File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
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Wed Dec 24 16:13:59 2014 UTC (6 years, 4 months ago) by gdt
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give dd example for disk

explain where domU kernels come from

    1: Introduction
    2: ============
    4: [![[Xen
    5: screenshot]](](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
    7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
    8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
    9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
   10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
   11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
   12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
   13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
   14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
   15: fulfilled.
   17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
   18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
   19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
   22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
   23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
   26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
   27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
   28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   30: Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  In
   31: theory i386 computers without amd64 support can be used for Xen <=
   32: 4.2, but we have no recent reports of this working (this is a hint).
   33: For HVM guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT
   34: (amd64) is needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  TODO: Clean up
   35: and check the above features.
   37: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
   38: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   39: in the dom0 section.)
   41: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   42: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   43: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   44: and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
   45: as a domU in a VPS.
   47: Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
   48: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
   49: of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
   50: network interface or other peripheral.
   52: Prerequisites
   53: -------------
   55: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   56: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   57: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
   58: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
   59: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
   61: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   62: architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
   63: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
   64: See also the [Xen website](
   66: History
   67: -------
   69: NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
   71: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
   72: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
   73: [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
   75: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
   76: ==========================
   78: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
   79: of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
   80: which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
   81: versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
   83: Xen
   84: ---
   86: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
   87: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   88: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
   89: matching versions.
   91: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
   92: receive security patches and should not be used.  Xen 3.1 supports PCI
   93: passthrough.  Xen 3.1 supports non-PAE on i386.
   95: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
   96: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
   97: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
   99: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
  100: of 2014-12.
  102: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
  104: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with 3.1 through
  105: 4.2 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
  107: Xen command program
  108: -------------------
  110: Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
  111: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
  112: called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2 and later, "xl" is preferred.  4.4 is
  113: the last version that has "xm".
  115: NetBSD
  116: ------
  118: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
  119: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
  120: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
  121: of the most recent release for production use.  For those wanting to
  122: learn Xen or without production stability concerns, netbsd-7 is likely
  123: most appropriate.
  125: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
  126: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
  127: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
  128: a normal computer.)
  130: Architecture
  131: ------------
  133: Xen itself can run on i386 or amd64 machines.  (Practically, almost
  134: any computer where one would want to run Xen supports amd64.)  If
  135: using an i386 NetBSD kernel for the dom0, PAE is required (PAE
  136: versions are built by default).  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is
  137: recommended as more normal.
  139: Xen 4.2 is the last version to support i386 as a host.  TODO: Clarify
  140: if this is about the CPU having to be amd64, or about the dom0 kernel
  141: having to be amd64.
  143: One can then run i386 domUs and amd64 domUs, in any combination.  If
  144: running an i386 NetBSD kernel as a domU, the PAE version is required.
  145: (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when built
  146: without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump code.)
  148: Recommendation
  149: --------------
  151: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
  152: xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the
  153: dom0.  Either the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
  155: Build problems
  156: --------------
  158: Ideally, all versions of Xen in pkgsrc would build on all versions of
  159: NetBSD on both i386 and amd64.  However, that isn't the case.  Besides
  160: aging code and aging compilers, qemu (included in xentools for HVM
  161: support) is difficult to build.  The following are known to fail:
  163:         xenkernel3 netbsd-6 i386
  164:         xentools42 netbsd-6 i386 
  166: The following are known to work:
  168:         xenkernel41 netbsd-5 amd64
  169:         xentools41 netbsd-5 amd64
  170:         xenkernel41 netbsd-6 i386
  171:         xentools41 netbsd-6 i386
  173: NetBSD as a dom0
  174: ================
  176: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
  177: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
  178: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
  179: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
  180: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
  181: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
  182: configuration.
  184: Styles of dom0 operation
  185: ------------------------
  187: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
  188: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
  189: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
  190: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
  192: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
  193: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
  194: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
  195: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
  196: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
  197: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
  198: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
  199: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
  200: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
  202: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
  203: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
  205: Installation of NetBSD
  206: ----------------------
  208: First,
  209: [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
  210: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
  211: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
  213: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
  214: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
  215: domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
  216: over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
  217: partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
  219: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
  220: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
  222: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
  223: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
  224: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
  225: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
  227: One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
  228: for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
  229: and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
  230: be used.
  232: One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
  233: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
  234: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
  235: between dom0 hosts.
  237: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
  238: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
  239: HOWTO page.)
  241: Installation of Xen
  242: -------------------
  244: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
  245: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
  246: See [the pkgsrc
  247: documentation]( for help with pkgsrc.
  249: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
  250: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
  251: package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
  253: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
  254: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
  255: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
  256: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
  257: useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
  258: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
  259: of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
  260: using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
  262: In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
  263: kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.
  265: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
  266: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
  267: beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
  268: /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
  270: See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
  272:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
  274: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
  275: allocated for domUs.  In an attempt to add performance, one can also
  276: add
  278:         dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
  280: to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
  281: more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical cpu.  TODO: benchmark this.
  283: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
  284: kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
  285: kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
  287: The [HowTo on Installing into
  288: RAID-1](
  289: explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with
  290: NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native
  291: boot.)
  293: Configuring Xen
  294: ---------------
  296: Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, and
  297: just run the dom0 kernel.  There will be no domUs, and none can be
  298: started because you still have to configure the dom0 tools.  The
  299: daemons which should be run vary with Xen version and with whether one
  300: is using xm or xl.  Note that xend is for supporting "xm", and should
  301: only be used if you plan on using "xm".  Do NOT enable xend if you
  302: plan on using "xl" as it will cause problems.
  304: TODO: Give 3.1 advice (or remove it from pkgsrc).
  306: For 3.3 (and thus xm), add to rc.conf (but note that you should have
  307: installed 4.1 or 4.2):
  309:         xend=YES
  310:         xenbackendd=YES
  312: For 4.1 (and thus xm; xl is believed not to work well), add to rc.conf:
  314:         xend=YES
  315:         xencommons=YES
  317: TODO: Explain why if xm is preferred on 4.1, rc.d/xendomains has xl.
  318: Or fix the package.
  320: For 4.2 with xm, add to rc.conf
  322:         xend=YES
  323:         xencommons=YES
  325: For 4.2 with xl (preferred), add to rc.conf:
  327:         TODO: explain if there is a xend replacement
  328:         xencommons=YES
  330: TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
  332: After you have configured the daemons and rebooted, run the following
  333: (or use xl) to inspect Xen's boot messages, available resources, and
  334: running domains:
  336:         xm dmesg
  337:         xm info
  338:         xm list
  340: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
  341: -------------------------
  343: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
  344: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
  345: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
  346: and adjusts /etc.
  348: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
  349: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
  351: To convert from grub to /boot, install an mbr bootblock with fdisk,
  352: bootxx_ with installboot, /boot and /boot.cfg.  This really should be
  353: no different than completely reinstalling boot blocks on a non-Xen
  354: system.
  356: Updating Xen versions
  357: ---------------------
  359: Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
  360: issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
  361: remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
  362: xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
  364: Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Enable the
  365: correct set of daemons.  Ensure that the domU config files are valid
  366: for the new version.
  369: Unprivileged domains (domU)
  370: ===========================
  372: This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
  373: address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
  374: config files for domUs are typically in /usr/pkg/etc/xen, and are
  375: typically named so that the file anme, domU name and the domU's host
  376: name match.
  378: The domU is provided with cpu and memory by Xen, configured by the
  379: dom0.  The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
  380: mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
  382: Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
  383: the dom0.  NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
  385: CPU and memory
  386: --------------
  388: A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, less than the
  389: number of cpus seen by the hypervisor.  For a dom0, this is controlled
  390: by the boot argument "dom0_max_vcpus=1".  For a domU, it is controlled
  391: from the config file.
  393: A domain is provided with memory, In the straightforward case, the sum
  394: of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
  395: than the available memory.
  397: Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
  398: use more memory temporarily.  TODO: Explain better, and explain how
  399: well it works with NetBSD.
  401: Virtual disks
  402: -------------
  404: With the file/vnd style, typically one creates a directory,
  405: e.g. /u0/xen, on a disk large enough to hold virtual disks for all
  406: domUs.  Then, for each domU disk, one writes zeros to a file that then
  407: serves to hold the virtual disk's bits; a suggested name is foo-xbd0
  408: for the first virtual disk for the domU called foo.  Writing zeros to
  409: the file serves two purposes.  One is that preallocating the contents
  410: improves performance.  The other is that vnd on sparse files has
  411: failed to work.  TODO: give working/notworking NetBSD versions for
  412: sparse vnd.  Note that the use of file/vnd for Xen is not really
  413: different than creating a file-backed virtual disk for some other
  414: purpose, except that xentools handles the vnconfig commands.  To
  415: create an empty 4G virtual disk, simply do
  417:         dd if=/dev/zero of=foo-xbd0 bs=1m count=4096
  419: With the lvm style, one creates logical devices.  They are then used
  420: similarly to vnds.
  422: Virtual Networking
  423: ------------------
  425: TODO: explain xvif concept, and that it's general.
  427: There are two normal styles: bridging and NAT.
  429: With bridging, the domU perceives itself to be on the same network as
  430: the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is usually best.
  432: With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
  433: dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
  435: One can construct arbitrary other configurations, but there is no
  436: script support.
  438: Sizing domains
  439: --------------
  441: Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources.  However, many
  442: virtual servers can function just fine on far less.  A system with
  443: 256M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice.  Note that it is
  444: far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones.  For
  445: memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot.  For disk, one can
  446: create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,
  447: just like updating physical disks, but without having to be there and
  448: without those pesky connectors.
  450: domU kernels
  451: ------------
  453: On a physical computer, the BIOS reads sector 0, and a chain of boot
  454: loaders finds and loads a kernel.  Normally this comes from the root
  455: filesystem.  With Xen domUs, the process is totally different.  The
  456: normal path is for the domU kernel to be a file in the dom0's
  457: filesystem.  At the request of the dom0, Xen loads that kernel into a
  458: new domU instance and starts execution.  While domU kernels can be
  459: anyplace, reasonable places to store domU kernels on the dom0 are in /
  460: (so they are near the dom0 kernel), in /usr/pkg/etc/xen (near the
  461: config files), or in /u0/xen (where the vdisks are).
  463: See the VPS section near the end for discussion of alternate ways to
  464: obtain domU kernels.
  466: Config files
  467: ------------
  469: TODO: give example config files.   Use both lvm and vnd.
  471: TODO: explain the mess with 3 arguments for disks and how to cope (0x1).
  473: Starting domains
  474: ----------------
  476: TODO: Explain "xm start" and "xl start".  Explain rc.d/xendomains.
  478: TODO: Explain why 4.1 rc.d/xendomains has xl, when one should use xm
  479: on 4.1.
  481: Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)
  482: =============================================
  484: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
  485: first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
  487: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
  488: ---------------------------------------------
  490: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
  491: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
  492: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
  493: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
  494: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
  495: can create them with this command:
  497:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
  499: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
  500: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
  501: 'xm list' will show something like:
  503:     # xm list
  504:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  505:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  507: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
  508: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
  509: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
  510: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
  511: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
  512: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
  513: your system tools, like savecore(8), work). A suitable kernel is
  514: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
  516: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
  518:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
  519:     #============================================================================
  520:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
  521:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
  522:     #============================================================================
  524:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  525:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
  526:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
  527:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  529:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
  530:     memory = 128
  532:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
  533:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
  534:     # number. All domains must have different names.
  535:     #
  536:     name = "nbsd"
  538:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
  539:     #
  540:     vcpus = 1
  542:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  543:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
  545:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
  546:     nics = 1
  548:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
  549:     #
  550:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
  551:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
  552:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
  553:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
  554:     #
  555:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
  556:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
  557:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
  558:     #
  559:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
  560:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
  561:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
  562:     #
  563:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
  565:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  566:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
  567:     # what you want them accessible as.
  568:     #
  569:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
  570:     #
  571:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
  572:     #
  573:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
  574:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
  575:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
  576:     #
  577:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
  578:     #
  579:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
  580:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
  581:     #
  582:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
  583:     # but it does for Linux.
  584:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
  585:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
  586:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
  587:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
  588:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
  589:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
  591:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  592:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
  593:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
  595:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  596:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
  598:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
  599:     root = "xbd0"
  600:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
  601:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
  602:     #extra = ""
  604:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  605:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
  606:     # The default is False.
  607:     #autorestart = True
  609:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
  611: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
  612: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
  613: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
  614: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
  615: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
  616: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
  617: like this:
  619:     create
  620:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
  622: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
  623: will be created on boot. See the bridge(4) man page for details.
  625: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
  626: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
  628:     #!/bin/sh
  629:     #============================================================================
  630:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.39 2014/12/24 16:13:59 gdt Exp $
  631:     #
  632:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
  633:     #
  634:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
  635:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
  636:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
  637:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
  638:     #
  639:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
  640:     #
  641:     # Actions:
  642:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
  643:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
  644:     #
  645:     # Variables:
  646:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
  647:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
  648:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
  649:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
  650:     #
  651:     # Example invocation:
  652:     #
  653:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
  654:     #
  655:     #============================================================================
  657:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
  658:     set -e
  660:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
  662:     # Operation name.
  663:     OP=$1; shift
  665:     # Pull variables in args into environment
  666:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
  668:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
  669:     domain=${domain:?}
  670:     vif=${vif:?}
  671:     mac=${mac:?}
  672:     bridge=${bridge:?}
  674:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
  675:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
  677:     # Are we going up or down?
  678:     case $OP in
  679:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
  680:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
  681:     *)
  682:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
  683:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
  684:         exit 1
  685:         ;;
  686:     esac
  688:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
  689:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
  690:         exit
  691:     fi
  693:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
  694:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
  695:         exit
  696:     fi
  698:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
  699:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
  700:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
  702: Now, running
  704:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
  706: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
  707: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
  708: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
  709: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
  710: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
  711: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
  712: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
  713: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
  714: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
  715: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
  717: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
  718: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
  720:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  722: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  723: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
  725: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
  726: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  727: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
  728: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
  729: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
  730: installation.
  732: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  733: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  734: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
  735: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
  737:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  738:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  739:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  740:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  741:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  743: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
  745: It is also desirable to add
  747:     powerd=YES
  749: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
  750: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
  752: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
  754: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
  755: --------------------------------------------
  757: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  758: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  760: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  761: the example below)
  763:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  765: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  766: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
  767: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
  768: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
  769: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
  770: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  772:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  773:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  775: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  776: partition.
  778: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
  779: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
  780: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
  781: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
  782: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
  783: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
  784: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
  785: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
  786: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
  787: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
  788: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
  789: available in the Xen binary distribution.
  791: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
  793:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
  795: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
  796: tty to the xen console.
  798: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
  799: ----------------------------------------------
  801: Download an Opensolaris [release](
  802: or [development snapshot]( DVD image. Attach the DVD
  803: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
  804: image to your dom0 filesystem.
  806:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
  807:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
  808:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
  810:     ## for a 64-bit guest
  811:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  812:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
  814:     ## for a 32-bit guest
  815:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  816:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
  818:     dom0# umount /mnt
  821: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
  822: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
  823: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
  824: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
  826:     memory = 640
  827:     name = 'solaris'
  828:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  829:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
  830:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  831:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  832:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  833:     # for a 64-bit guest
  834:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  835:     # for a 32-bit guest
  836:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  839: Start the guest.
  841:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  842:     Started domain solaris
  843:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  844:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  845:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  846:     Use is subject to license terms.
  847:     Hostname: opensolaris
  848:     Remounting root read/write
  849:     Probing for device nodes ...
  850:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  851:     Preparing live image for use
  852:     Done mounting Live image
  855: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
  856: the xnf0 interface to appear.
  858:     opensolaris console login: jack
  859:     Password: jack
  860:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
  861:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
  862:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
  863:     sh-3.2# exit
  866: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
  867: display where the installation program runs.
  869:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
  870:     Password: solaris
  871:     Verify: solaris
  872:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
  873:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
  876: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
  877: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
  879:     remote$ vncviewer
  882: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
  884:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=
  885:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
  888: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
  889: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
  890: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
  891: console.
  893:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
  894:                     bootfs = 43
  895:     ^C
  896:     jack@opensolaris:~$
  899: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
  900: the last line.
  902:     memory = 640
  903:     name = 'solaris'
  904:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  905:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  906:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  907:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  908:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
  911: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
  913:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
  914:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  915:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
  916:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  917:     Started domain solaris
  918:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  919:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  920:     Use is subject to license terms.
  921:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  922:     Hostname: osol
  923:     Configuring devices.
  924:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
  925:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
  926:     Reading ZFS config: done.
  927:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
  928:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
  929:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
  931:     osol console login:
  934: Using PCI devices in guest domains
  935: ----------------------------------
  937: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
  938: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
  939: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
  940: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
  941: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
  942: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
  943: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
  944: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
  945: access the VGA registers will panic).
  947: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
  948: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
  949: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
  951: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
  952: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
  953: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
  954: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
  955: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
  956: single-digit number:
  958:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
  960: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
  961: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
  963: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
  964: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
  966:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
  968: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
  969: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
  970: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
  971: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
  972: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
  974:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
  975:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
  977:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
  978:     xpci* at xenbus ?
  979:     pci* at xpci ?
  981:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
  982:     # USB Controller and Devices
  984:     # PCI USB controllers
  985:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
  987:     # USB bus support
  988:     usb*    at uhci?
  990:     # USB Hubs
  991:     uhub*   at usb?
  992:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  994:     # USB Mass Storage
  995:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  996:     wd*     at umass?
  997:     # SCSI controllers
  998:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
 1000:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
 1001:     scsibus* at scsi?
 1003:     # SCSI devices
 1004:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
 1005:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
 1008: NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
 1009: =========================
 1011: The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
 1012: hardware.  This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
 1013: virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
 1014: dom0.
 1016: TODO: Perhaps reference panix, prmgr, amazon as interesting examples.
 1018: TODO: Somewhere, discuss pvgrub and py-grub to load the domU kernel
 1019: from the domU filesystem.

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