Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.27

1.5       mspo        1: Introduction
1.13      gdt         2: ============
1.1       mspo        3: 
                      4: [![[Xen
1.7       mspo        5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
1.1       mspo        6: 
1.12      gdt         7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
                      8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
                      9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
                     10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
                     11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
                     12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
                     13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
                     14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
                     15: fulfilled.
                     16: 
                     17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
                     18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
                     19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
                     20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
                     21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
                     22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
                     23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
                     24: 
                     25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
                     26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
                     27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
                     28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
                     29: 
1.27    ! jnemeth    30: Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  For
        !            31: HVM guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT (amd64)
        !            32: is needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  Xen 4.2 is the last
        !            33: version for support for using i386 as a host.  TODO: Clean up and
        !            34: check the above features.
1.19      gdt        35: 
1.27    ! jnemeth    36: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
1.12      gdt        37: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
                     38: in the dom0 section.)
                     39: 
                     40: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
                     41: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
                     42: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
1.24      gdt        43: and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
                     44: as a domU in a VPS.
1.12      gdt        45: 
1.20      gdt        46: Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
                     47: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
                     48: of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
                     49: network interface or other peripheral.
                     50: 
1.12      gdt        51: Prerequisites
1.13      gdt        52: -------------
1.12      gdt        53: 
                     54: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
                     55: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
1.15      gdt        56: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
                     57: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
                     58: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
1.12      gdt        59: 
                     60: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
1.16      gdt        61: architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
                     62: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
1.27    ! jnemeth    63: See also the [Xen website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
1.1       mspo       64: 
1.19      gdt        65: History
                     66: -------
                     67: 
                     68: NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
                     69: 
                     70: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
                     71: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
1.27    ! jnemeth    72: [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
1.19      gdt        73: 
1.15      gdt        74: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
                     75: ==========================
                     76: 
1.27    ! jnemeth    77: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
        !            78: of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
        !            79: which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
        !            80: versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
1.15      gdt        81: 
                     82: Xen
                     83: ---
                     84: 
                     85: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
                     86: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
                     87: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
                     88: matching versions.
                     89: 
                     90: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
1.20      gdt        91: receive security patches and should not be used.  Xen 3.1 supports PCI
                     92: passthrough.
1.15      gdt        93: 
                     94: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
                     95: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
                     96: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
                     97: 
                     98: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
                     99: of 2014-12.
                    100: 
                    101: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
                    102: 
1.26      gdt       103: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with 3.1 through
                    104: 4.2 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
1.20      gdt       105: 
1.19      gdt       106: Xen command program
                    107: -------------------
                    108: 
                    109: Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
                    110: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
1.27    ! jnemeth   111: called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2 and later, "xl" is preferred.  4.4 is
        !           112: the last version that has "xm".
1.19      gdt       113: 
1.15      gdt       114: NetBSD
                    115: ------
                    116: 
                    117: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
                    118: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
                    119: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
                    120: of the most recent release.
                    121: 
                    122: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
                    123: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
                    124: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
                    125: a normal computer.)
                    126: 
1.18      gdt       127: Architecture
                    128: ------------
                    129: 
                    130: Xen is basically amd64 only at this point.  One can either run i386
                    131: domains or amd64 domains.  If running i386, PAE versions are required,
                    132: for both dom0 and domU.  These versions are built by default in NetBSD
                    133: releases.  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is recommended as more
                    134: normal.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when
                    135: built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump
                    136: code.)
                    137: 
1.15      gdt       138: Recommendation
                    139: --------------
                    140: 
1.18      gdt       141: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
1.19      gdt       142: xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use amd64 as the dom0.  Either
                    143: the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
1.15      gdt       144: 
                    145: NetBSD as a dom0
                    146: ================
                    147: 
                    148: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
                    149: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
1.19      gdt       150: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
                    151: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
                    152: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
                    153: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
                    154: configuration.
1.15      gdt       155: 
                    156: Styles of dom0 operation
                    157: ------------------------
                    158: 
                    159: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
                    160: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
                    161: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
                    162: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
                    163: 
                    164: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
                    165: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
                    166: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
                    167: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
                    168: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
                    169: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
                    170: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
                    171: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
                    172: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
                    173: 
                    174: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
                    175: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
                    176: 
1.19      gdt       177: Installation of NetBSD
                    178: ----------------------
1.13      gdt       179: 
1.19      gdt       180: First,
1.27    ! jnemeth   181: [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
1.19      gdt       182: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
                    183: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
                    184: 
                    185: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
                    186: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
1.22      gdt       187: domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
                    188: over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
                    189: partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
1.19      gdt       190: 
                    191: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
                    192: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
                    193: 
                    194: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
                    195: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
                    196: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
                    197: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
                    198: 
1.27    ! jnemeth   199: One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
        !           200: for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
        !           201: and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
        !           202: be used.
1.19      gdt       203: 
                    204: One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
                    205: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
                    206: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
                    207: between dom0 hosts.
                    208: 
                    209: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
                    210: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
                    211: HOWTO page.)
1.1       mspo      212: 
1.19      gdt       213: Installation of Xen
                    214: -------------------
1.1       mspo      215: 
1.20      gdt       216: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
                    217: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
                    218: See [the pkgsrc
                    219: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
                    220: 
                    221: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
                    222: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
                    223: package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
                    224: 
                    225: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
                    226: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
                    227: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
                    228: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
                    229: useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
                    230: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
                    231: of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
                    232: using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
                    233: 
                    234: In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
                    235: kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.
                    236: 
                    237: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
                    238: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
                    239: beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
                    240: /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
                    241: 
                    242: See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
                    243: 
                    244: "menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M"
                    245: 
                    246: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
                    247: allocated for domUs.
                    248: 
                    249: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
                    250: kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
                    251: kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
1.1       mspo      252: 
1.21      gdt       253: Configuring Xen
                    254: ---------------
                    255: 
                    256: Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, and
                    257: just run the dom0 kernel.  There will be no domUs, and none can be
                    258: started because you still have to configure the dom0 tools.
                    259: 
                    260: For 3.3 (and probably 3.1), add to rc.conf (but note that you should
                    261: have installed 4.2):
                    262:   xend=YES
                    263:   xenbackendd=YES
                    264: 
                    265: For 4.1 and 4.2, add to rc.conf:
                    266:   xend=YES
                    267:   xencommons=YES
                    268: 
1.27    ! jnemeth   269: Note that xend is for supporting "xm", and should only be used if
        !           270: you plan on using "xm".  Do NOT enable xend if you plan on using
        !           271: "xl" as it will cause problems.
        !           272: 
1.15      gdt       273: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
                    274: -------------------------
                    275: 
                    276: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
                    277: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
                    278: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
                    279: and adjusts /etc.
                    280: 
                    281: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
                    282: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
                    283: 
1.22      gdt       284: To convert from grub to /boot, install an mbr bootblock with fdisk,
                    285: bootxx_ with installboot, /boot and /boot.cfg.  This really should be
                    286: no different than completely reinstalling boot blocks on a non-Xen
                    287: system.
                    288: 
1.15      gdt       289: Updating Xen versions
                    290: ---------------------
                    291: 
1.21      gdt       292: Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
                    293: issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
                    294: remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
                    295: xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
                    296: 
                    297: Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Enable the
                    298: correct set of daemons.  Ensure that the domU config files are valid
                    299: for the new version.
1.15      gdt       300: 
1.14      gdt       301: Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
                    302: ====================================
                    303: 
                    304: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
                    305: first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
                    306: 
                    307: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
                    308: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      309: 
                    310: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
1.5       mspo      311: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
                    312: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
                    313: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
                    314: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
                    315: can create them with this command:
1.1       mspo      316: 
1.3       mspo      317:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.1       mspo      318: 
1.5       mspo      319: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
                    320: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
                    321: 'xm list' will show something like:
1.1       mspo      322: 
1.3       mspo      323:     # xm list
                    324:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    325:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.1       mspo      326: 
                    327: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
                    328: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
1.5       mspo      329: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
                    330: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
                    331: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
                    332: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
1.27    ! jnemeth   333: your system tools, like savecore(8), work). A suitable kernel is
1.5       mspo      334: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
1.1       mspo      335: 
                    336: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
                    337: 
1.3       mspo      338:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
                    339:     #============================================================================
                    340:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
                    341:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
                    342:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      343: 
1.3       mspo      344:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    345:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
                    346:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
                    347:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5       mspo      348: 
1.3       mspo      349:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
                    350:     memory = 128
1.5       mspo      351: 
1.3       mspo      352:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
                    353:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
                    354:     # number. All domains must have different names.
                    355:     #
                    356:     name = "nbsd"
1.5       mspo      357: 
1.3       mspo      358:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
                    359:     #
                    360:     vcpus = 1
1.5       mspo      361: 
1.3       mspo      362:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    363:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      364: 
1.3       mspo      365:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
                    366:     nics = 1
1.5       mspo      367: 
1.3       mspo      368:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
                    369:     #
                    370:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
                    371:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
                    372:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
                    373:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
                    374:     #
                    375:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
                    376:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
                    377:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
                    378:     #
                    379:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
                    380:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
                    381:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
                    382:     #
                    383:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
1.5       mspo      384: 
1.3       mspo      385:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    386:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
                    387:     # what you want them accessible as.
                    388:     #
                    389:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
                    390:     #
1.5       mspo      391:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      392:     #
                    393:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
                    394:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
                    395:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
                    396:     #
1.5       mspo      397:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      398:     #
                    399:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
                    400:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
                    401:     #
                    402:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
                    403:     # but it does for Linux.
                    404:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
                    405:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
                    406:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
                    407:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
                    408:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
                    409:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
1.5       mspo      410: 
1.3       mspo      411:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
                    412:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
                    413:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
1.5       mspo      414: 
1.3       mspo      415:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    416:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      417: 
1.3       mspo      418:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
                    419:     root = "xbd0"
                    420:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
                    421:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
                    422:     #extra = ""
1.5       mspo      423: 
1.3       mspo      424:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    425:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
                    426:     # The default is False.
                    427:     #autorestart = True
1.5       mspo      428: 
1.3       mspo      429:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
1.1       mspo      430: 
                    431: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
1.5       mspo      432: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
                    433: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
                    434: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
                    435: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
                    436: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
                    437: like this:
1.1       mspo      438: 
1.3       mspo      439:     create
                    440:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
1.1       mspo      441: 
1.5       mspo      442: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
1.27    ! jnemeth   443: will be created on boot. See the bridge(4) man page for details.
1.1       mspo      444: 
1.5       mspo      445: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
                    446: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
1.1       mspo      447: 
1.5       mspo      448:     #!/bin/sh
1.3       mspo      449:     #============================================================================
1.27    ! jnemeth   450:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.26 2014/12/24 01:38:26 gdt Exp $
1.3       mspo      451:     #
                    452:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
                    453:     #
                    454:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
                    455:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
                    456:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
                    457:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
                    458:     #
                    459:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
                    460:     #
                    461:     # Actions:
1.5       mspo      462:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
                    463:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
1.3       mspo      464:     #
                    465:     # Variables:
1.5       mspo      466:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
                    467:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
                    468:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
                    469:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
1.3       mspo      470:     #
                    471:     # Example invocation:
                    472:     #
                    473:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
                    474:     #
                    475:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      476: 
1.3       mspo      477:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
                    478:     set -e
1.5       mspo      479: 
1.3       mspo      480:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
1.5       mspo      481: 
1.3       mspo      482:     # Operation name.
                    483:     OP=$1; shift
1.5       mspo      484: 
1.3       mspo      485:     # Pull variables in args into environment
                    486:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
1.5       mspo      487: 
1.3       mspo      488:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
                    489:     domain=${domain:?}
                    490:     vif=${vif:?}
                    491:     mac=${mac:?}
                    492:     bridge=${bridge:?}
1.5       mspo      493: 
1.3       mspo      494:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
                    495:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
1.5       mspo      496: 
1.3       mspo      497:     # Are we going up or down?
                    498:     case $OP in
1.5       mspo      499:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
1.3       mspo      500:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
                    501:     *)
1.5       mspo      502:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
                    503:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
                    504:         exit 1
                    505:         ;;
1.3       mspo      506:     esac
1.5       mspo      507: 
1.3       mspo      508:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
                    509:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
1.5       mspo      510:         exit
1.3       mspo      511:     fi
1.5       mspo      512: 
1.3       mspo      513:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
                    514:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
1.5       mspo      515:         exit
1.3       mspo      516:     fi
1.5       mspo      517: 
1.3       mspo      518:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
                    519:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
                    520:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
1.1       mspo      521: 
                    522: Now, running
                    523: 
1.3       mspo      524:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
1.1       mspo      525: 
1.5       mspo      526: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
                    527: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
                    528: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
                    529: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
                    530: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
                    531: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
                    532: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
                    533: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
                    534: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
                    535: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
1.1       mspo      536: 
                    537: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
1.5       mspo      538: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
1.1       mspo      539: 
1.3       mspo      540:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      541: 
                    542: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.5       mspo      543: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      544: 
1.5       mspo      545: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
                    546: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
1.1       mspo      547: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
1.5       mspo      548: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
                    549: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
                    550: installation.
1.1       mspo      551: 
                    552: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    553: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5       mspo      554: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
                    555: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      556: 
1.3       mspo      557:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    558:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    559:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    560:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    561:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      562: 
1.5       mspo      563: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      564: 
                    565: It is also desirable to add
                    566: 
1.3       mspo      567:     powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      568: 
1.5       mspo      569: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
                    570: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
1.1       mspo      571: 
                    572: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
                    573: 
1.14      gdt       574: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      575: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      576: 
                    577: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    578: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    579: 
                    580: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    581: the example below)
                    582: 
1.3       mspo      583:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      584: 
                    585: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
                    586: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
                    587: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
                    588: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
                    589: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
                    590: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
                    591: 
1.3       mspo      592:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    593:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      594: 
                    595: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    596: partition.
                    597: 
                    598: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
                    599: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
                    600: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
                    601: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
1.5       mspo      602: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
                    603: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
                    604: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
                    605: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
                    606: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
                    607: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
                    608: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
                    609: available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      610: 
                    611: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
                    612: 
1.3       mspo      613:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      614: 
                    615: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
                    616: tty to the xen console.
                    617: 
1.14      gdt       618: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      619: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      620: 
                    621: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
                    622: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
1.5       mspo      623: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
                    624: image to your dom0 filesystem.
1.1       mspo      625: 
1.3       mspo      626:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
                    627:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
                    628:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
1.5       mspo      629: 
1.3       mspo      630:     ## for a 64-bit guest
                    631:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    632:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      633: 
1.3       mspo      634:     ## for a 32-bit guest
                    635:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    636:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      637: 
1.3       mspo      638:     dom0# umount /mnt
1.5       mspo      639:           
                    640: 
                    641: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
                    642: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
                    643: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
                    644: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
1.1       mspo      645: 
1.4       mspo      646:     memory = 640
                    647:     name = 'solaris'
                    648:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    649:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
                    650:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    651:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    652:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    653:     # for a 64-bit guest
                    654:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
                    655:     # for a 32-bit guest
                    656:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
1.5       mspo      657:           
                    658: 
1.1       mspo      659: Start the guest.
                    660: 
1.4       mspo      661:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    662:     Started domain solaris
                    663:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    664:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    665:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    666:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    667:     Hostname: opensolaris
                    668:     Remounting root read/write
                    669:     Probing for device nodes ...
                    670:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    671:     Preparing live image for use
                    672:     Done mounting Live image
1.5       mspo      673:           
1.1       mspo      674: 
                    675: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
                    676: the xnf0 interface to appear.
                    677: 
1.4       mspo      678:     opensolaris console login: jack
                    679:     Password: jack
                    680:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
                    681:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
                    682:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
                    683:     sh-3.2# exit
1.5       mspo      684:           
1.1       mspo      685: 
                    686: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
                    687: display where the installation program runs.
                    688: 
1.4       mspo      689:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
                    690:     Password: solaris
                    691:     Verify: solaris
                    692:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
                    693:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
1.5       mspo      694:           
1.1       mspo      695: 
1.5       mspo      696: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
                    697: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
1.1       mspo      698: 
1.4       mspo      699:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
1.5       mspo      700:           
1.1       mspo      701: 
                    702: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
                    703: 
1.4       mspo      704:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
                    705:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
1.5       mspo      706:            
1.1       mspo      707: 
                    708: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
                    709: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
                    710: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
                    711: console.
                    712: 
1.4       mspo      713:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
                    714:                     bootfs = 43
                    715:     ^C
                    716:     jack@opensolaris:~$
1.5       mspo      717:            
1.1       mspo      718: 
                    719: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
                    720: the last line.
                    721: 
1.4       mspo      722:     memory = 640
                    723:     name = 'solaris'
                    724:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    725:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    726:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    727:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    728:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
1.5       mspo      729:            
1.1       mspo      730: 
                    731: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
                    732: 
1.4       mspo      733:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
                    734:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    735:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
                    736:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    737:     Started domain solaris
                    738:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    739:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    740:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    741:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    742:     Hostname: osol
                    743:     Configuring devices.
                    744:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
                    745:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
                    746:     Reading ZFS config: done.
                    747:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
                    748:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
                    749:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
1.5       mspo      750: 
1.4       mspo      751:     osol console login:
1.5       mspo      752:            
1.1       mspo      753: 
                    754: Using PCI devices in guest domains
1.14      gdt       755: ----------------------------------
1.1       mspo      756: 
                    757: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
                    758: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
                    759: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
                    760: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
                    761: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
                    762: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
                    763: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
                    764: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
                    765: access the VGA registers will panic).
                    766: 
                    767: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
                    768: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
                    769: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    770: 
                    771: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
1.5       mspo      772: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
                    773: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
                    774: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
                    775: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
                    776: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      777: 
1.4       mspo      778:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      779: 
                    780: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
1.5       mspo      781: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      782: 
1.5       mspo      783: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
                    784: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
1.1       mspo      785: 
1.4       mspo      786:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      787: 
1.5       mspo      788: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
                    789: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
                    790: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
                    791: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
                    792: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
1.1       mspo      793: 
1.4       mspo      794:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                    795:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
1.5       mspo      796: 
1.4       mspo      797:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
                    798:     xpci* at xenbus ?
                    799:     pci* at xpci ?
1.5       mspo      800: 
1.4       mspo      801:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
                    802:     # USB Controller and Devices
1.5       mspo      803: 
1.4       mspo      804:     # PCI USB controllers
                    805:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
1.5       mspo      806: 
1.4       mspo      807:     # USB bus support
                    808:     usb*    at uhci?
1.5       mspo      809: 
1.4       mspo      810:     # USB Hubs
                    811:     uhub*   at usb?
                    812:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
1.5       mspo      813: 
1.4       mspo      814:     # USB Mass Storage
                    815:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                    816:     wd*     at umass?
                    817:     # SCSI controllers
                    818:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
1.5       mspo      819: 
1.4       mspo      820:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                    821:     scsibus* at scsi?
1.5       mspo      822: 
1.4       mspo      823:     # SCSI devices
                    824:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                    825:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo      826: 
                    827: Links and further information
1.5       mspo      828: =============================
1.1       mspo      829: 
1.9       gdt       830: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
1.8       gdt       831:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
                    832:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
                    833:     NetBSD's native boot.)
1.1       mspo      834: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
1.9       gdt       835:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
                    836:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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