Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.5

1.5     ! mspo        1: <table>
        !             2: <tbody>
        !             3: <tr class="odd">
        !             4: <td align="left"><a href="../../about/disclaimer.html#bsd-daemon"></a></td>
        !             5: <td align="left"><h1>Table Of Contents</h1>
        !             6: <ul>
        !             7: <li>Introduction</li>
        !             8: <li>Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)</li>
        !             9: <li>Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)</li>
        !            10: <li>Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)</li>
        !            11: <li>Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)</li>
        !            12: <li>Using PCI devices in guest domains</li>
        !            13: <li>Links and further information</li>
        !            14: </ul></td>
        !            15: </tr>
        !            16: </tbody>
        !            17: </table>
1.1       mspo       18: 
1.5     ! mspo       19: Introduction
        !            20: ------------
1.1       mspo       21: 
                     22: [![[Xen
                     23: screenshot]](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
                     24: 
                     25: Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class
                     26: CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a
1.5     ! mspo       27: single machine. Guest OSes (also called “domains”) require a modified
1.1       mspo       28: kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the
                     29: physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen
                     30: hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel
                     31: for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded
                     32: using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for
1.5     ! mspo       33: this, or alternatively the `grub` boot loader (`grub` has some
1.1       mspo       34: limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access
                     35: the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains
                     36: and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that
1.5     ! mspo       37: lack those privileges. For more details, see [](http://www.xen.org/).
1.1       mspo       38: 
                     39: NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged
                     40: (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains
                     41: accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices
                     42: to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single
                     43: privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much
                     44: like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console
                     45: (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only
1.5     ! mspo       46: virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`) and virtual network interfaces
        !            47: (`xennet`) provided by a privileged domain (usually *domain0*). xbd
        !            48: devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a partition of a disk,
        !            49: raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain. xennet devices are
        !            50: connected to virtual devices in the privileged domain, named
        !            51: xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g., xvif1.0. Both
        !            52: xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet devices (they can
        !            53: be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be assigned
        !            54: addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...) or be
        !            55: added as part of a bridge.
1.1       mspo       56: 
1.5     ! mspo       57: Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)
        !            58: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo       59: 
                     60: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
                     61: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
                     62: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
1.5     ! mspo       63: available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots
        !            64: for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.
        !            65: If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk
        !            66: you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
1.1       mspo       67: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
                     68: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
                     69: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
                     70: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
                     71: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
                     72: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
                     73: other domains.
                     74: 
                     75: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
                     76: packages. See [the pkgsrc
                     77: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
                     78: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
                     79: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
1.5     ! mspo       80: not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`
        !            81: for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen
        !            82: 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or
        !            83: `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll
        !            84: also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If
        !            85: using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`
1.1       mspo       86: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
                     87: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
1.5     ! mspo       88: `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel
        !            89: CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You
        !            90: can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl
        !            91: command:
1.1       mspo       92: 
1.3       mspo       93:     # cpuctl identify 0
                     94:     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
                     95:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
                     96:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
                     97:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
1.5     ! mspo       98:     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
1.3       mspo       99:     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
                    100:     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
                    101:     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
                    102:     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
                    103:     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
                    104:     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
                    105:     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
                    106:     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
                    107:     cpu0: Core ID 0
                    108:     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
1.1       mspo      109: 
                    110: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
                    111: SVM or VMX.
                    112: 
                    113: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
1.5     ! mspo      114: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is
        !           115: `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel
        !           116: with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial
        !           117: console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial
        !           118: console. It is not useful with a VGA console.
1.1       mspo      119: 
                    120: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
                    121: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
                    122: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
                    123: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
1.5     ! mspo      124: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`
        !           125: must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.
        !           126: 
        !           127: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the
        !           128: NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot
        !           129: loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)
        !           130: manual page for an example using the latter.
1.1       mspo      131: 
                    132: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
                    133: console to use, etc ...
                    134: 
1.5     ! mspo      135: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:
1.1       mspo      136: 
1.5     ! mspo      137:     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
1.3       mspo      138:     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
                    139:     #
                    140:     # The default entry to load will be the first one
                    141:     default=0
1.5     ! mspo      142: 
1.3       mspo      143:     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
                    144:     timeout=10
1.5     ! mspo      145: 
1.3       mspo      146:     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
                    147:     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
1.5     ! mspo      148: 
1.3       mspo      149:     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
                    150:     # to serial after 10s
                    151:     terminal --timeout=10 serial console
1.5     ! mspo      152: 
1.3       mspo      153:     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
                    154:     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
                    155:     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
                    156:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
                    157:       root(hd0,0)
                    158:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    159:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
1.5     ! mspo      160: 
1.3       mspo      161:     # Same as above, but using VGA console
                    162:     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
                    163:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
                    164:       root(hd0,0)
                    165:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    166:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5     ! mspo      167: 
1.3       mspo      168:     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
                    169:     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
                    170:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
                    171:       root(hd0,0)
                    172:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    173:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
                    174:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
                    175:       root(hd0,0)
                    176:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    177:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5     ! mspo      178: 
1.3       mspo      179:     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
                    180:     #nonworking /xen.gz
                    181:     title NetBSD 5.1
                    182:       root (hd0,a)
                    183:       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
1.5     ! mspo      184: 
1.3       mspo      185:     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
                    186:     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
                    187:     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
                    188:     title NetBSD chain
                    189:       root        (hd0,0)
                    190:       chainloader +1
1.5     ! mspo      191: 
1.3       mspo      192:     ## end of grub config file.
1.5     ! mspo      193:           
        !           194: 
1.1       mspo      195: Install grub with the following command:
                    196: 
1.3       mspo      197:     # grub --no-floppy
1.5     ! mspo      198: 
1.3       mspo      199:     grub> root (hd0,a)
                    200:      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
1.5     ! mspo      201: 
1.3       mspo      202:     grub> setup (hd0)
                    203:      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
                    204:      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
                    205:      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
                    206:      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
                    207:      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
                    208:     succeeded
                    209:      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
                    210:      succeeded
                    211:     Done.
1.5     ! mspo      212:           
1.1       mspo      213: 
1.5     ! mspo      214: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)
        !           215: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      216: 
                    217: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
1.5     ! mspo      218: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
        !           219: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
        !           220: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
        !           221: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
        !           222: can create them with this command:
1.1       mspo      223: 
1.3       mspo      224:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.1       mspo      225: 
1.5     ! mspo      226: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
        !           227: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
        !           228: 'xm list' will show something like:
1.1       mspo      229: 
1.3       mspo      230:     # xm list
                    231:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    232:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.1       mspo      233: 
                    234: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
                    235: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
1.5     ! mspo      236: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
        !           237: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
        !           238: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
        !           239: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
        !           240: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
        !           241: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
1.1       mspo      242: 
                    243: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
                    244: 
1.3       mspo      245:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
                    246:     #============================================================================
                    247:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
                    248:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
                    249:     #============================================================================
1.5     ! mspo      250: 
1.3       mspo      251:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    252:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
                    253:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
                    254:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5     ! mspo      255: 
1.3       mspo      256:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
                    257:     memory = 128
1.5     ! mspo      258: 
1.3       mspo      259:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
                    260:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
                    261:     # number. All domains must have different names.
                    262:     #
                    263:     name = "nbsd"
1.5     ! mspo      264: 
1.3       mspo      265:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
                    266:     #
                    267:     vcpus = 1
1.5     ! mspo      268: 
1.3       mspo      269:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    270:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
1.5     ! mspo      271: 
1.3       mspo      272:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
                    273:     nics = 1
1.5     ! mspo      274: 
1.3       mspo      275:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
                    276:     #
                    277:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
                    278:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
                    279:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
                    280:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
                    281:     #
                    282:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
                    283:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
                    284:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
                    285:     #
                    286:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
                    287:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
                    288:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
                    289:     #
                    290:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
1.5     ! mspo      291: 
1.3       mspo      292:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    293:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
                    294:     # what you want them accessible as.
                    295:     #
                    296:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
                    297:     #
1.5     ! mspo      298:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      299:     #
                    300:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
                    301:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
                    302:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
                    303:     #
1.5     ! mspo      304:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      305:     #
                    306:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
                    307:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
                    308:     #
                    309:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
                    310:     # but it does for Linux.
                    311:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
                    312:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
                    313:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
                    314:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
                    315:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
                    316:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
1.5     ! mspo      317: 
1.3       mspo      318:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
                    319:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
                    320:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
1.5     ! mspo      321: 
1.3       mspo      322:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    323:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
1.5     ! mspo      324: 
1.3       mspo      325:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
                    326:     root = "xbd0"
                    327:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
                    328:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
                    329:     #extra = ""
1.5     ! mspo      330: 
1.3       mspo      331:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    332:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
                    333:     # The default is False.
                    334:     #autorestart = True
1.5     ! mspo      335: 
1.3       mspo      336:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
1.1       mspo      337: 
                    338: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
1.5     ! mspo      339: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
        !           340: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
        !           341: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
        !           342: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
        !           343: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
        !           344: like this:
1.1       mspo      345: 
1.3       mspo      346:     create
                    347:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
1.1       mspo      348: 
1.5     ! mspo      349: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
        !           350: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
1.1       mspo      351: 
1.5     ! mspo      352: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
        !           353: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
1.1       mspo      354: 
1.5     ! mspo      355:     #!/bin/sh
1.3       mspo      356:     #============================================================================
1.5     ! mspo      357:     # $NetBSD: vif-bridge-nbsd,v 1.3 2005/11/08 00:47:35 jlam Exp $
1.3       mspo      358:     #
                    359:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
                    360:     #
                    361:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
                    362:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
                    363:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
                    364:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
                    365:     #
                    366:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
                    367:     #
                    368:     # Actions:
1.5     ! mspo      369:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
        !           370:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
1.3       mspo      371:     #
                    372:     # Variables:
1.5     ! mspo      373:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
        !           374:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
        !           375:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
        !           376:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
1.3       mspo      377:     #
                    378:     # Example invocation:
                    379:     #
                    380:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
                    381:     #
                    382:     #============================================================================
1.5     ! mspo      383: 
1.3       mspo      384:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
                    385:     set -e
1.5     ! mspo      386: 
1.3       mspo      387:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
1.5     ! mspo      388: 
1.3       mspo      389:     # Operation name.
                    390:     OP=$1; shift
1.5     ! mspo      391: 
1.3       mspo      392:     # Pull variables in args into environment
                    393:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
1.5     ! mspo      394: 
1.3       mspo      395:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
                    396:     domain=${domain:?}
                    397:     vif=${vif:?}
                    398:     mac=${mac:?}
                    399:     bridge=${bridge:?}
1.5     ! mspo      400: 
1.3       mspo      401:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
                    402:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
1.5     ! mspo      403: 
1.3       mspo      404:     # Are we going up or down?
                    405:     case $OP in
1.5     ! mspo      406:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
1.3       mspo      407:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
                    408:     *)
1.5     ! mspo      409:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
        !           410:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
        !           411:         exit 1
        !           412:         ;;
1.3       mspo      413:     esac
1.5     ! mspo      414: 
1.3       mspo      415:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
                    416:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
1.5     ! mspo      417:         exit
1.3       mspo      418:     fi
1.5     ! mspo      419: 
1.3       mspo      420:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
                    421:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
1.5     ! mspo      422:         exit
1.3       mspo      423:     fi
1.5     ! mspo      424: 
1.3       mspo      425:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
                    426:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
                    427:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
1.1       mspo      428: 
                    429: Now, running
                    430: 
1.3       mspo      431:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
1.1       mspo      432: 
1.5     ! mspo      433: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
        !           434: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
        !           435: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
        !           436: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
        !           437: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
        !           438: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
        !           439: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
        !           440: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
        !           441: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
        !           442: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
1.1       mspo      443: 
                    444: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
1.5     ! mspo      445: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
1.1       mspo      446: 
1.3       mspo      447:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      448: 
                    449: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.5     ! mspo      450: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      451: 
1.5     ! mspo      452: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
        !           453: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
1.1       mspo      454: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
1.5     ! mspo      455: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
        !           456: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
        !           457: installation.
1.1       mspo      458: 
                    459: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    460: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5     ! mspo      461: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
        !           462: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      463: 
1.3       mspo      464:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    465:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    466:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    467:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    468:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      469: 
1.5     ! mspo      470: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      471: 
                    472: It is also desirable to add
                    473: 
1.3       mspo      474:     powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      475: 
1.5     ! mspo      476: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
        !           477: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
1.1       mspo      478: 
                    479: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
                    480: 
1.5     ! mspo      481: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)
        !           482: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      483: 
                    484: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    485: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    486: 
                    487: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    488: the example below)
                    489: 
1.3       mspo      490:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      491: 
                    492: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
                    493: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
                    494: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
                    495: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
                    496: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
                    497: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
                    498: 
1.3       mspo      499:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    500:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      501: 
                    502: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    503: partition.
                    504: 
                    505: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
                    506: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
                    507: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
                    508: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
1.5     ! mspo      509: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
        !           510: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
        !           511: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
        !           512: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
        !           513: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
        !           514: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
        !           515: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
        !           516: available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      517: 
                    518: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
                    519: 
1.3       mspo      520:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      521: 
                    522: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
                    523: tty to the xen console.
                    524: 
1.5     ! mspo      525: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)
        !           526: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      527: 
                    528: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
                    529: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
1.5     ! mspo      530: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
        !           531: image to your dom0 filesystem.
1.1       mspo      532: 
1.3       mspo      533:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
                    534:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
                    535:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
1.5     ! mspo      536: 
1.3       mspo      537:     ## for a 64-bit guest
                    538:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    539:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
1.5     ! mspo      540: 
1.3       mspo      541:     ## for a 32-bit guest
                    542:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    543:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
1.5     ! mspo      544: 
1.3       mspo      545:     dom0# umount /mnt
1.5     ! mspo      546:           
        !           547: 
        !           548: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
        !           549: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
        !           550: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
        !           551: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
1.1       mspo      552: 
1.4       mspo      553:     memory = 640
                    554:     name = 'solaris'
                    555:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    556:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
                    557:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    558:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    559:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    560:     # for a 64-bit guest
                    561:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
                    562:     # for a 32-bit guest
                    563:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
1.5     ! mspo      564:           
        !           565: 
1.1       mspo      566: Start the guest.
                    567: 
1.4       mspo      568:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    569:     Started domain solaris
                    570:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    571:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    572:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    573:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    574:     Hostname: opensolaris
                    575:     Remounting root read/write
                    576:     Probing for device nodes ...
                    577:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    578:     Preparing live image for use
                    579:     Done mounting Live image
1.5     ! mspo      580:           
1.1       mspo      581: 
                    582: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
                    583: the xnf0 interface to appear.
                    584: 
1.4       mspo      585:     opensolaris console login: jack
                    586:     Password: jack
                    587:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
                    588:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
                    589:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
                    590:     sh-3.2# exit
1.5     ! mspo      591:           
1.1       mspo      592: 
                    593: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
                    594: display where the installation program runs.
                    595: 
1.4       mspo      596:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
                    597:     Password: solaris
                    598:     Verify: solaris
                    599:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
                    600:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
1.5     ! mspo      601:           
1.1       mspo      602: 
1.5     ! mspo      603: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
        !           604: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
1.1       mspo      605: 
1.4       mspo      606:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
1.5     ! mspo      607:           
1.1       mspo      608: 
                    609: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
                    610: 
1.4       mspo      611:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
                    612:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
1.5     ! mspo      613:            
1.1       mspo      614: 
                    615: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
                    616: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
                    617: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
                    618: console.
                    619: 
1.4       mspo      620:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
                    621:                     bootfs = 43
                    622:     ^C
                    623:     jack@opensolaris:~$
1.5     ! mspo      624:            
1.1       mspo      625: 
                    626: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
                    627: the last line.
                    628: 
1.4       mspo      629:     memory = 640
                    630:     name = 'solaris'
                    631:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    632:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    633:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    634:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    635:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
1.5     ! mspo      636:            
1.1       mspo      637: 
                    638: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
                    639: 
1.4       mspo      640:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
                    641:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    642:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
                    643:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    644:     Started domain solaris
                    645:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    646:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    647:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    648:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    649:     Hostname: osol
                    650:     Configuring devices.
                    651:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
                    652:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
                    653:     Reading ZFS config: done.
                    654:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
                    655:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
                    656:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
1.5     ! mspo      657: 
1.4       mspo      658:     osol console login:
1.5     ! mspo      659:            
1.1       mspo      660: 
                    661: Using PCI devices in guest domains
1.5     ! mspo      662: ==================================
1.1       mspo      663: 
                    664: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
                    665: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
                    666: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
                    667: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
                    668: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
                    669: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
                    670: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
                    671: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
                    672: access the VGA registers will panic).
                    673: 
                    674: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
                    675: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
                    676: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    677: 
                    678: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
1.5     ! mspo      679: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
        !           680: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
        !           681: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
        !           682: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
        !           683: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      684: 
1.4       mspo      685:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      686: 
                    687: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
1.5     ! mspo      688: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      689: 
1.5     ! mspo      690: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
        !           691: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
1.1       mspo      692: 
1.4       mspo      693:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      694: 
1.5     ! mspo      695: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
        !           696: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
        !           697: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
        !           698: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
        !           699: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
1.1       mspo      700: 
1.4       mspo      701:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                    702:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
1.5     ! mspo      703: 
1.4       mspo      704:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
                    705:     xpci* at xenbus ?
                    706:     pci* at xpci ?
1.5     ! mspo      707: 
1.4       mspo      708:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
                    709:     # USB Controller and Devices
1.5     ! mspo      710: 
1.4       mspo      711:     # PCI USB controllers
                    712:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
1.5     ! mspo      713: 
1.4       mspo      714:     # USB bus support
                    715:     usb*    at uhci?
1.5     ! mspo      716: 
1.4       mspo      717:     # USB Hubs
                    718:     uhub*   at usb?
                    719:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
1.5     ! mspo      720: 
1.4       mspo      721:     # USB Mass Storage
                    722:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                    723:     wd*     at umass?
                    724:     # SCSI controllers
                    725:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
1.5     ! mspo      726: 
1.4       mspo      727:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                    728:     scsibus* at scsi?
1.5     ! mspo      729: 
1.4       mspo      730:     # SCSI devices
                    731:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                    732:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo      733: 
                    734: Links and further information
1.5     ! mspo      735: =============================
1.1       mspo      736: 
1.5     ! mspo      737: -   The HowTo on
        !           738:     Installing into RAID-1
1.1       mspo      739:     gives some hints on using Xen (grub) with NetBSD's RAIDframe
1.5     ! mspo      740: -   Harold Gutch wrote documentation on
        !           741:     setting up a Linux DomU with a NetBSD Dom0
1.1       mspo      742: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
1.5     ! mspo      743:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 MAN.BOOT.8
        !           744:     and MAN.BOOT.CFG.5 manpages.
1.1       mspo      745: 

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