File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
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Tue Dec 20 03:50:04 2016 UTC (19 months, 3 weeks ago) by gdt
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    1: Introduction
    2: ============
    3: 
    4: [![[Xen
    5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
    6: 
    7: Xen is a hypervisor (or virtual machine monitor) for x86 hardware
    8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
    9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  Xen is a Type 1 or
   10: bare-metal hypervisor; one uses the Xen kernel to control the CPU,
   11: memory and console, a dom0 operating system which mediates access to
   12: other hardware (e.g., disks, network, USB), and one or more domU
   13: operating systems which operate in an unprivileged virtualized
   14: environment.  IO requests from the domU systems are forwarded by the
   15: hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be fulfilled.
   16: 
   17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
   18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
   19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
   22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
   23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   24: 
   25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
   26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
   27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
   28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   29: 
   30: Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  In
   31: theory i386 computers without amd64 support can be used for Xen <=
   32: 4.2, but we have no recent reports of this working (this is a hint).
   33: For HVM guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT
   34: (amd64) is needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  TODO: Clean up
   35: and check the above features.
   36: 
   37: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
   38: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   39: in the dom0 section.)
   40: 
   41: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   42: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   43: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   44: and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
   45: as a domU in a VPS.
   46: 
   47: Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
   48: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
   49: of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
   50: network interface or other peripheral.
   51: 
   52: NetBSD 6 and earlier supported Xen 2; support was removed fro NetBSD
   53: 7.  Xen 2 has been removed from pkgsrc.
   54: 
   55: Prerequisites
   56: -------------
   57: 
   58: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   59: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   60: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
   61: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
   62: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
   63: 
   64: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   65: architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
   66: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
   67: See also the [Xen website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
   68: 
   69: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
   70: ==========================
   71: 
   72: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
   73: of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
   74: which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
   75: versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
   76: 
   77: Xen
   78: ---
   79: 
   80: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
   81: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   82: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
   83: matching versions.
   84: 
   85: xenkernel3 provides Xen 3.1.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, and the last applied security patch was in
   86: 2011. Thus, it should not be used.  It supports PCI passthrough,
   87: which is why people use it anyway. Xen 3.1 supports i386, both PAE and
   88: non-PAE.
   89: 
   90: xenkernel33 provides Xen 3.3.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, and
   91: the last applied security patch was in 2012.  Thus, it should not be
   92: used.  Xen 3.3 supports i386, but only in PAE mode.  There are no good
   93: reasons to run this version.
   94: 
   95: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
   96: as of 2016-11 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.1 supports
   97: i386, but only in PAE mode.  There are no good reasons to run this
   98: version.
   99: 
  100: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
  101: as of 2016-11 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.2 supports
  102: i386, but only in PAE mode.  The only reason to run this is if you
  103: need to use xm instead of xl, or if you need to run an i386 dom0
  104: (because your hardware is i386 only).
  105: 
  106: xenkernel45 provides Xen 4.5.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
  107: as of 2016-11 it received security patches.  Xen 4.5 requires an amd64
  108: dom0, but domUs can be amd64 or i386 PAE.  TODO: It is either a
  109: conservative choice or somewhat old.
  110: 
  111: xenkernel45 provides Xen 4.6.  It is new to pkgsrc in 2016-05.  It is
  112: no longer maintained by Xen, but as of 2016-11 it received security
  113: patches.  Xen 4.6 requires an amd64 dom0, but domUs can be amd64 or
  114: i386 PAE.  TODO: It is either a somewhat aggressive choice or the
  115: standard choice
  116: 
  117: See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).
  118: 
  119: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
  120: 
  121: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with Xen 3 and Xen
  122: 4 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
  123: 
  124: Xen command program
  125: -------------------
  126: 
  127: Early Xen used a program called xm to manipulate the system from the
  128: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
  129: called xl is provided, but it does not work well in 4.1.  In 4.2, both
  130: xm and xl work fine.  4.4 is the last version that has xm.  You must
  131: choose one or the other, because it affects which daemons you run.
  132: 
  133: NetBSD
  134: ------
  135: 
  136: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
  137: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
  138: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
  139: of the most recent release for production use.  For those wanting to
  140: learn Xen or without production stability concerns, netbsd-7 is likely
  141: most appropriate.
  142: 
  143: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
  144: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
  145: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
  146: a normal computer.)
  147: 
  148: Architecture
  149: ------------
  150: 
  151: Xen itself can run on i386 or amd64 machines.  (Practically, almost
  152: any computer where one would want to run Xen today supports amd64.)
  153: 
  154: Xen, the dom0 kernel, and each domU kernel can be either i386 or
  155: amd64.  When building a xenkernel package, one obtains i386 on an i386
  156: host, and amd64 on an amd64 host.  If the xen kernel is i386, then the
  157: dom0 kernel and all domU kernels must be i386.  With an amd64 xen
  158: kernel, an amd64 dom0 kernel is known to work, and an i386 dom0 kernel
  159: should in theory work.  An amd64 xen/dom0 is known to support both
  160: i386 and amd64 domUs.
  161: 
  162: i386 dom0 and domU kernels must be PAE (except for Xen 3.1); these are
  163: built by default.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386
  164: with PAE when built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in
  165: the undump code.)
  166: 
  167: Because of the above, the standard approach is to use amd64 for the
  168: dom0.
  169: 
  170: Xen 4.2 is the last version to support i386 as a host.  TODO: Clarify
  171: if this is about the CPU, the xen kernel, or the dom0 kernel having to
  172: be amd64.
  173: 
  174: 
  175: Stability
  176: ---------
  177: 
  178: Mostly, NetBSD as a dom0 or domU is quite stable.
  179: However, there are some open PRs indicating problems.
  180: 
  181:  - [PR 48125](http://gnats.netbsd.org/48125)
  182:  - [PR 47720](http://gnats.netbsd.org/47720)
  183: 
  184: Note also that there are issues with sparse vnd(4) instances, but
  185: these are not about Xen.
  186: 
  187: Recommendation
  188: --------------
  189: 
  190: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
  191: xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the
  192: dom0.  Either the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
  193: 
  194: Build problems
  195: --------------
  196: 
  197: Ideally, all versions of Xen in pkgsrc would build on all versions of
  198: NetBSD on both i386 and amd64.  However, that isn't the case.  Besides
  199: aging code and aging compilers, qemu (included in xentools for HVM
  200: support) is difficult to build.  The following are known to work or FAIL:
  201: 
  202:         xenkernel3 netbsd-5 amd64
  203:         xentools3 netbsd-5 amd64
  204:         xentools3=hvm netbsd-5 amd64 ????
  205:         xenkernel33 netbsd-5 amd64
  206:         xentools33 netbsd-5 amd64
  207:         xenkernel41 netbsd-5 amd64
  208:         xentools41 netbsd-5 amd64
  209:         xenkernel42 netbsd-5 amd64
  210:         xentools42 netbsd-5 amd64
  211: 
  212:         xenkernel3 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL
  213:         xentools3 netbsd-6 i386
  214:         xentools3-hvm netbsd-6 i386 FAIL (dependencies fail)
  215:         xenkernel33 netbsd-6 i386
  216:         xentools33 netbsd-6 i386
  217:         xenkernel41 netbsd-6 i386
  218:         xentools41 netbsd-6 i386
  219:         xenkernel42 netbsd-6 i386
  220:         xentools42 netbsd-6 i386 *MIXED
  221: 
  222: 	(all 3 and 33 seem to FAIL)
  223:         xenkernel41 netbsd-7 i386
  224:         xentools41 netbsd-7 i386
  225:         xenkernel42 netbsd-7 i386
  226:         xentools42 netbsd-7 i386 ??FAIL
  227: 
  228: (*On netbsd-6 i386, there is a xentools42 in the 2014Q3 official builds,
  229: but it does not build for gdt.)
  230: 
  231: NetBSD as a dom0
  232: ================
  233: 
  234: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
  235: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
  236: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
  237: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
  238: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
  239: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
  240: configuration.
  241: 
  242: For experimenting with Xen, a machine with as little as 1G of RAM and
  243: 100G of disk can work.  For running many domUs in productions, far
  244: more will be needed.
  245: 
  246: Styles of dom0 operation
  247: ------------------------
  248: 
  249: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
  250: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
  251: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
  252: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
  253: 
  254: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
  255: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
  256: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
  257: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
  258: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
  259: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaningfully less secure than the same
  260: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
  261: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
  262: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
  263: 
  264: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
  265: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.  In theory
  266: the only issue is that the "backend drivers" are not yet MPSAFE:
  267:   http://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/08/29/msg015195.html
  268: 
  269: Installation of NetBSD
  270: ----------------------
  271: 
  272: First,
  273: [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
  274: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
  275: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
  276: 
  277: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
  278: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
  279: domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
  280: over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
  281: partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
  282: 
  283: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
  284: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN.
  285: 
  286: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
  287: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
  288: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
  289: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
  290: 
  291: One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
  292: for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
  293: and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
  294: be used.
  295: 
  296: One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
  297: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
  298: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
  299: between dom0 hosts.
  300: 
  301: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
  302: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
  303: HOWTO page.)
  304: 
  305: Installation of Xen
  306: -------------------
  307: 
  308: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
  309: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
  310: See [the pkgsrc
  311: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
  312: 
  313: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
  314: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
  315: package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
  316: 
  317: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
  318: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
  319: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
  320: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
  321: useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
  322: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
  323: of a NetBSD build.  If using i386, use
  324: releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.  (If using Xen
  325: 3.1 and i386, you may use XEN3_DOM0 with the non-PAE Xen.  But you
  326: should not use Xen 3.1.)  Both xen and the NetBSD kernel may be (and
  327: typically are) left compressed.
  328: 
  329: In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
  330: kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.  TODO: Say this is default,
  331: or file a PR and give a reference.
  332: 
  333: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
  334: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
  335: beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
  336: /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
  337: 
  338: Add a line to to /boot.cfg to boot Xen.  See boot.cfg(5) for an
  339: example.  The basic line is
  340: 
  341:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
  342: 
  343: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
  344: allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use
  345: 
  346:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=com0;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
  347: 
  348: which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
  349: from 1), forcing speed/parity, and also for NetBSD (which counts
  350: starting at 0).  In an attempt to add performance, one can also add
  351: 
  352:         dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
  353: 
  354: to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
  355: more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical cpu.  TODO: benchmark this.
  356: 
  357: Xen has [many boot
  358: options](http://xenbits.xenproject.org/docs/4.5-testing/misc/xen-command-line.html),
  359: and other tham dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
  360: necessary.
  361: 
  362: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
  363: kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
  364: kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
  365: 
  366: Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
  367: than GENERIC without Xen.
  368: 
  369: Using grub (historic)
  370: ---------------------
  371: 
  372: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
  373: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
  374: [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
  375: 
  376: The [HowTo on Installing into
  377: RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
  378: explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with
  379: NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native
  380: boot.)
  381: 
  382: Configuring Xen
  383: ---------------
  384: 
  385: Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.
  386: 
  387: Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, but not
  388: do anything else special.  Make sure that you have rebooted into Xen.
  389: There will be no domUs, and none can be started because you still have
  390: to configure the dom0 daemons.
  391: 
  392: The daemons which should be run vary with Xen version and with whether
  393: one is using xm or xl.  The Xen 3.1 and 3.3 packages use xm.  Xen 4.1
  394: and higher packages use xl.  While is is possible to use xm with some
  395: 4.x versions (TODO: 4.1 and 4.2?), the pkgsrc-provided rc.d scripts do
  396: not support this as of 2014-12-26, and thus the HOWTO does not support
  397: it either.  (Make sure your packages are reasonably recent.)
  398: 
  399: For "xm" (3.1 and 3.3), you should enable xend and xenbackendd (but
  400: note that you should be using 4.x):
  401: 
  402:         xend=YES
  403:         xenbackendd=YES
  404: 
  405: For "xl" (4.x), you should enabled xend and xencommons (xenstored).
  406: Trying to boot 4.x without xencommons=YES will result in a hang; it is
  407: necessary to hig ^C on the console to let the machine finish booting.
  408: TODO: explain why xend is installed by the package.
  409: 
  410:         xencommons=YES
  411: 
  412: The installation of NetBSD should already have created devices for xen
  413: (xencons, xenevt), but if they are not present, create them:
  414: 
  415:         cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
  416: 
  417: TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
  418: 
  419: After you have configured the daemons and either started them (in the
  420: order given) or rebooted, use xm or xl to inspect Xen's boot messages,
  421: available resources, and running domains.  An example with xl follows:
  422: 
  423:         # xl dmesg
  424: 	[xen's boot info]
  425:         # xl info
  426: 	[available memory, etc.]
  427:         # xl list
  428:         Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  429:         Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  430: 
  431: ### Issues with xencommons
  432: 
  433: xencommons starts xenstored, which stores data on behalf of dom0 and
  434: domUs.  It does not currently work to stop and start xenstored.
  435: Certainly all domUs should be shutdown first, following the sort order
  436: of the rc.d scripts.  However, the dom0 sets up state with xenstored,
  437: and is not notified when xenstored exits, leading to not recreating
  438: the state when the new xenstored starts.  Until there's a mechanism to
  439: make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
  440: (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that
  441: this will get fixed any time soon.
  442: 
  443: anita (for testing NetBSD)
  444: --------------------------
  445: 
  446: With the setup so far (assuming 4.2/xl), one should be able to run
  447: anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
  448: root, because anita must create a domU):
  449: 
  450:         anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
  451: 
  452: Alternatively, one can use --vmm=xm to use xm-based domU creation
  453: instead (and must, on Xen <= 4.1).   TODO: confirm that anita xl really works.
  454:     
  455: Xen-specific NetBSD issues
  456: --------------------------
  457: 
  458: There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
  459: dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
  460: 
  461: One is that modules are not usable in DOM0 kernels, so one must
  462: compile in what's needed.  It's not really that modules cannot work,
  463: but that modules must be built for XEN3_DOM0 because some of the
  464: defines change and the normal module builds don't do this.  Basically,
  465: enabling Xen changes the kernel ABI, and the module build system
  466: doesn't cope with this.
  467: 
  468: The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
  469: options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a
  470: bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
  471: items if desired.
  472: 
  473: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
  474: -------------------------
  475: 
  476: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
  477: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
  478: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
  479: and adjusts /etc.
  480: 
  481: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
  482: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
  483: 
  484: Converting from grub to /boot
  485: -----------------------------
  486: 
  487: These instructions were [TODO: will be] used to convert a system from
  488: grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of
  489: 2006 with a RAID1 setup and grub to boot Xen 2, and has been updated
  490: over time.  Before these commands, it was running NetBSD 6 i386, Xen
  491: 4.1 and grub, much like the message linked earlier in the grub
  492: section.
  493: 
  494:         # Install mbr bootblocks on both disks. 
  495:         fdisk -i /dev/rwd0d
  496:         fdisk -i /dev/rwd1d
  497:         # Install NetBSD primary boot loader (/ is FFSv1) into RAID1 components.
  498:         installboot -v /dev/rwd0d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  499:         installboot -v /dev/rwd1d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  500:         # Install secondary boot loader
  501:         cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /
  502:         # Create boog.cfg following earlier guidance:
  503:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
  504:         menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=256M
  505:         menu=GENERIC:boot
  506:         menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s
  507:         menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok
  508:         menu=GENERIC.ok single-user:boot netbsd.ok -s
  509:         menu=Drop to boot prompt:prompt
  510:         default=1
  511:         timeout=30
  512: 
  513: TODO: actually do this and fix it if necessary.
  514: 
  515: Upgrading Xen versions
  516: ---------------------
  517: 
  518: Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
  519: issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
  520: remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
  521: xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
  522: 
  523: Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Specifically,
  524: they must match the package you just installed and not be left over
  525: from some previous installation.
  526: 
  527: Enable the correct set of daemons; see the configuring section above.
  528: (Upgrading from 3.x to 4.x without doing this will result in a hang.)
  529: 
  530: Ensure that the domU config files are valid for the new version.
  531: Specifically: remove autorestart=True, and ensure that disks are
  532: specified with numbers as the second argument, as the examples above
  533: show, and not NetBSD device names.
  534: 
  535: Hardware known to work
  536: ----------------------
  537: 
  538: Arguably, this section is misplaced, and there should be a page of
  539: hardware that runs NetBSD/amd64 well, with the mostly-well-founded
  540: assumption that NetBSD/xen runs fine on any modern hardware that
  541: NetBSD/amd64 runs well on.  Until then, we give motherboard/CPU/RAM
  542: triples to aid those choosing a motherboard.  Note that Xen systems
  543: usually do not run X, so a listing here does not imply that X works at
  544: all.
  545: 
  546:         Supermicro X9SRL-F, Xeon E5-1650 v2, 96 GiB ECC
  547:         Supermicro ??, Atom C2758 (8 core), 32 GiB ECC
  548:         ASUS M5A78L-M/USB3 AM3+ microATX, AMD Piledriver X8 4000MHz, 16 GiB ECC
  549: 
  550: Older hardware:
  551: 
  552:         Intel D915GEV, Pentium4 CPU 3.40GHz, 4GB 533MHz Synchronous DDR2
  553: 
  554: Running Xen under qemu
  555: ----------------------
  556: 
  557: The astute reader will note that this section is somewhat twisted.
  558: However, it can be useful to run Xen under qemu either because the
  559: version of NetBSD as a dom0 does not run on the hardware in use, or to
  560: generate automated test cases involving Xen.
  561: 
  562: In 2015-01, the following combination was reported to mostly work:
  563: 
  564:         host OS: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.4
  565:         qemu: 2.2.0 from pkgsrc
  566:         Xen kernel: xenkernel42-4.2.5nb1 from pkgsrc
  567:         dom0 kernel: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.5
  568:         Xen tools: xentools42-4.2.5 from pkgsrc
  569: 
  570: See [PR 47720](http://gnats.netbsd.org/47720) for a problem with dom0
  571: shutdown.
  572: 
  573: Unprivileged domains (domU)
  574: ===========================
  575: 
  576: This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
  577: address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
  578: config files for domUs are typically in /usr/pkg/etc/xen, and are
  579: typically named so that the file name, domU name and the domU's host
  580: name match.
  581: 
  582: The domU is provided with cpu and memory by Xen, configured by the
  583: dom0.  The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
  584: mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
  585: 
  586: Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
  587: the dom0.  NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
  588: 
  589: Config files
  590: ------------
  591: 
  592: There is no good order to present config files and the concepts
  593: surrounding what is being configured.  We first show an example config
  594: file, and then in the various sections give details.
  595: 
  596: See (at least in xentools41) /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xmexample*,
  597: for a large number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
  598: GNU/Linux.
  599: 
  600: The following is an example minimal domain configuration file
  601: "/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo".  It is (with only a name change) an actual
  602: known working config file on Xen 4.1 (NetBSD 5 amd64 dom0 and NetBSD 5
  603: i386 domU).  The domU serves as a network file server.
  604: 
  605:         # -*- mode: python; -*-
  606: 
  607:         kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
  608:         memory = 1024
  609:         vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
  610:         disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
  611:                  'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
  612: 
  613: The domain will have the same name as the file.  The kernel has the
  614: host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
  615: domUs independently.  The vif line causes an interface to be provided,
  616: with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
  617: mode.  Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
  618: are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
  619: dom0 on domain creation.  The system treates xbd0 as the boot device
  620: without needing explicit configuration.
  621: 
  622: By default xm looks for domain config files in /usr/pkg/etc/xen.  Note
  623: that "xm create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
  624: take the name of a domain.  To create the domain, connect to the
  625: console, create the domain while attaching the console, shutdown the
  626: domain, and see if it has finished stopping, do (or xl with Xen >=
  627: 4.2):
  628: 
  629:         xm create foo
  630:         xm console foo
  631:         xm create -c foo
  632:         xm shutdown foo
  633:         xm list
  634: 
  635: Typing ^] will exit the console session.  Shutting down a domain is
  636: equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
  637: power-press event and do a clean shutdown.  Shutting down the dom0
  638: will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
  639: 
  640: domU kernels
  641: ------------
  642: 
  643: On a physical computer, the BIOS reads sector 0, and a chain of boot
  644: loaders finds and loads a kernel.  Normally this comes from the root
  645: filesystem.  With Xen domUs, the process is totally different.  The
  646: normal path is for the domU kernel to be a file in the dom0's
  647: filesystem.  At the request of the dom0, Xen loads that kernel into a
  648: new domU instance and starts execution.  While domU kernels can be
  649: anyplace, reasonable places to store domU kernels on the dom0 are in /
  650: (so they are near the dom0 kernel), in /usr/pkg/etc/xen (near the
  651: config files), or in /u0/xen (where the vdisks are).
  652: 
  653: Note that loading the domU kernel from the dom0 implies that boot
  654: blocks, /boot, /boot.cfg, and so on are all ignored in the domU.
  655: See the VPS section near the end for discussion of alternate ways to
  656: obtain domU kernels.
  657: 
  658: CPU and memory
  659: --------------
  660: 
  661: A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, less than the number
  662: of cpus seen by the hypervisor.  (For a dom0, this is controlled by
  663: the boot argument "dom0_max_vcpus=1".)  For a domU, it is controlled
  664: from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
  665: 
  666: A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
  667: file by "memory = N" (in megabytes).  In the straightforward case, the
  668: sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
  669: than the available memory.
  670: 
  671: Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
  672: use more memory temporarily.  TODO: Explain better, and explain how
  673: well it works with NetBSD.
  674: 
  675: Virtual disks
  676: -------------
  677: 
  678: With the file/vnd style, typically one creates a directory,
  679: e.g. /u0/xen, on a disk large enough to hold virtual disks for all
  680: domUs.  Then, for each domU disk, one writes zeros to a file that then
  681: serves to hold the virtual disk's bits; a suggested name is foo-xbd0
  682: for the first virtual disk for the domU called foo.  Writing zeros to
  683: the file serves two purposes.  One is that preallocating the contents
  684: improves performance.  The other is that vnd on sparse files has
  685: failed to work.  TODO: give working/notworking NetBSD versions for
  686: sparse vnd.  Note that the use of file/vnd for Xen is not really
  687: different than creating a file-backed virtual disk for some other
  688: purpose, except that xentools handles the vnconfig commands.  To
  689: create an empty 4G virtual disk, simply do
  690: 
  691:         dd if=/dev/zero of=foo-xbd0 bs=1m count=4096
  692: 
  693: Do not use qemu-img-xen, because this will create sparse file.  There
  694: have been recent (2015) reports of sparse vnd(4) devices causing
  695: lockups, but there is apparently no PR.
  696: 
  697: With the lvm style, one creates logical devices.  They are then used
  698: similarly to vnds.  TODO: Add an example with lvm.
  699: 
  700: In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples.
  701: The first element is "method:/path/to/disk".  Common methods are
  702: "file:" for file-backed vnd. and "phy:" for something that is already
  703: a (TODO: character or block) device.
  704: 
  705: The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
  706: Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage.  Linux domUs
  707: are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
  708: "hda1" or "sda1" are common.  In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
  709: as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on.  However, xm/xl demand a
  710: second argument.  The name given is converted to a major/minor by
  711: calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
  712: In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
  713: systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
  714: numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev.  With NetBSD
  715: as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
  716: for the second works fine and avoids this issue.  For a GNU/Linux
  717: guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
  718: /dev/hda1.
  719: 
  720: The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
  721: disks.
  722: 
  723: Virtual Networking
  724: ------------------
  725: 
  726: Xen provides virtual ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
  727: domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
  728: the dom0, and in domU index N, a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD
  729: name).  The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
  730: adaptors connected.  From this primitive, one can construct various
  731: configurations.  We focus on two common and useful cases for which
  732: there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
  733: 
  734: With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
  735: on the same network as the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is
  736: usually best.  Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
  737: and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
  738: interfaces to the bridge.  One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
  739: config file.  The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
  740: example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
  741: 
  742:         create
  743:         up
  744:         !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
  745: 
  746: With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
  747: dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
  748: TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
  749: 
  750: The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
  751: domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
  752: 00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
  753: 
  754: Sizing domains
  755: --------------
  756: 
  757: Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources.  However, many
  758: virtual servers can function just fine on far less.  A system with
  759: 256M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice.  Note that it is
  760: far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones.  For
  761: memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot.  For disk, one can
  762: create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,
  763: just like updating physical disks, but without having to be there and
  764: without those pesky connectors.
  765: 
  766: Starting domains automatically
  767: ------------------------------
  768: 
  769: To start domains foo at bar at boot and shut them down cleanly on dom0
  770: shutdown, in rc.conf add:
  771: 
  772:         xendomains="foo bar"
  773: 
  774: Note that earlier versions of the xentools41 xendomains rc.d scripth
  775: usd xl, when one should use xm with 4.1.
  776: 
  777: Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)
  778: =============================================
  779: 
  780: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
  781: have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must
  782: have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" (or "xm list")
  783: works.
  784: 
  785: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
  786: ---------------------------------------------
  787: 
  788: See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
  789: storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or lvm).
  790: 
  791: While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 filesystem, the same
  792: file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
  793: savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
  794: 
  795: The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The
  796: i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
  797: 
  798:         i386 XEN3_DOMU
  799:         i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
  800:         amd64 XEN3_DOMU
  801: 
  802: Unless using Xen 3.1 (and you shouldn't) with i386-mode Xen, you must
  803: use the PAE version of the i386 kernel.
  804: 
  805: This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
  806: empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
  807: (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
  808: system you can't run the installer on).
  809: 
  810: A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
  811: and can load sets from the network.  To do this, copy the INSTALL
  812: kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
  813: 
  814:         kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  815: 
  816: Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configname".
  817: 
  818: Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
  819: line should be used in the config file.
  820: 
  821:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  822: 
  823: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  824: selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
  825: 
  826: Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
  827: it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  828: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
  829: and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
  830: xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
  831: 
  832: TODO: check if this is still accurate.
  833: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  834: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  835: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
  836: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
  837: 
  838:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  839:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  840:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  841:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  842:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  843: 
  844: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
  845: 
  846: It is also desirable to add
  847: 
  848:         powerd=YES
  849: 
  850: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
  851: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the dom0.
  852: 
  853: It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU
  854: filesystem.  However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that
  855: kernel to look up symbols to read from kernel virtual memory.  If
  856: /netbsd is not the running kernel, those lookups will fail.  (This is
  857: not really a Xen-specific issue, but because the domU kernel is
  858: obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
  859: missing with Xen.)
  860: 
  861: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
  862: --------------------------------------------
  863: 
  864: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  865: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  866: 
  867: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  868: the example below)
  869: 
  870:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  871: 
  872: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  873: for hda).  Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
  874: So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
  875: device number 0x301.  Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
  876: hdb, ...)  as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
  877: numbers.  To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  878: 
  879:         disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  880:         root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  881: 
  882: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  883: partition.
  884: 
  885: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
  886: guest domain, the following method can be used: install
  887: sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc.  Use mke2fs to format the partition
  888: that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
  889: Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
  890: `/etc` (fstab, network config).  It should also be possible to extract
  891: binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
  892: using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
  893: emulation.  Once the filesystem has been populated, umount it.  If
  894: desirable, the filesystem can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
  895: It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
  896: the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
  897: 
  898: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
  899: 
  900:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
  901: 
  902: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
  903: tty to the xen console.
  904: 
  905: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
  906: ----------------------------------------------
  907: 
  908: See possibly outdated
  909: [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
  910: 
  911: 
  912: PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
  913: ---------------------------------------------------
  914: 
  915: The dom0 can give other domains access to selected PCI
  916: devices. This can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have
  917: access to a physical network interface or disk controller.  However,
  918: keep in mind that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely
  919: will give the domain read/write access to the whole physical memory,
  920: as PCs don't have an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable
  921: device.  Also, it's not possible to export ISA devices to non-dom0
  922: domains, which means that the primary VGA adapter can't be exported.
  923: A guest domain trying to access the VGA registers will panic.
  924: 
  925: If the dom0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as support has
  926: not been ported to later versions at this time.
  927: 
  928: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to
  929: the "pciback" driver in dom0.  Devices passed to the dom0 via the
  930: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to "pciback" instead of the
  931: usual driver.  The list of devices is specified as "(bus:dev.func)",
  932: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
  933: single-digit number:
  934: 
  935:         pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
  936: 
  937: pciback devices should show up in the dom0's boot messages, and the
  938: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
  939: 
  940: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the "pci" array of
  941: the domU's config file, with the format "0000:bus:dev.func".
  942: 
  943:         pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
  944: 
  945: In the domU an "xpci" device will show up, to which one or more pci
  946: busses will attach.  Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
  947: usual.  Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have "xpci"
  948: or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own
  949: kernel to use PCI devices in a domU.  Here's a kernel config example;
  950: note that only the "xpci" lines are unusual.
  951: 
  952:         include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
  953: 
  954:         # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
  955:         xpci* at xenbus ?
  956:         pci* at xpci ?
  957: 
  958:         # PCI USB controllers
  959:         uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
  960: 
  961:         # USB bus support
  962:         usb*    at uhci?
  963: 
  964:         # USB Hubs
  965:         uhub*   at usb?
  966:         uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  967: 
  968:         # USB Mass Storage
  969:         umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  970:         wd*     at umass?
  971:         # SCSI controllers
  972:         ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
  973: 
  974:         # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
  975:         scsibus* at scsi?
  976: 
  977:         # SCSI devices
  978:         sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
  979:         cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
  980: 
  981: 
  982: NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
  983: =========================
  984: 
  985: The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
  986: hardware.  This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
  987: virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
  988: dom0.  This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of VPS providers;
  989: only a few are mentioned that specifically support NetBSD.
  990: 
  991: VPS operators provide varying degrees of access and mechanisms for
  992: configuration.  The big issue is usually how one controls which kernel
  993: is booted, because the kernel is nominally in the dom0 filesystem (to
  994: which VPS users do not normally have acesss).  A second issue is how
  995: to install NetBSD.
  996: A VPS user may want to compile a kernel for security updates, to run
  997: npf, run IPsec, or any other reason why someone would want to change
  998: their kernel.
  999: 
 1000: One approach is to have an adminstrative interface to upload a kernel,
 1001: or to select from a prepopulated list.  Other approaches are pygrub
 1002: (deprecated) and pvgrub, which are ways to have a bootloader obtain a
 1003: kernel from the domU filesystem.  This is closer to a regular physical
 1004: computer, where someone who controls a machine can replace the kernel.
 1005: 
 1006: A second issue is multiple CPUs.  With NetBSD 6, domUs support
 1007: multiple vcpus, and it is typical for VPS providers to enable multiple
 1008: CPUs for NetBSD domUs.
 1009: 
 1010: pygrub
 1011: -------
 1012: 
 1013: pygrub runs in the dom0 and looks into the domU filesystem.  This
 1014: implies that the domU must have a kernel in a filesystem in a format
 1015: known to pygrub.  As of 2014, pygrub seems to be of mostly historical
 1016: interest.
 1017: 
 1018: pvgrub
 1019: ------
 1020: 
 1021: pvgrub is a version of grub that uses PV operations instead of BIOS
 1022: calls.  It is booted from the dom0 as the domU kernel, and then reads
 1023: /grub/menu.lst and loads a kernel from the domU filesystem.
 1024: 
 1025: [Panix](http://www.panix.com/) lets users use pvgrub.  Panix reports
 1026: that pvgrub works with FFsv2 with 16K/2K and 32K/4K block/frag sizes
 1027: (and hence with defaults from "newfs -O 2").  See [Panix's pvgrub
 1028: page](http://www.panix.com/v-colo/grub.html), which describes only
 1029: Linux but should be updated to cover NetBSD :-).
 1030: 
 1031: [prgmr.com](http://prgmr.com/) also lets users with pvgrub to boot
 1032: their own kernel.  See then [prgmr.com NetBSD
 1033: HOWTO](http://wiki.prgmr.com/mediawiki/index.php/NetBSD_as_a_DomU)
 1034: (which is in need of updating).
 1035: 
 1036: It appears that [grub's FFS
 1037: code](http://xenbits.xensource.com/hg/xen-unstable.hg/file/bca284f67702/tools/libfsimage/ufs/fsys_ufs.c)
 1038: does not support all aspects of modern FFS, but there are also reports
 1039: that FFSv2 works fine.  At prgmr, typically one has an ext2 or FAT
 1040: partition for the kernel with the intent that grub can understand it,
 1041: which leads to /netbsd not being the actual kernel.  One must remember
 1042: to update the special boot partiion.
 1043: 
 1044: Amazon
 1045: ------
 1046: 
 1047: See the [Amazon EC2 page](../amazon_ec2/).
 1048: 
 1049: Using npf
 1050: ---------
 1051: 
 1052: In standard kernels, npf is a module, and thus cannot be loaded in a
 1053: DOMU kernel.
 1054: 
 1055: TODO: Explain how to compile npf into a custom kernel, answering (but
 1056: note that the problem was caused by not booting the right kernel)
 1057: [this email to
 1058: netbsd-users](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/12/26/msg015576.html).
 1059: 
 1060: TODO items for improving NetBSD/xen
 1061: ===================================
 1062: 
 1063: * Make the NetBSD dom0 kernel work with SMP.
 1064: * Test the Xen 4.5 packages adequately to be able to recommend them as
 1065:   the standard approach.
 1066: * Get PCI passthrough working on Xen 4.5
 1067: * Get pvgrub into pkgsrc, either via xentools or separately.
 1068: * grub
 1069:   * Check/add support to pkgsrc grub2 for UFS2 and arbitrary
 1070:     fragsize/blocksize (UFS2 support may be present; the point is to
 1071:     make it so that with any UFS1/UFS2 filesystem setup that works
 1072:     with NetBSD grub will also work).
 1073:     See [pkg/40258](http://gnats.netbsd.org/40258).
 1074:   * Push patches upstream.
 1075:   * Get UFS2 patches into pvgrub.
 1076: * Add support for PV ops to a version of /boot, and make it usable as
 1077:   a kernel in Xen, similar to pvgrub.
 1078: * Solve somehow the issue with modules for GENERIC not being loadable
 1079:   in a Xen dom0 or domU kernel.
 1080: 
 1081: Random pointers
 1082: ===============
 1083: 
 1084: TODO: This section contains links from elsewhere not yet integrated
 1085: into the HOWTO.
 1086: 
 1087: * http://www.lumbercartel.ca/library/xen/
 1088: * http://pbraun.nethence.com/doc/sysutils/xen_netbsd_dom0.html

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