File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
Revision 1.27: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Wed Dec 24 08:32:49 2014 UTC (4 years, 8 months ago) by jnemeth
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
- mention that Xen 4.2 is the last version to support i386 as a host
- grammar, spelling
- xen.org -> xenproject.org
- fix links
- note that installation concepts are independent of both Xen version
  and NetBSD version
- correct last version for xm
- add link to the Guide page for LVM
- note that the xend rc.d script should only be used when using xm
- make manpage references look nicer
  - these should be fixed up to be links like they were in htdocs

XXX  The example domU configs still need work.

    1: Introduction
    2: ============
    3: 
    4: [![[Xen
    5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
    6: 
    7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
    8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
    9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
   10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
   11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
   12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
   13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
   14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
   15: fulfilled.
   16: 
   17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
   18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
   19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
   22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
   23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   24: 
   25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
   26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
   27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
   28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   29: 
   30: Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  For
   31: HVM guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT (amd64)
   32: is needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  Xen 4.2 is the last
   33: version for support for using i386 as a host.  TODO: Clean up and
   34: check the above features.
   35: 
   36: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
   37: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   38: in the dom0 section.)
   39: 
   40: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   41: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   42: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   43: and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
   44: as a domU in a VPS.
   45: 
   46: Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
   47: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
   48: of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
   49: network interface or other peripheral.
   50: 
   51: Prerequisites
   52: -------------
   53: 
   54: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   55: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   56: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
   57: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
   58: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
   59: 
   60: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   61: architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
   62: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
   63: See also the [Xen website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
   64: 
   65: History
   66: -------
   67: 
   68: NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
   69: 
   70: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
   71: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
   72: [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
   73: 
   74: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
   75: ==========================
   76: 
   77: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
   78: of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
   79: which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
   80: versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
   81: 
   82: Xen
   83: ---
   84: 
   85: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
   86: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   87: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
   88: matching versions.
   89: 
   90: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
   91: receive security patches and should not be used.  Xen 3.1 supports PCI
   92: passthrough.
   93: 
   94: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
   95: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
   96: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
   97: 
   98: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
   99: of 2014-12.
  100: 
  101: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
  102: 
  103: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with 3.1 through
  104: 4.2 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
  105: 
  106: Xen command program
  107: -------------------
  108: 
  109: Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
  110: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
  111: called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2 and later, "xl" is preferred.  4.4 is
  112: the last version that has "xm".
  113: 
  114: NetBSD
  115: ------
  116: 
  117: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
  118: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
  119: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
  120: of the most recent release.
  121: 
  122: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
  123: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
  124: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
  125: a normal computer.)
  126: 
  127: Architecture
  128: ------------
  129: 
  130: Xen is basically amd64 only at this point.  One can either run i386
  131: domains or amd64 domains.  If running i386, PAE versions are required,
  132: for both dom0 and domU.  These versions are built by default in NetBSD
  133: releases.  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is recommended as more
  134: normal.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when
  135: built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump
  136: code.)
  137: 
  138: Recommendation
  139: --------------
  140: 
  141: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
  142: xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use amd64 as the dom0.  Either
  143: the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
  144: 
  145: NetBSD as a dom0
  146: ================
  147: 
  148: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
  149: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
  150: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
  151: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
  152: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
  153: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
  154: configuration.
  155: 
  156: Styles of dom0 operation
  157: ------------------------
  158: 
  159: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
  160: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
  161: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
  162: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
  163: 
  164: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
  165: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
  166: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
  167: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
  168: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
  169: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
  170: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
  171: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
  172: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
  173: 
  174: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
  175: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
  176: 
  177: Installation of NetBSD
  178: ----------------------
  179: 
  180: First,
  181: [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
  182: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
  183: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
  184: 
  185: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
  186: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
  187: domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
  188: over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
  189: partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
  190: 
  191: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
  192: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
  193: 
  194: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
  195: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
  196: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
  197: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
  198: 
  199: One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
  200: for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
  201: and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
  202: be used.
  203: 
  204: One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
  205: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
  206: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
  207: between dom0 hosts.
  208: 
  209: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
  210: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
  211: HOWTO page.)
  212: 
  213: Installation of Xen
  214: -------------------
  215: 
  216: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
  217: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
  218: See [the pkgsrc
  219: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
  220: 
  221: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
  222: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
  223: package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
  224: 
  225: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
  226: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
  227: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
  228: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
  229: useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
  230: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
  231: of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
  232: using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
  233: 
  234: In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
  235: kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.
  236: 
  237: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
  238: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
  239: beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
  240: /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
  241: 
  242: See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
  243: 
  244: "menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M"
  245: 
  246: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
  247: allocated for domUs.
  248: 
  249: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
  250: kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
  251: kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
  252: 
  253: Configuring Xen
  254: ---------------
  255: 
  256: Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, and
  257: just run the dom0 kernel.  There will be no domUs, and none can be
  258: started because you still have to configure the dom0 tools.
  259: 
  260: For 3.3 (and probably 3.1), add to rc.conf (but note that you should
  261: have installed 4.2):
  262:   xend=YES
  263:   xenbackendd=YES
  264: 
  265: For 4.1 and 4.2, add to rc.conf:
  266:   xend=YES
  267:   xencommons=YES
  268: 
  269: Note that xend is for supporting "xm", and should only be used if
  270: you plan on using "xm".  Do NOT enable xend if you plan on using
  271: "xl" as it will cause problems.
  272: 
  273: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
  274: -------------------------
  275: 
  276: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
  277: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
  278: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
  279: and adjusts /etc.
  280: 
  281: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
  282: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
  283: 
  284: To convert from grub to /boot, install an mbr bootblock with fdisk,
  285: bootxx_ with installboot, /boot and /boot.cfg.  This really should be
  286: no different than completely reinstalling boot blocks on a non-Xen
  287: system.
  288: 
  289: Updating Xen versions
  290: ---------------------
  291: 
  292: Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
  293: issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
  294: remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
  295: xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
  296: 
  297: Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Enable the
  298: correct set of daemons.  Ensure that the domU config files are valid
  299: for the new version.
  300: 
  301: Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
  302: ====================================
  303: 
  304: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
  305: first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
  306: 
  307: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
  308: ---------------------------------------------
  309: 
  310: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
  311: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
  312: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
  313: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
  314: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
  315: can create them with this command:
  316: 
  317:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
  318: 
  319: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
  320: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
  321: 'xm list' will show something like:
  322: 
  323:     # xm list
  324:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  325:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  326: 
  327: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
  328: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
  329: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
  330: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
  331: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
  332: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
  333: your system tools, like savecore(8), work). A suitable kernel is
  334: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
  335: 
  336: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
  337: 
  338:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
  339:     #============================================================================
  340:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
  341:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
  342:     #============================================================================
  343: 
  344:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  345:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
  346:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
  347:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  348: 
  349:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
  350:     memory = 128
  351: 
  352:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
  353:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
  354:     # number. All domains must have different names.
  355:     #
  356:     name = "nbsd"
  357: 
  358:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
  359:     #
  360:     vcpus = 1
  361: 
  362:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  363:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
  364: 
  365:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
  366:     nics = 1
  367: 
  368:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
  369:     #
  370:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
  371:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
  372:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
  373:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
  374:     #
  375:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
  376:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
  377:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
  378:     #
  379:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
  380:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
  381:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
  382:     #
  383:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
  384: 
  385:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  386:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
  387:     # what you want them accessible as.
  388:     #
  389:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
  390:     #
  391:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
  392:     #
  393:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
  394:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
  395:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
  396:     #
  397:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
  398:     #
  399:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
  400:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
  401:     #
  402:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
  403:     # but it does for Linux.
  404:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
  405:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
  406:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
  407:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
  408:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
  409:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
  410: 
  411:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  412:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
  413:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
  414: 
  415:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  416:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
  417: 
  418:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
  419:     root = "xbd0"
  420:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
  421:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
  422:     #extra = ""
  423: 
  424:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  425:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
  426:     # The default is False.
  427:     #autorestart = True
  428: 
  429:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
  430: 
  431: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
  432: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
  433: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
  434: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
  435: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
  436: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
  437: like this:
  438: 
  439:     create
  440:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
  441: 
  442: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
  443: will be created on boot. See the bridge(4) man page for details.
  444: 
  445: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
  446: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
  447: 
  448:     #!/bin/sh
  449:     #============================================================================
  450:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.27 2014/12/24 08:32:49 jnemeth Exp $
  451:     #
  452:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
  453:     #
  454:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
  455:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
  456:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
  457:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
  458:     #
  459:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
  460:     #
  461:     # Actions:
  462:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
  463:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
  464:     #
  465:     # Variables:
  466:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
  467:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
  468:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
  469:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
  470:     #
  471:     # Example invocation:
  472:     #
  473:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
  474:     #
  475:     #============================================================================
  476: 
  477:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
  478:     set -e
  479: 
  480:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
  481: 
  482:     # Operation name.
  483:     OP=$1; shift
  484: 
  485:     # Pull variables in args into environment
  486:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
  487: 
  488:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
  489:     domain=${domain:?}
  490:     vif=${vif:?}
  491:     mac=${mac:?}
  492:     bridge=${bridge:?}
  493: 
  494:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
  495:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
  496: 
  497:     # Are we going up or down?
  498:     case $OP in
  499:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
  500:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
  501:     *)
  502:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
  503:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
  504:         exit 1
  505:         ;;
  506:     esac
  507: 
  508:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
  509:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
  510:         exit
  511:     fi
  512: 
  513:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
  514:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
  515:         exit
  516:     fi
  517: 
  518:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
  519:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
  520:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
  521: 
  522: Now, running
  523: 
  524:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
  525: 
  526: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
  527: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
  528: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
  529: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
  530: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
  531: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
  532: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
  533: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
  534: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
  535: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
  536: 
  537: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
  538: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
  539: 
  540:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  541: 
  542: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  543: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
  544: 
  545: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
  546: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  547: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
  548: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
  549: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
  550: installation.
  551: 
  552: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  553: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  554: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
  555: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
  556: 
  557:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  558:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  559:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  560:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  561:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  562: 
  563: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
  564: 
  565: It is also desirable to add
  566: 
  567:     powerd=YES
  568: 
  569: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
  570: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
  571: 
  572: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
  573: 
  574: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
  575: --------------------------------------------
  576: 
  577: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  578: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  579: 
  580: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  581: the example below)
  582: 
  583:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  584: 
  585: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  586: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
  587: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
  588: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
  589: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
  590: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  591: 
  592:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  593:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  594: 
  595: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  596: partition.
  597: 
  598: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
  599: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
  600: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
  601: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
  602: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
  603: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
  604: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
  605: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
  606: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
  607: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
  608: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
  609: available in the Xen binary distribution.
  610: 
  611: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
  612: 
  613:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
  614: 
  615: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
  616: tty to the xen console.
  617: 
  618: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
  619: ----------------------------------------------
  620: 
  621: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
  622: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
  623: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
  624: image to your dom0 filesystem.
  625: 
  626:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
  627:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
  628:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
  629: 
  630:     ## for a 64-bit guest
  631:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  632:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
  633: 
  634:     ## for a 32-bit guest
  635:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
  636:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
  637: 
  638:     dom0# umount /mnt
  639:           
  640: 
  641: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
  642: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
  643: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
  644: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
  645: 
  646:     memory = 640
  647:     name = 'solaris'
  648:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  649:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
  650:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  651:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  652:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  653:     # for a 64-bit guest
  654:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  655:     # for a 32-bit guest
  656:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
  657:           
  658: 
  659: Start the guest.
  660: 
  661:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  662:     Started domain solaris
  663:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  664:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  665:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  666:     Use is subject to license terms.
  667:     Hostname: opensolaris
  668:     Remounting root read/write
  669:     Probing for device nodes ...
  670:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  671:     Preparing live image for use
  672:     Done mounting Live image
  673:           
  674: 
  675: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
  676: the xnf0 interface to appear.
  677: 
  678:     opensolaris console login: jack
  679:     Password: jack
  680:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
  681:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
  682:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
  683:     sh-3.2# exit
  684:           
  685: 
  686: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
  687: display where the installation program runs.
  688: 
  689:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
  690:     Password: solaris
  691:     Verify: solaris
  692:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
  693:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
  694:           
  695: 
  696: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
  697: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
  698: 
  699:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
  700:           
  701: 
  702: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
  703: 
  704:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
  705:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
  706:            
  707: 
  708: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
  709: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
  710: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
  711: console.
  712: 
  713:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
  714:                     bootfs = 43
  715:     ^C
  716:     jack@opensolaris:~$
  717:            
  718: 
  719: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
  720: the last line.
  721: 
  722:     memory = 640
  723:     name = 'solaris'
  724:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
  725:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
  726:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
  727:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
  728:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
  729:            
  730: 
  731: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
  732: 
  733:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
  734:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
  735:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
  736:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
  737:     Started domain solaris
  738:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
  739:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
  740:     Use is subject to license terms.
  741:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
  742:     Hostname: osol
  743:     Configuring devices.
  744:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
  745:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
  746:     Reading ZFS config: done.
  747:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
  748:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
  749:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
  750: 
  751:     osol console login:
  752:            
  753: 
  754: Using PCI devices in guest domains
  755: ----------------------------------
  756: 
  757: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
  758: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
  759: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
  760: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
  761: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
  762: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
  763: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
  764: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
  765: access the VGA registers will panic).
  766: 
  767: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
  768: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
  769: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
  770: 
  771: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
  772: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
  773: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
  774: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
  775: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
  776: single-digit number:
  777: 
  778:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
  779: 
  780: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
  781: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
  782: 
  783: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
  784: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
  785: 
  786:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
  787: 
  788: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
  789: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
  790: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
  791: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
  792: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
  793: 
  794:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
  795:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
  796: 
  797:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
  798:     xpci* at xenbus ?
  799:     pci* at xpci ?
  800: 
  801:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
  802:     # USB Controller and Devices
  803: 
  804:     # PCI USB controllers
  805:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
  806: 
  807:     # USB bus support
  808:     usb*    at uhci?
  809: 
  810:     # USB Hubs
  811:     uhub*   at usb?
  812:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  813: 
  814:     # USB Mass Storage
  815:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
  816:     wd*     at umass?
  817:     # SCSI controllers
  818:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
  819: 
  820:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
  821:     scsibus* at scsi?
  822: 
  823:     # SCSI devices
  824:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
  825:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
  826: 
  827: Links and further information
  828: =============================
  829: 
  830: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
  831:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
  832:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
  833:     NetBSD's native boot.)
  834: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
  835:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
  836:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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