File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / xen / howto.mdwn
Revision 1.137: download - view: text, annotated - select for diffs
Thu Dec 29 19:24:16 2016 UTC (5 years, 7 months ago) by gdt
Branches: MAIN
CVS tags: HEAD
Note removal of 3.1, 3.3 and 4.1 from pkgsrc-current

Threaten purging them from the HOWTO after 2017Q1 is cut.

    1: Introduction
    2: ============
    4: [![[Xen
    5: screenshot]](](
    7: Xen is a hypervisor (or virtual machine monitor) for x86 hardware
    8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
    9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  Xen is a Type 1 or
   10: bare-metal hypervisor; one uses the Xen kernel to control the CPU,
   11: memory and console, a dom0 operating system which mediates access to
   12: other hardware (e.g., disks, network, USB), and one or more domU
   13: operating systems which operate in an unprivileged virtualized
   14: environment.  IO requests from the domU systems are forwarded by the
   15: hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be fulfilled.
   17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
   18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
   19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
   22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
   23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
   26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
   27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
   28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   30: Generally any machine that runs NetBSD/amd64 will work with Xen and PV
   31: guests.  In theory i386 computers (without x86_64/amd64 support) can
   32: be used for Xen <= 4.2, but we have no recent reports of this working
   33: (this is a hint).  For HVM guests, hardware support is needed, but it
   34: is common on recent machines.  For Intel CPUs, one needs the VT-x
   35: extension, shown in "cpuctl identify 0" as VMX.  For AMD CPUs, one
   36: needs the AMD-V extensions, shown in "cpuctl identify 0" as SVM.
   37: There are further features for IOMMU virtualization, Intel's VT-d and
   38: AMD's AMD-Vi.  TODO: Explain whether Xen on NetBSD makes use of these
   39: features.  TODO: Review by someone who really understands this.
   41: Note that a FreeBSD dom0 requires VT-x and VT-d (or equivalent); this
   42: is because the FreeBSD dom0 does not run in PV mode.
   44: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
   45: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   46: in the dom0 section.)
   48: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   49: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   50: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   51: and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
   52: as a domU in a VPS.
   54: Xen 3.1 in pkgsrc supports "PCI passthrough", which means that
   55: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
   56: of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
   57: network interface or other peripheral.
   59: NetBSD 6 and earlier supported Xen 2; support was removed from NetBSD
   60: 7.  Xen 2 has been removed from pkgsrc.
   62: Prerequisites
   63: -------------
   65: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   66: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   67: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
   68: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
   69: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
   71: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   72: architecture, with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64 hardware, and with
   73: installing software from pkgsrc.  See also the [Xen
   74: website](
   76: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
   77: ==========================
   79: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
   80: of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
   81: which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
   82: versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
   84: The term "amd64" is used to refer to both the NetBSD port and to the
   85: hardware architecture on which it runs.  (Such hardware is made by
   86: both Intel and AMD, and in 2016 a normal PC has this CPU
   87: architecture.)
   89: Xen
   90: ---
   92: In NetBSD, Xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
   93: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   94: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
   95: matching versions.
   97: xenkernel3 provides Xen 3.1.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, and
   98: the last applied security patch was in 2011. Thus, it should not be
   99: used.  It supports PCI passthrough, which is why people use it anyway.
  100: Xen 3.1 runs on i386 (both non-PAE and PAE) and amd64 hardware.
  102: xenkernel33 provides Xen 3.3.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, and
  103: the last applied security patch was in 2012.  Thus, it should not be
  104: used.  Xen 3.3 runs on i386 PAE and amd64 hardware.  There are no good
  105: reasons to run this version.
  107: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
  108: as of 2016-12 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.1 runs on
  109: i386 PAE and amd64 hardware.  There are no good reasons to run this
  110: version.
  112: Note that 3.1, 3.3 and 4.1 have been removed from pkgsrc-current, but
  113: are in 2016Q4.  They will be removed from this HOWTO sometime after
  114: 12017Q1.
  116: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
  117: as of 2016-12 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.2 runs on
  118: i386 PAE and amd64 hardware.  The only reason to run this is if you
  119: need to use xm instead of xl, or if you need to run on hardware that
  120: supports i386 but not amd64.  (This might also be useful if you need
  121: an i386 dom0, if it turns out that an amd64 Xen kernel and an i386
  122: dom0 is problematic.)
  124: xenkernel45 provides Xen 4.5.  As of 2016-12, security patches were
  125: released by Xen and applied to pkgsrc.  Xen 4.5 runs on amd64 hardware
  126: only.  While slightly old, 4.5 has been tested and run by others, so
  127: it is the conservative choice.
  129: xenkernel46 provides Xen 4.6.  It is new to pkgsrc as of 2016-05.  As
  130: of 2016-12, security patches were released by Xen and applied to
  131: pkgsrc.  Xen 4.6 runs on amd64 hardware only For new installations,
  132: 4.6 is probably the appropriate choice and it will likely soon be the
  133: standard approach.  (If using Ubuntu guests, be sure to have the
  134: xentools46 from December, 2016).
  136: Xen 4.7 (released 2016-06) and 4.8 (released 2016-12) are not yet in
  137: pkgsrc.
  139: See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](
  141: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with Xen 3 and Xen
  142: 4 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
  144: Xen command program
  145: -------------------
  147: Early Xen used a program called xm to manipulate the system from the
  148: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
  149: called xl is provided, but it does not work well in 4.1.  In 4.2, both
  150: xm and xl work fine.  4.4 is the last version that has xm.
  152: You must make a global choice to use xm or xl, because it affects not
  153: only which command you use, but the command used by rc.d scripts
  154: (specifically xendomains) and which daemons should be run.  The
  155: xentools packages provide xm for 3.1, 3.3 and 4.1 and xl for 4.2 and up.
  157: In 4.2, you can choose to use xm by simply changing the ctl_command
  158: variable and setting xend=YES in rc.conf.
  160: With xl, virtual devices are configured in parallel, which can cause
  161: problems if they are written assuming serial operation (e.g., updating
  162: firewall rules without explicit locking).  There is now locking for
  163: the provided scripts, which works for normal casses (e.g, file-backed
  164: xbd, where a vnd must be allocated).  But, as of 201612, it has not
  165: been adequately tested for a complex custom setup with a large number
  166: of interfaces.
  168: NetBSD
  169: ------
  171: The netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all reasonable
  172: choices, with more or less the same considerations for non-Xen use.
  173: Therefore, netbsd-7 is recommended as the stable version of the most
  174: recent release for production use.  In addition, netbsd-7 and -current
  175: have a important scheduler fix (in November of 2015) affecting
  176: contention between dom0 and domUs; see
  177: for a
  178: description.  For those wanting to learn Xen or without production
  179: stability concerns, netbsd-7 is still likely most appropriate, but
  180: -current is also a reasonable choice.  (Xen runs ok on netbsd-5, but
  181: the xentools packages are likely difficult to build, and netbsd-5 is
  182: not supported.)
  184: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
  185: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
  186: need SMP for dom0 functions; the lack of support is really a problem
  187: when using a dom0 as a normal computer.)
  189: Architecture
  190: ------------
  192: Xen itself can run on i386 (Xen < 4.2) or amd64 hardware (all Xen
  193: versions).  (Practically, almost any computer where one would want to
  194: run Xen today supports amd64.)
  196: Xen, the dom0 system, and each domU system can be either i386 or
  197: amd64.  When building a xenkernel package, one obtains an i386 Xen
  198: kernel on an i386 host, and an amd64 Xen kernel on an amd64 host.  If
  199: the Xen kernel is i386, then the dom0 kernel and all domU kernels must
  200: be i386.  With an amd64 Xen kernel, an amd64 dom0 kernel is known to
  201: work, and an i386 dom0 kernel should in theory work.  An amd64
  202: Xen/dom0 is known to support both i386 and amd64 domUs.
  204: i386 dom0 and domU kernels must be PAE (except for an i386 Xen 3.1
  205: kernel, where one can use non-PAE for dom0 and all domUs); PAE kernels
  206: are included in the NetBSD default build.  (Note that emacs (at least)
  207: fails if run on i386 with PAE when built without, and vice versa,
  208: presumably due to bugs in the undump code.)
  210: Because of the above, the standard approach is to use an amd64 Xen
  211: kernel and NetBSD/amd64 for the dom0.  For domUs, NetBSD/i386 (with
  212: the PAE kernel) and NetBSD/amd64 are in widespread use, and there is
  213: little to no Xen-specific reason to prefer one over the other.
  215: Note that to use an i386 dom0 with Xen 4.5 or higher, one must build
  216: (or obtain from pre-built packages) an amd64 Xen kernel and install
  217: that on the system.  (One must also use a PAE i386 kernel, but this is
  218: also required with an i386 Xen kernel.).  Almost no one in the
  219: NetBSD/Xen community does this, and the standard, well-tested,
  220: approach is to use an amd64 dom0.
  222: A [posting on
  223: xen-devel](
  224: explained that PV system call overhead was higher on amd64, and thus
  225: there is some notion that i386 guests are faster.  It goes on to
  226: caution that the total situation is complex and not entirely
  227: understood. On top of that caution, the post is about Linux, not
  228: NetBSD.  TODO: Include link to benchmarks, if someone posts them.
  230: Stability
  231: ---------
  233: Mostly, NetBSD as a dom0 or domU is quite stable.
  234: However, there are some open PRs indicating problems.
  236:  - [PR 48125](
  237:  - [PR 47720](
  239: Note also that there are issues with sparse vnd(4) instances, but
  240: these are not about Xen -- they just are noticed with sparse vnd(4)
  241: instances in support of virtual disks in a dom0.
  243: Recommendation
  244: --------------
  246: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel45 or xenkernel46,
  247: xl, the NetBSD 7 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the
  248: dom0.  Either the i386PAE or amd64 version of NetBSD may be used as
  249: domUs.
  251: Because bugs are fixed quite often, and because of Xen security
  252: advisories, it is good to stay up to date with NetBSD (tracking a
  253: stable branch), with the Xen kernel (tracking a Xen version via
  254: pkgsrc), and with the Xen tools.  Specifically, NetBSD (-7 and
  255: -current) got an important fix affecting dom0/domU timesharing in
  256: November, 2015, and xentools46 got a fix to enable Ubuntu guests to
  257: boot in December, 2016.
  259: Status
  260: ------
  262: Ideally, all versions of Xen in pkgsrc would build on all supported
  263: versions of NetBSD/amd64, to the point where this section would be
  264: silly.  However, that has not always been the case.  Besides aging
  265: code and aging compilers, qemu (included in xentools for HVM support)
  266: is difficult to build.  Note that there is intentionally no data for
  267: 4.5+ up for i386, and often omits xentools info if the corresponding
  268: kernel fails.
  270: The following table gives status, with the date last checked
  271: (generally on the most recent quarterly branch).  The first code is
  272: "builds" if it builds ok, and "FAIL" for a failure to build.  The
  273: second code/date only appears for xenkernel* and is "works" if it runs
  274: ok as a dom0 and can support a domU, and "FAIL" if it won't boot or
  275: run a domU.
  277: 	xenkernel3 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201612
  278: 	xenkernel33 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201612
  279: 	xenkernel41 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201612
  280: 	xenkernel42 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201612
  281: 	xentools3 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201612
  282: 	xentools33 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201612
  283: 	xentools41 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201612
  284: 	xentools42 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201612
  286: 	xenkernel3 netbsd-7 i386 FAIL 201412
  287: 	xenkernel33 netbsd-7 i386 FAIL 201412
  288: 	xenkernel41 netbsd-7 i386 builds 201412
  289: 	xenkernel42 netbsd-7 i386 builds 201412
  290: 	xentools41 netbsd-7 i386 builds 201412
  291: 	xentools42 netbsd-7 i386 ??FAIL 201412
  293: 	xenkernel3 netbsd-6 amd64 FAIL 201612
  294: 	xenkernel33 netbsd-6 amd64 FAIL 201612
  295: 	xenkernel41 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612 works 201612
  296: 	xenkernel42 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612 works 201612
  297: 	xenkernel45 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
  298: 	xenkernel46 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
  299: 	xentools41 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
  300: 	xentools42 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
  301: 	xentools45 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
  302: 	xentools46 netbsd-6 amd64 FAIL 201612
  304: 	xenkernel3 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  305: 	xenkernel33 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  306: 	xenkernel41 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  307: 	xenkernel42 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  308: 	xenkernel45 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  309: 	xenkernel46 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  310: 	xentools3 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  311: 	xentools3-hvm netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  312: 	xentools33 netbsd-7 amd64 FAIL 201612
  313: 	xentools41 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  314: 	xentools42 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  315: 	xentools45 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  316: 	xentools46 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
  318: NetBSD as a dom0
  319: ================
  321: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
  322: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
  323: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
  324: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
  325: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
  326: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
  327: configuration.
  329: For experimenting with Xen, a machine with as little as 1G of RAM and
  330: 100G of disk can work.  For running many domUs in productions, far
  331: more will be needed; e.g. 4-8G and 1T of disk is reasonable for a
  332: half-dozen domUs of 512M and 32G each.  Basically, the RAM and disk
  333: have to be bigger than the sum of the RAM/disk needs of the dom0 and
  334: all the domUs.
  336: Styles of dom0 operation
  337: ------------------------
  339: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
  340: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
  341: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
  342: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
  344: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
  345: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
  346: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
  347: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
  348: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
  349: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaningfully less secure than the same
  350: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
  351: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
  352: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
  354: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
  355: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.  In theory
  356: the only issue is that the "backend drivers" are not yet MPSAFE:
  359: Installation of NetBSD
  360: ----------------------
  362: First,
  363: [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
  364: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
  365: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
  367: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
  368: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
  369: domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
  370: over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a file system within a RAID
  371: partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
  373: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
  374: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN.
  376: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
  377: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
  378: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
  379: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
  381: One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
  382: for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
  383: and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
  384: be used.
  386: One can use files in the dom0 file system, typically created by dd'ing
  387: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
  388: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
  389: between dom0 hosts.
  391: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
  392: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
  393: HOWTO page.)
  395: Installation of Xen
  396: -------------------
  398: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
  399: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).  See [the pkgsrc
  400: documentation]( for help with
  401: pkgsrc.  Ensure that your packages are recent; the HOWTO does not
  402: contemplate old builds.
  405: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
  406: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
  407: package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
  409: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
  410: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
  411: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
  412: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
  413: useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
  414: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
  415: of a NetBSD build.  If using i386, use
  416: releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.  (If using Xen
  417: 3.1 and i386, you may use XEN3_DOM0 with the non-PAE Xen.  But you
  418: should not use Xen 3.1.)  Both xen and the NetBSD kernel may be (and
  419: typically are) left compressed.
  421: In a dom0, kernfs is mandatory for xend to communicate with the
  422: kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.  (A standard NetBSD install
  423: should already mount /kern.)
  425: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
  426: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
  427: beginning of your root file system, have /boot, and likely also
  428: /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
  430: Add a line to to /boot.cfg to boot Xen.  See boot.cfg(5) for an
  431: example.  The basic line is
  433:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
  435: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
  436: allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use
  438:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=com0;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
  440: which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
  441: from 1), forcing speed/parity, and also for NetBSD (which counts
  442: starting at 0).  In an attempt to add performance, one can also add
  444:         dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
  446: to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
  447: more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU.  TODO: benchmark this.
  449: Xen has [many boot
  450: options](,
  451: and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
  452: necessary.
  454: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
  455: kernel that works without Xen).  Consider a line to boot /netbsd.ok (a
  456: fallback version of the non-Xen kernel, updated manually when you are
  457: sure /netbsd is ok).  Consider also a line to boot fallback versions
  458: of Xen and the dom0 kernel, but note that non-Xen NetBSD can be used
  459: to resolve Xen booting issues.
  461: Probably you want a default=N line to choose Xen in the absence of
  462: intervention.
  464: Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
  465: than GENERIC without Xen.
  467: Using grub (historic)
  468: ---------------------
  470: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
  471: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
  472: [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub).
  474: The [HowTo on Installing into
  475: RAID-1](
  476: explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with
  477: NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native
  478: boot.  Now, just create a system with RAID-1, and alter /boot.cfg as
  479: described above.)
  481: Configuring Xen
  482: ---------------
  484: Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.
  486: Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, but not
  487: do anything else special.  Make sure that you have rebooted into Xen.
  488: There will be no domUs, and none can be started because you still have
  489: to configure the dom0 daemons.
  491: The daemons which should be run vary with Xen version and with whether
  492: one is using xm or xl.  The Xen 3.1, 3.3 and 4.1 packages use xm.  Xen
  493: 4.2 and up packages use xl.  To use xm with 4.2, edit xendomains to
  494: use xm instead.
  496: For 3.1 and 3.3, you should enable xend and xenbackendd:
  498:         xend=YES
  499:         xenbackendd=YES
  501: For 4.1 and up, you should enable xencommons.  Not enabling xencommons
  502: will result in a hang; it is necessary to hit ^C on the console to let
  503: the machine finish booting.  If you are using xm (default in 4.1, or
  504: if you changed xendomains in 4.2), you should also enable xend:
  506:         xend=YES # only if using xm, and only installed <= 4.2
  507:         xencommons=YES
  509: TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
  511: After you have configured the daemons and either started them (in the
  512: order given) or rebooted, use xm or xl to inspect Xen's boot messages,
  513: available resources, and running domains.  An example with xl follows:
  515:         # xl dmesg
  516: 	[xen's boot info]
  517:         # xl info
  518: 	[available memory, etc.]
  519:         # xl list
  520:         Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
  521:         Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
  523: ### Issues with xencommons
  525: xencommons starts xenstored, which stores data on behalf of dom0 and
  526: domUs.  It does not currently work to stop and start xenstored.
  527: Certainly all domUs should be shutdown first, following the sort order
  528: of the rc.d scripts.  However, the dom0 sets up state with xenstored,
  529: and is not notified when xenstored exits, leading to not recreating
  530: the state when the new xenstored starts.  Until there's a mechanism to
  531: make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
  532: (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that
  533: this will get fixed any time soon.
  535: ### No-longer needed advice about devices
  537: The installation of NetBSD should already have created devices for xen
  538: (xencons, xenevt, xsd_kva), but if they are not present, create them:
  540:         cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
  542: anita (for testing NetBSD)
  543: --------------------------
  545: With the setup so far (assuming 4.2/xl), one should be able to run
  546: anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
  547: root, because anita must create a domU):
  549:         anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
  551: Alternatively, one can use --vmm=xm to use xm-based domU creation
  552: instead (and must, on Xen <= 4.1).   TODO: confirm that anita xl really works.
  554: Xen-specific NetBSD issues
  555: --------------------------
  557: There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
  558: dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
  560: One is that the module ABI is different because some of the #defines
  561: change, so one must build modules for Xen.  As of netbsd-7, the build
  562: system does this automatically.  TODO: check this.  (Before building
  563: Xen modules was added, it was awkward to use modules to the point
  564: where it was considered that it did not work.)
  566: The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
  567: options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a
  568: bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
  569: items if desired.
  571: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
  572: -------------------------
  574: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
  575: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
  576: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
  577: and adjusts /etc.
  579: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
  580: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
  582: Converting from grub to /boot
  583: -----------------------------
  585: These instructions were [TODO: will be] used to convert a system from
  586: grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of
  587: 2006 with a RAID1 setup and grub to boot Xen 2, and has been updated
  588: over time.  Before these commands, it was running NetBSD 6 i386, Xen
  589: 4.1 and grub, much like the message linked earlier in the grub
  590: section.
  592:         # Install MBR bootblocks on both disks. 
  593:         fdisk -i /dev/rwd0d
  594:         fdisk -i /dev/rwd1d
  595:         # Install NetBSD primary boot loader (/ is FFSv1) into RAID1 components.
  596:         installboot -v /dev/rwd0d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  597:         installboot -v /dev/rwd1d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
  598:         # Install secondary boot loader
  599:         cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /
  600:         # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:
  601:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
  602:         menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=256M
  603:         menu=GENERIC:boot
  604:         menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s
  605:         menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok
  606:         menu=GENERIC.ok single-user:boot netbsd.ok -s
  607:         menu=Drop to boot prompt:prompt
  608:         default=1
  609:         timeout=30
  611: TODO: actually do this and fix it if necessary.
  613: Upgrading Xen versions
  614: ---------------------
  616: Minor version upgrades are trivial.  Just rebuild/replace the
  617: xenkernel version and copy the new xen.gz to / (where /boot.cfg
  618: references it), and reboot.
  620: Major version upgrades are conceptually not difficult, but can run
  621: into all the issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration
  622: from 4.1 to 4.2, remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and
  623: install the xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz
  624: to /.
  626: Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Specifically,
  627: they must match the package you just installed and not be left over
  628: from some previous installation.
  630: Enable the correct set of daemons; see the configuring section above.
  631: (Upgrading from 3.x to 4.x without doing this will result in a hang.)
  633: Ensure that the domU config files are valid for the new version.
  634: Specifically, for 4.x remove autorestart=True, and ensure that disks
  635: are specified with numbers as the second argument, as the examples
  636: above show, and not NetBSD device names.
  638: Hardware known to work
  639: ----------------------
  641: Arguably, this section is misplaced, and there should be a page of
  642: hardware that runs NetBSD/amd64 well, with the mostly-well-founded
  643: assumption that NetBSD/xen runs fine on any modern hardware that
  644: NetBSD/amd64 runs well on.  Until then, we give motherboard/CPU (and
  645: sometimes RAM) pairs/triples to aid those choosing a motherboard.
  646: Note that Xen systems usually do not run X, so a listing here does not
  647: imply that X works at all.
  649:         Supermicro X9SRL-F, Xeon E5-1650 v2, 96 GiB ECC
  650:         Supermicro ??, Atom C2758 (8 core), 32 GiB ECC
  651:         ASUS M5A78L-M/USB3 AM3+ microATX, AMD Piledriver X8 4000MHz, 16 GiB ECC
  653: Older hardware:
  655:         Intel D915GEV, Pentium4 CPU 3.40GHz, 4GB 533MHz Synchronous DDR2
  656:         INTEL DG33FB, "Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU     E6850  @ 3.00GHz"
  657:         INTEL DG33FB, "Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU     E8400  @ 3.00GHz"
  659: Running Xen under qemu
  660: ----------------------
  662: The astute reader will note that this section is somewhat twisted.
  663: However, it can be useful to run Xen under qemu either because the
  664: version of NetBSD as a dom0 does not run on the hardware in use, or to
  665: generate automated test cases involving Xen.
  667: In 2015-01, the following combination was reported to mostly work:
  669:         host OS: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.4
  670:         qemu: 2.2.0 from pkgsrc
  671:         Xen kernel: xenkernel42-4.2.5nb1 from pkgsrc
  672:         dom0 kernel: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.5
  673:         Xen tools: xentools42-4.2.5 from pkgsrc
  675: See [PR 47720]( for a problem with dom0
  676: shutdown.
  678: Unprivileged domains (domU)
  679: ===========================
  681: This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
  682: address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
  683: config files for domUs are typically in /usr/pkg/etc/xen, and are
  684: typically named so that the file name, domU name and the domU's host
  685: name match.
  687: The domU is provided with CPU and memory by Xen, configured by the
  688: dom0.  The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
  689: mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
  691: Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
  692: the dom0.  NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
  694: Config files
  695: ------------
  697: There is no good order to present config files and the concepts
  698: surrounding what is being configured.  We first show an example config
  699: file, and then in the various sections give details.
  701: See (at least in xentools41) /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xmexample*,
  702: for a large number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
  703: GNU/Linux.
  705: The following is an example minimal domain configuration file
  706: "/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo".  It is (with only a name change) an actual
  707: known working config file on Xen 4.1 (NetBSD 5 amd64 dom0 and NetBSD 5
  708: i386 domU).  The domU serves as a network file server.
  710:         # -*- mode: python; -*-
  712:         kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
  713:         memory = 1024
  714:         vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
  715:         disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
  716:                  'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
  718: The domain will have the same name as the file.  The kernel has the
  719: host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
  720: domUs independently.  The vif line causes an interface to be provided,
  721: with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
  722: mode.  Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
  723: are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
  724: dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device
  725: without needing explicit configuration.
  727: By default xm looks for domain config files in /usr/pkg/etc/xen.  Note
  728: that "xm create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
  729: take the name of a domain.  To create the domain, connect to the
  730: console, create the domain while attaching the console, shutdown the
  731: domain, and see if it has finished stopping, do (or xl with Xen >=
  732: 4.2):
  734:         xm create foo
  735:         xm console foo
  736:         xm create -c foo
  737:         xm shutdown foo
  738:         xm list
  740: Typing ^] will exit the console session.  Shutting down a domain is
  741: equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
  742: power-press event and do a clean shutdown.  Shutting down the dom0
  743: will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
  745: domU kernels
  746: ------------
  748: On a physical computer, the BIOS reads sector 0, and a chain of boot
  749: loaders finds and loads a kernel.  Normally this comes from the root
  750: file system.  With Xen domUs, the process is totally different.  The
  751: normal path is for the domU kernel to be a file in the dom0's
  752: file system.  At the request of the dom0, Xen loads that kernel into a
  753: new domU instance and starts execution.  While domU kernels can be
  754: anyplace, reasonable places to store domU kernels on the dom0 are in /
  755: (so they are near the dom0 kernel), in /usr/pkg/etc/xen (near the
  756: config files), or in /u0/xen (where the vdisks are).
  758: Note that loading the domU kernel from the dom0 implies that boot
  759: blocks, /boot, /boot.cfg, and so on are all ignored in the domU.
  760: See the VPS section near the end for discussion of alternate ways to
  761: obtain domU kernels.
  763: CPU and memory
  764: --------------
  766: A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, less than the number
  767: of CPUs seen by the hypervisor.  (For a dom0, this is controlled by
  768: the boot argument "dom0_max_vcpus=1".)  For a domU, it is controlled
  769: from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
  771: A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
  772: file by "memory = N" (in megabytes).  In the straightforward case, the
  773: sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
  774: than the available memory.
  776: Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
  777: use more memory temporarily.  TODO: Explain better, and explain how
  778: well it works with NetBSD.
  780: Virtual disks
  781: -------------
  783: With the file/vnd style, typically one creates a directory,
  784: e.g. /u0/xen, on a disk large enough to hold virtual disks for all
  785: domUs.  Then, for each domU disk, one writes zeros to a file that then
  786: serves to hold the virtual disk's bits; a suggested name is foo-xbd0
  787: for the first virtual disk for the domU called foo.  Writing zeros to
  788: the file serves two purposes.  One is that preallocating the contents
  789: improves performance.  The other is that vnd on sparse files has
  790: failed to work.  TODO: give working/notworking NetBSD versions for
  791: sparse vnd and gnats reference.  Note that the use of file/vnd for Xen
  792: is not really different than creating a file-backed virtual disk for
  793: some other purpose, except that xentools handles the vnconfig
  794: commands.  To create an empty 4G virtual disk, simply do
  796:         dd if=/dev/zero of=foo-xbd0 bs=1m count=4096
  798: Do not use qemu-img-xen, because this will create sparse file.  There
  799: have been recent (2015) reports of sparse vnd(4) devices causing
  800: lockups, but there is apparently no PR.
  802: With the lvm style, one creates logical devices.  They are then used
  803: similarly to vnds.  TODO: Add an example with lvm.
  805: In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples.
  806: The first element is "method:/path/to/disk".  Common methods are
  807: "file:" for file-backed vnd. and "phy:" for something that is already
  808: a (TODO: character or block) device.
  810: The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
  811: Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage.  Linux domUs
  812: are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
  813: "hda1" or "sda1" are common.  In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
  814: as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on.  However, xm/xl demand a
  815: second argument.  The name given is converted to a major/minor by
  816: calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
  817: In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
  818: systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
  819: numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev.  With NetBSD
  820: as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
  821: for the second works fine and avoids this issue.  For a GNU/Linux
  822: guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
  823: /dev/hda1.
  825: The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
  826: disks.
  828: Note that NetBSD by default creates only vnd[0123].  If you need more
  829: than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the
  830: dom0.
  832: Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd[0123].  If you need more
  833: virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.
  835: Virtual Networking
  836: ------------------
  838: Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
  839: domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
  840: the dom0, and in domU index N, a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD
  841: name).  The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
  842: adapters connected.  From this primitive, one can construct various
  843: configurations.  We focus on two common and useful cases for which
  844: there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
  846: With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
  847: on the same network as the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is
  848: usually best.  Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
  849: and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
  850: interfaces to the bridge.  One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
  851: config file.  The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
  852: example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
  854:         create
  855:         up
  856:         !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
  858: With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
  859: dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
  860: TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
  862: The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
  863: domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
  864: 00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
  866: Sizing domains
  867: --------------
  869: Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources.  However, many
  870: virtual servers can function just fine on far less.  A system with
  871: 256M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice.  Note that it is
  872: far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones.  For
  873: memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot.  For disk, one can
  874: create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,
  875: just like updating physical disks, but without having to be there and
  876: without those pesky connectors.
  878: Starting domains automatically
  879: ------------------------------
  881: To start domains foo at bar at boot and shut them down cleanly on dom0
  882: shutdown, in rc.conf add:
  884:         xendomains="foo bar"
  886: Note that earlier versions of the xentools41 xendomains rc.d script
  887: used xl, when one should use xm with 4.1.
  889: Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)
  890: =============================================
  892: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
  893: have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must
  894: have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" (or "xm list")
  895: works.
  897: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
  898: ---------------------------------------------
  900: See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
  901: storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or lvm).
  903: While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 file system, the same
  904: file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
  905: savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
  907: The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The
  908: i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
  910:         i386 XEN3_DOMU
  911:         i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
  912:         amd64 XEN3_DOMU
  914: Unless using Xen 3.1 (and you shouldn't) with i386-mode Xen, you must
  915: use the PAE version of the i386 kernel.
  917: This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
  918: empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
  919: (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
  920: system you can't run the installer on).
  922: A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
  923: and can load sets from the network.  To do this, copy the INSTALL
  924: kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
  926:         kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
  928: Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configname".
  930: Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
  931: line should be used in the config file.
  933:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
  935: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
  936: selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
  938: Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
  939: it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
  940: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
  941: and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
  942: xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
  944: TODO: check if this is still accurate.
  945: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
  946: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
  947: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
  948: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
  950:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
  951:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  952:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  953:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  954:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
  956: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
  958: It is also desirable to add
  960:         powerd=YES
  962: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
  963: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the dom0.
  965: It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU
  966: file system.  However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that
  967: kernel to look up symbols to read from kernel virtual memory.  If
  968: /netbsd is not the running kernel, those lookups will fail.  (This is
  969: not really a Xen-specific issue, but because the domU kernel is
  970: obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
  971: missing with Xen.)
  973: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
  974: --------------------------------------------
  976: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
  977: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
  979: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
  980: the example below)
  982:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
  984: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
  985: for hda).  Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
  986: So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
  987: device number 0x301.  Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
  988: hdb, ...)  as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
  989: numbers.  To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
  991:         disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
  992:         root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
  994: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
  995: partition.
  997: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
  998: guest domain, the following method can be used: install
  999: sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc.  Use mke2fs to format the partition
 1000: that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
 1001: Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
 1002: `/etc` (fstab, network config).  It should also be possible to extract
 1003: binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
 1004: using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
 1005: emulation.  Once the file system has been populated, umount it.  If
 1006: desirable, the file system can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
 1007: It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
 1008: the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
 1010: To get the Linux console right, you need to add:
 1012:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
 1014: to your configuration since not all Linux distributions auto-attach a
 1015: tty to the xen console.
 1017: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
 1018: ----------------------------------------------
 1020: See possibly outdated
 1021: [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
 1024: PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
 1025: ---------------------------------------------------
 1027: The dom0 can give other domains access to selected PCI
 1028: devices. This can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have
 1029: access to a physical network interface or disk controller.  However,
 1030: keep in mind that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely
 1031: will give the domain read/write access to the whole physical memory,
 1032: as PCs don't have an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable
 1033: device.  Also, it's not possible to export ISA devices to non-dom0
 1034: domains, which means that the primary VGA adapter can't be exported.
 1035: A guest domain trying to access the VGA registers will panic.
 1037: If the dom0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as support has
 1038: not been ported to later versions at this time.
 1040: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to
 1041: the "pciback" driver in dom0.  Devices passed to the dom0 via the
 1042: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to "pciback" instead of the
 1043: usual driver.  The list of devices is specified as "(bus:dev.func)",
 1044: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
 1045: single-digit number:
 1047:         pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
 1049: pciback devices should show up in the dom0's boot messages, and the
 1050: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
 1052: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the "pci" array of
 1053: the domU's config file, with the format "0000:bus:dev.func".
 1055:         pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
 1057: In the domU an "xpci" device will show up, to which one or more pci
 1058: buses will attach.  Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI buses as
 1059: usual.  Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have "xpci"
 1060: or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own
 1061: kernel to use PCI devices in a domU.  Here's a kernel config example;
 1062: note that only the "xpci" lines are unusual.
 1064:         include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
 1066:         # Add support for PCI buses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
 1067:         xpci* at xenbus ?
 1068:         pci* at xpci ?
 1070:         # PCI USB controllers
 1071:         uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
 1073:         # USB bus support
 1074:         usb*    at uhci?
 1076:         # USB Hubs
 1077:         uhub*   at usb?
 1078:         uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
 1080:         # USB Mass Storage
 1081:         umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
 1082:         wd*     at umass?
 1083:         # SCSI controllers
 1084:         ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
 1086:         # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
 1087:         scsibus* at scsi?
 1089:         # SCSI devices
 1090:         sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
 1091:         cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
 1094: NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
 1095: =========================
 1097: The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
 1098: hardware.  This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
 1099: virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
 1100: dom0.  This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of VPS providers;
 1101: only a few are mentioned that specifically support NetBSD.
 1103: VPS operators provide varying degrees of access and mechanisms for
 1104: configuration.  The big issue is usually how one controls which kernel
 1105: is booted, because the kernel is nominally in the dom0 file system (to
 1106: which VPS users do not normally have access).  A second issue is how
 1107: to install NetBSD.
 1108: A VPS user may want to compile a kernel for security updates, to run
 1109: npf, run IPsec, or any other reason why someone would want to change
 1110: their kernel.
 1112: One approach is to have an administrative interface to upload a kernel,
 1113: or to select from a prepopulated list.  Other approaches are pygrub
 1114: (deprecated) and pvgrub, which are ways to have a bootloader obtain a
 1115: kernel from the domU file system.  This is closer to a regular physical
 1116: computer, where someone who controls a machine can replace the kernel.
 1118: A second issue is multiple CPUs.  With NetBSD 6, domUs support
 1119: multiple vcpus, and it is typical for VPS providers to enable multiple
 1120: CPUs for NetBSD domUs.
 1122: pygrub
 1123: -------
 1125: pygrub runs in the dom0 and looks into the domU file system.  This
 1126: implies that the domU must have a kernel in a file system in a format
 1127: known to pygrub.  As of 2014, pygrub seems to be of mostly historical
 1128: interest.
 1130: pvgrub
 1131: ------
 1133: pvgrub is a version of grub that uses PV operations instead of BIOS
 1134: calls.  It is booted from the dom0 as the domU kernel, and then reads
 1135: /grub/menu.lst and loads a kernel from the domU file system.
 1137: [Panix]( lets users use pvgrub.  Panix reports
 1138: that pvgrub works with FFsv2 with 16K/2K and 32K/4K block/frag sizes
 1139: (and hence with defaults from "newfs -O 2").  See [Panix's pvgrub
 1140: page](, which describes only
 1141: Linux but should be updated to cover NetBSD :-).
 1143: []( also lets users with pvgrub to boot
 1144: their own kernel.  See then [ NetBSD
 1145: HOWTO](
 1146: (which is in need of updating).
 1148: It appears that [grub's FFS
 1149: code](
 1150: does not support all aspects of modern FFS, but there are also reports
 1151: that FFSv2 works fine.  At prgmr, typically one has an ext2 or FAT
 1152: partition for the kernel with the intent that grub can understand it,
 1153: which leads to /netbsd not being the actual kernel.  One must remember
 1154: to update the special boot partition.
 1156: Amazon
 1157: ------
 1159: See the [Amazon EC2 page](../amazon_ec2/).
 1161: Using npf
 1162: ---------
 1164: In standard kernels, npf is a module, and thus cannot be loaded in a
 1165: DOMU kernel.
 1167: TODO: Explain how to compile npf into a custom kernel, answering (but
 1168: note that the problem was caused by not booting the right kernel)
 1169: [this email to
 1170: netbsd-users](
 1172: TODO items for improving NetBSD/xen
 1173: ===================================
 1175: * Make the NetBSD dom0 kernel work with SMP.
 1176: * Test the Xen 4.5 packages adequately to be able to recommend them as
 1177:   the standard approach.
 1178: * Get PCI passthrough working on Xen 4.5
 1179: * Get pvgrub into pkgsrc, either via xentools or separately.
 1180: * grub
 1181:   * Check/add support to pkgsrc grub2 for UFS2 and arbitrary
 1182:     fragsize/blocksize (UFS2 support may be present; the point is to
 1183:     make it so that with any UFS1/UFS2 file system setup that works
 1184:     with NetBSD grub will also work).
 1185:     See [pkg/40258](
 1186:   * Push patches upstream.
 1187:   * Get UFS2 patches into pvgrub.
 1188: * Add support for PV ops to a version of /boot, and make it usable as
 1189:   a kernel in Xen, similar to pvgrub.
 1190: * Solve somehow the issue with modules for GENERIC not being loadable
 1191:   in a Xen dom0 or domU kernel.
 1193: Random pointers
 1194: ===============
 1196: This section contains links from elsewhere not yet integrated into the
 1197: HOWTO, and other guides.
 1199: *
 1200: *
 1201: *

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