:     #============================================================================
  246: 
  247:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  248:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
  249:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
  250:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  251: 
  252:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
  253:     memory = 128
  254: 
  255:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
  256:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
  257:     # number. All domains must have different names.
  258:     #
  259:     name = "nbsd"
  260: 
  261:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
  262:     #
  263:     vcpus = 1
  264: 
  265:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  266:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
  267: 
  268:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
  269:     nics = 1
  270: 
  271:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
  272:     #
  273:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
  274:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
  275:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
  276:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
  277:     #
  278:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
  279:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
  280:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
  281:     #
  282:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
  283:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
  284:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
  285:     #
  286:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
  287: 
  288:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  289:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
  290:     # what you want them accessible as.
  291:     #
  292:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
  293:     #
  294:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
  295:     #
  296:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
  297:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
  298:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
  299:     #
  300:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
  301:     #
  302:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
  303:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
  304:     #
  305:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
  306:     # but it does for Linux.
  307:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
  308:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
  309:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
  310:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
  311:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
  312:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
  313: 
  314:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  315:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
  316:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
  317: 
  318:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  319:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
  320: 
  321:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
  322:     root = "xbd0"
  323:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
  324:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
  325:     #extra = ""
  326: 
  327:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  328:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
  329:     # The default is False.
  330:     #autorestart = True
  331: 
  332:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
  333: 
  334: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
  335: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
  336: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
  337: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
  338: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
  339: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
  340: like this:
  341: 
  342:     create
  343:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
  344: 
  345: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
  346: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
  347: 
  348: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
  349: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
  350: 
  351:     #!/bin/sh
  352:     #============================================================================
  353:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.12 2014/12/23 23:37:56 gdt Exp $
  354:     #
  355:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
  356:     #
  357:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
  358:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
  359:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
  360:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
  361:     #
  362:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
  363:     #
  364:     # Actions:
  365:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
  366:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
  367:     #
  368:     # Variables:
  369:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
  370:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
  371:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
  372:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
  373:     #
  374:     # Example invocation:
  375:     #
  376:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
  377:     #
  378:     #============================================================================
  379: 
  380:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
  381:     set -e
  382: 
  383:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
  384: 
  385:     # Operation name.
  386:     OP=$1; shift
  387: 
  388:     # Pull variables in args into environment
  389:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
  390: 
  391:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
  392:     domain=${domain:?}
  393:     vif=${vif:?}
  394:     mac=${mac:?}
  395:     bridge=${bridge:?}
  396: 
  397:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
  398:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
  399: 
  400:     # Are we going up or down?
  401:     case $OP in
  402:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
  403:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
  404:     *)
  405:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
  406:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
  407:         exit 1
  408:         ;;
  409:     esac
  410: 
  411:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
  412:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
  413:         exit
  414:     fi
  415: 
  416:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
  417:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
  418:         exit
  419:     fi
  420: 
  421:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
  422:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
  423:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
  424: 
  425: Now, running
  426: 
  427:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
  428: 
  429: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
  430: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
  431: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
  432: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
  433: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
  434: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
  435: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
  436: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
  437: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
  438: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
  439: 
  440: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
  441: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
  442: 
  443:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  444: 
  445: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  446: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
  447: 
  448: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
  449: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  450: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
  451: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
  452: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
  453: installation.
  454: 
  455: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  456: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  457: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
  458: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
  459: 
  460:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  461:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  462:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  463:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  464:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  465: 
  466: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
  467: 
  468: It is also desirable to add
  469: 
  470:     powerd=YES
  471: 
  472: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
  473: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
  474: 
  475: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
  476: 
  477: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)
  478: --------------------------------------------
  479: 
  480: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  481: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  482: 
  483: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  484: the example below)
  485: 
  486:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  487: 
  488: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  489: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
  490: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
  491: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
  492: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
  493: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  494: 
  495:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  496:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  497: 
  498: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  499: partition.
  500: 
  501: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
  502: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
  503: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
  504: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
  505: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
  506: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
  507: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
  508: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
  509: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
  510: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
  511: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
  512: available in the Xen binary distribution.
  513: 
  514: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
  515: 
  516:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
  517: 
  518: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
  519: tty to the xen console.
  520: 
  521: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)
  522: ----------------------------------------------
  523: 
  524: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
  525: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
  526: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
  527: image to your dom0 filesystem.
  528: 
  529:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
  530:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
  531:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
  532: 
  533:     ## for a 64-bit guest
  534:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  535:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
  536: 
  537:     ## for a 32-bit guest
  538:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  539:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
  540: 
  541:     dom0# umount /mnt
  542:           
  543: 
  544: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
  545: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
  546: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
  547: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
  548: 
  549:     memory = 640
  550:     name = 'solaris'
  551:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  552:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
  553:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  554:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  555:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  556:     # for a 64-bit guest
  557:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  558:     # for a 32-bit guest
  559:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  560:           
  561: 
  562: Start the guest.
  563: 
  564:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  565:     Started domain solaris
  566:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  567:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  568:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  569:     Use is subject to license terms.
  570:     Hostname: opensolaris
  571:     Remounting root read/write
  572:     Probing for device nodes ...
  573:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  574:     Preparing live image for use
  575:     Done mounting Live image
  576:           
  577: 
  578: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
  579: the xnf0 interface to appear.
  580: 
  581:     opensolaris console login: jack
  582:     Password: jack
  583:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
  584:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
  585:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
  586:     sh-3.2# exit
  587:           
  588: 
  589: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
  590: display where the installation program runs.
  591: 
  592:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
  593:     Password: solaris
  594:     Verify: solaris
  595:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
  596:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
  597:           
  598: 
  599: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
  600: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
  601: 
  602:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
  603:           
  604: 
  605: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
  606: 
  607:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
  608:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
  609:            
  610: 
  611: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
  612: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
  613: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
  614: console.
  615: 
  616:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
  617:                     bootfs = 43
  618:     ^C
  619:     jack@opensolaris:~$
  620:            
  621: 
  622: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
  623: the last line.
  624: 
  625:     memory = 640
  626:     name = 'solaris'
  627:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  628:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  629:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  630:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  631:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
  632:            
  633: 
  634: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
  635: 
  636:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
  637:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  638:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
  639:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  640:     Started domain solaris
  641:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  642:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  643:     Use is subject to license terms.
  644:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  645:     Hostname: osol
  646:     Configuring devices.
  647:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
  648:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
  649:     Reading ZFS config: done.
  650:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
  651:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
  652:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
  653: 
  654:     osol console login:
  655:            
  656: 
  657: Using PCI devices in guest domains
  658: ==================================
  659: 
  660: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
  661: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
  662: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
  663: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
  664: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
  665: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
  666: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
  667: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
  668: access the VGA registers will panic).
  669: 
  670: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
  671: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
  672: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
  673: 
  674: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
  675: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
  676: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
  677: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
  678: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
  679: single-digit number:
  680: 
  681:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
  682: 
  683: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
  684: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
  685: 
  686: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
  687: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
  688: 
  689:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
  690: 
  691: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
  692: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
  693: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
  694: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
  695: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
  696: 
  697:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
  698:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
  699: 
  700:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
  701:     xpci* at xenbus ?
  702:     pci* at xpci ?
  703: 
  704:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
  705:     # USB Controller and Devices
  706: 
  707:     # PCI USB controllers
  708:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
  709: 
  710:     # USB bus support
  711:     usb*    at uhci?
  712: 
  713:     # USB Hubs
  714:     uhub*   at usb?
  715:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  716: 
  717:     # USB Mass Storage
  718:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  719:     wd*     at umass?
  720:     # SCSI controllers
  721:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
  722: 
  723:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
  724:     scsibus* at scsi?
  725: 
  726:     # SCSI devices
  727:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
  728:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
  729: 
  730: Links and further information
  731: =============================
  732: 
  733: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
  734:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
  735:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
  736:     NetBSD's native boot.)
  737: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
  738:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
  739:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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