Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.19

1.5       mspo        1: Introduction
1.13      gdt         2: ============
1.1       mspo        3: 
                      4: [![[Xen
1.7       mspo        5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
1.1       mspo        6: 
1.12      gdt         7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
                      8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
                      9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
                     10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
                     11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
                     12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
                     13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
                     14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
                     15: fulfilled.
                     16: 
                     17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
                     18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
                     19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
                     20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
                     21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
                     22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
                     23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
                     24: 
                     25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
                     26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
                     27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
                     28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
                     29: 
1.19    ! gdt        30: Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  For HVM
        !            31: guests, the VMX cpu feature (Intel) or VT?? (amd64) is needed.  TODO:
        !            32: Explain if i386 (non-amd64) machines can still be used - I think that
        !            33: witthe requirement to use PAE kernels is about the hypervisor being
        !            34: amd64 only.
        !            35: 
1.12      gdt        36: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
                     37: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
                     38: in the dom0 section.)
                     39: 
                     40: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
                     41: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
                     42: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
                     43: and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
                     44: 
                     45: Prerequisites
1.13      gdt        46: -------------
1.12      gdt        47: 
                     48: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
                     49: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
1.15      gdt        50: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
                     51: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
                     52: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
1.12      gdt        53: 
                     54: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
1.16      gdt        55: architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
                     56: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
                     57: See also the [Xen website](http://www.xen.org/).
1.1       mspo       58: 
1.19    ! gdt        59: History
        !            60: -------
        !            61: 
        !            62: NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
        !            63: 
        !            64: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
        !            65: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
        !            66: [old grub information](/xen/howto-grub/).
        !            67: 
1.15      gdt        68: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
                     69: ==========================
                     70: 
                     71: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent of
                     72: Xen version.  This section gives advice on which version to choose.
                     73: Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported versions of NetBSD are
                     74: inentionally ignored.
                     75: 
                     76: Xen
                     77: ---
                     78: 
                     79: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
                     80: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
                     81: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
                     82: matching versions.
                     83: 
                     84: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
                     85: receive security patches and should not be used.
                     86: 
                     87: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
                     88: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
                     89: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
                     90: 
                     91: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
                     92: of 2014-12.
                     93: 
                     94: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
                     95: 
1.19    ! gdt        96: Xen command program
        !            97: -------------------
        !            98: 
        !            99: Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
        !           100: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
        !           101: called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2, "xm" is no longer available.
        !           102: 
1.15      gdt       103: NetBSD
                    104: ------
                    105: 
                    106: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
                    107: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
                    108: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
                    109: of the most recent release.
                    110: 
                    111: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
                    112: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
                    113: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
                    114: a normal computer.)
                    115: 
1.18      gdt       116: Architecture
                    117: ------------
                    118: 
                    119: Xen is basically amd64 only at this point.  One can either run i386
                    120: domains or amd64 domains.  If running i386, PAE versions are required,
                    121: for both dom0 and domU.  These versions are built by default in NetBSD
                    122: releases.  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is recommended as more
                    123: normal.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when
                    124: built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump
                    125: code.)
                    126: 
1.15      gdt       127: Recommendation
                    128: --------------
                    129: 
1.18      gdt       130: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
1.19    ! gdt       131: xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use amd64 as the dom0.  Either
        !           132: the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
1.15      gdt       133: 
                    134: NetBSD as a dom0
                    135: ================
                    136: 
                    137: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
                    138: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
1.19    ! gdt       139: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
        !           140: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
        !           141: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
        !           142: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
        !           143: configuration.
1.15      gdt       144: 
                    145: Styles of dom0 operation
                    146: ------------------------
                    147: 
                    148: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
                    149: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
                    150: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
                    151: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
                    152: 
                    153: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
                    154: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
                    155: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
                    156: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
                    157: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
                    158: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
                    159: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
                    160: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
                    161: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
                    162: 
                    163: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
                    164: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
                    165: 
1.19    ! gdt       166: Installation of NetBSD
        !           167: ----------------------
1.13      gdt       168: 
1.19    ! gdt       169: First,
        !           170: [install NetBSD/amd64](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html)
        !           171: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
        !           172: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
        !           173: 
        !           174: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
        !           175: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
        !           176: domU systems are unaware of RAID.
        !           177: 
        !           178: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
        !           179: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
        !           180: 
        !           181: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
        !           182: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
        !           183: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
        !           184: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
        !           185: 
        !           186: One can use lvm(8) to create logical devices to use for domU disks.
        !           187: This is almost as efficient sa raw disk partitions and more flexible.
        !           188: Hence raw disk partitions should typically not be used.
        !           189: 
        !           190: One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
        !           191: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
        !           192: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
        !           193: between dom0 hosts.
        !           194: 
        !           195: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
        !           196: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
        !           197: HOWTO page.)
1.1       mspo      198: 
1.19    ! gdt       199: Installation of Xen
        !           200: -------------------
1.1       mspo      201: 
                    202: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
                    203: packages. See [the pkgsrc
                    204: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
                    205: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
                    206: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
1.5       mspo      207: not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`
                    208: for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen
                    209: 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or
                    210: `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll
                    211: also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If
                    212: using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`
1.1       mspo      213: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
                    214: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
1.5       mspo      215: `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel
                    216: CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You
                    217: can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl
                    218: command:
1.1       mspo      219: 
1.3       mspo      220:     # cpuctl identify 0
                    221:     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
                    222:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
                    223:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
                    224:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
1.5       mspo      225:     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
1.3       mspo      226:     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
                    227:     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
                    228:     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
                    229:     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
                    230:     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
                    231:     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
                    232:     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
                    233:     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
                    234:     cpu0: Core ID 0
                    235:     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
1.1       mspo      236: 
                    237: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
                    238: SVM or VMX.
                    239: 
                    240: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
1.5       mspo      241: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is
                    242: `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel
                    243: with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial
                    244: console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial
                    245: console. It is not useful with a VGA console.
1.1       mspo      246: 
                    247: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
                    248: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
                    249: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
                    250: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
1.5       mspo      251: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`
                    252: must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.
                    253: 
                    254: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the
                    255: NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot
                    256: loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)
                    257: manual page for an example using the latter.
1.1       mspo      258: 
                    259: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
                    260: console to use, etc ...
                    261: 
1.5       mspo      262: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:
1.1       mspo      263: 
1.5       mspo      264:     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
1.3       mspo      265:     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
                    266:     #
                    267:     # The default entry to load will be the first one
                    268:     default=0
1.5       mspo      269: 
1.3       mspo      270:     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
                    271:     timeout=10
1.5       mspo      272: 
1.3       mspo      273:     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
                    274:     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
1.5       mspo      275: 
1.3       mspo      276:     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
                    277:     # to serial after 10s
                    278:     terminal --timeout=10 serial console
1.5       mspo      279: 
1.3       mspo      280:     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
                    281:     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
                    282:     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
                    283:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
                    284:       root(hd0,0)
                    285:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    286:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
1.5       mspo      287: 
1.3       mspo      288:     # Same as above, but using VGA console
                    289:     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
                    290:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
                    291:       root(hd0,0)
                    292:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    293:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      294: 
1.3       mspo      295:     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
                    296:     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
                    297:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
                    298:       root(hd0,0)
                    299:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    300:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
                    301:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
                    302:       root(hd0,0)
                    303:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    304:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      305: 
1.3       mspo      306:     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
                    307:     #nonworking /xen.gz
                    308:     title NetBSD 5.1
                    309:       root (hd0,a)
                    310:       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
1.5       mspo      311: 
1.3       mspo      312:     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
                    313:     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
                    314:     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
                    315:     title NetBSD chain
                    316:       root        (hd0,0)
                    317:       chainloader +1
1.5       mspo      318: 
1.3       mspo      319:     ## end of grub config file.
1.5       mspo      320:           
                    321: 
1.1       mspo      322: Install grub with the following command:
                    323: 
1.3       mspo      324:     # grub --no-floppy
1.5       mspo      325: 
1.3       mspo      326:     grub> root (hd0,a)
                    327:      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
1.5       mspo      328: 
1.3       mspo      329:     grub> setup (hd0)
                    330:      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
                    331:      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
                    332:      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
                    333:      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
                    334:      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
                    335:     succeeded
                    336:      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
                    337:      succeeded
                    338:     Done.
1.5       mspo      339:           
1.1       mspo      340: 
1.15      gdt       341: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
                    342: -------------------------
                    343: 
                    344: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
                    345: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
                    346: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
                    347: and adjusts /etc.
                    348: 
                    349: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
                    350: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
                    351: 
                    352: Updating Xen versions
                    353: ---------------------
                    354: 
                    355: TODO: write
                    356: 
1.14      gdt       357: Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
                    358: ====================================
                    359: 
                    360: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
                    361: first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
                    362: 
                    363: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
                    364: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      365: 
                    366: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
1.5       mspo      367: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
                    368: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
                    369: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
                    370: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
                    371: can create them with this command:
1.1       mspo      372: 
1.3       mspo      373:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.1       mspo      374: 
1.5       mspo      375: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
                    376: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
                    377: 'xm list' will show something like:
1.1       mspo      378: 
1.3       mspo      379:     # xm list
                    380:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    381:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.1       mspo      382: 
                    383: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
                    384: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
1.5       mspo      385: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
                    386: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
                    387: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
                    388: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
                    389: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
                    390: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
1.1       mspo      391: 
                    392: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
                    393: 
1.3       mspo      394:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
                    395:     #============================================================================
                    396:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
                    397:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
                    398:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      399: 
1.3       mspo      400:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    401:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
                    402:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
                    403:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5       mspo      404: 
1.3       mspo      405:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
                    406:     memory = 128
1.5       mspo      407: 
1.3       mspo      408:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
                    409:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
                    410:     # number. All domains must have different names.
                    411:     #
                    412:     name = "nbsd"
1.5       mspo      413: 
1.3       mspo      414:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
                    415:     #
                    416:     vcpus = 1
1.5       mspo      417: 
1.3       mspo      418:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    419:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      420: 
1.3       mspo      421:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
                    422:     nics = 1
1.5       mspo      423: 
1.3       mspo      424:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
                    425:     #
                    426:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
                    427:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
                    428:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
                    429:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
                    430:     #
                    431:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
                    432:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
                    433:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
                    434:     #
                    435:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
                    436:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
                    437:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
                    438:     #
                    439:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
1.5       mspo      440: 
1.3       mspo      441:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    442:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
                    443:     # what you want them accessible as.
                    444:     #
                    445:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
                    446:     #
1.5       mspo      447:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      448:     #
                    449:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
                    450:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
                    451:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
                    452:     #
1.5       mspo      453:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      454:     #
                    455:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
                    456:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
                    457:     #
                    458:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
                    459:     # but it does for Linux.
                    460:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
                    461:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
                    462:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
                    463:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
                    464:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
                    465:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
1.5       mspo      466: 
1.3       mspo      467:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
                    468:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
                    469:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
1.5       mspo      470: 
1.3       mspo      471:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    472:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      473: 
1.3       mspo      474:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
                    475:     root = "xbd0"
                    476:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
                    477:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
                    478:     #extra = ""
1.5       mspo      479: 
1.3       mspo      480:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    481:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
                    482:     # The default is False.
                    483:     #autorestart = True
1.5       mspo      484: 
1.3       mspo      485:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
1.1       mspo      486: 
                    487: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
1.5       mspo      488: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
                    489: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
                    490: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
                    491: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
                    492: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
                    493: like this:
1.1       mspo      494: 
1.3       mspo      495:     create
                    496:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
1.1       mspo      497: 
1.5       mspo      498: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
                    499: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
1.1       mspo      500: 
1.5       mspo      501: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
                    502: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
1.1       mspo      503: 
1.5       mspo      504:     #!/bin/sh
1.3       mspo      505:     #============================================================================
1.19    ! gdt       506:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.18 2014/12/24 00:11:15 gdt Exp $
1.3       mspo      507:     #
                    508:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
                    509:     #
                    510:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
                    511:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
                    512:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
                    513:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
                    514:     #
                    515:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
                    516:     #
                    517:     # Actions:
1.5       mspo      518:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
                    519:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
1.3       mspo      520:     #
                    521:     # Variables:
1.5       mspo      522:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
                    523:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
                    524:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
                    525:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
1.3       mspo      526:     #
                    527:     # Example invocation:
                    528:     #
                    529:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
                    530:     #
                    531:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      532: 
1.3       mspo      533:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
                    534:     set -e
1.5       mspo      535: 
1.3       mspo      536:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
1.5       mspo      537: 
1.3       mspo      538:     # Operation name.
                    539:     OP=$1; shift
1.5       mspo      540: 
1.3       mspo      541:     # Pull variables in args into environment
                    542:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
1.5       mspo      543: 
1.3       mspo      544:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
                    545:     domain=${domain:?}
                    546:     vif=${vif:?}
                    547:     mac=${mac:?}
                    548:     bridge=${bridge:?}
1.5       mspo      549: 
1.3       mspo      550:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
                    551:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
1.5       mspo      552: 
1.3       mspo      553:     # Are we going up or down?
                    554:     case $OP in
1.5       mspo      555:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
1.3       mspo      556:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
                    557:     *)
1.5       mspo      558:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
                    559:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
                    560:         exit 1
                    561:         ;;
1.3       mspo      562:     esac
1.5       mspo      563: 
1.3       mspo      564:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
                    565:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
1.5       mspo      566:         exit
1.3       mspo      567:     fi
1.5       mspo      568: 
1.3       mspo      569:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
                    570:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
1.5       mspo      571:         exit
1.3       mspo      572:     fi
1.5       mspo      573: 
1.3       mspo      574:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
                    575:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
                    576:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
1.1       mspo      577: 
                    578: Now, running
                    579: 
1.3       mspo      580:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
1.1       mspo      581: 
1.5       mspo      582: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
                    583: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
                    584: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
                    585: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
                    586: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
                    587: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
                    588: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
                    589: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
                    590: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
                    591: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
1.1       mspo      592: 
                    593: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
1.5       mspo      594: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
1.1       mspo      595: 
1.3       mspo      596:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      597: 
                    598: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.5       mspo      599: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      600: 
1.5       mspo      601: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
                    602: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
1.1       mspo      603: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
1.5       mspo      604: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
                    605: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
                    606: installation.
1.1       mspo      607: 
                    608: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    609: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5       mspo      610: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
                    611: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      612: 
1.3       mspo      613:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    614:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    615:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    616:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    617:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      618: 
1.5       mspo      619: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      620: 
                    621: It is also desirable to add
                    622: 
1.3       mspo      623:     powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      624: 
1.5       mspo      625: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
                    626: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
1.1       mspo      627: 
                    628: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
                    629: 
1.14      gdt       630: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      631: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      632: 
                    633: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    634: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    635: 
                    636: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    637: the example below)
                    638: 
1.3       mspo      639:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      640: 
                    641: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
                    642: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
                    643: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
                    644: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
                    645: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
                    646: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
                    647: 
1.3       mspo      648:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    649:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      650: 
                    651: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    652: partition.
                    653: 
                    654: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
                    655: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
                    656: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
                    657: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
1.5       mspo      658: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
                    659: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
                    660: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
                    661: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
                    662: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
                    663: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
                    664: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
                    665: available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      666: 
                    667: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
                    668: 
1.3       mspo      669:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      670: 
                    671: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
                    672: tty to the xen console.
                    673: 
1.14      gdt       674: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      675: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      676: 
                    677: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
                    678: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
1.5       mspo      679: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
                    680: image to your dom0 filesystem.
1.1       mspo      681: 
1.3       mspo      682:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
                    683:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
                    684:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
1.5       mspo      685: 
1.3       mspo      686:     ## for a 64-bit guest
                    687:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    688:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      689: 
1.3       mspo      690:     ## for a 32-bit guest
                    691:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    692:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      693: 
1.3       mspo      694:     dom0# umount /mnt
1.5       mspo      695:           
                    696: 
                    697: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
                    698: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
                    699: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
                    700: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
1.1       mspo      701: 
1.4       mspo      702:     memory = 640
                    703:     name = 'solaris'
                    704:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    705:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
                    706:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    707:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    708:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    709:     # for a 64-bit guest
                    710:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
                    711:     # for a 32-bit guest
                    712:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
1.5       mspo      713:           
                    714: 
1.1       mspo      715: Start the guest.
                    716: 
1.4       mspo      717:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    718:     Started domain solaris
                    719:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    720:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    721:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    722:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    723:     Hostname: opensolaris
                    724:     Remounting root read/write
                    725:     Probing for device nodes ...
                    726:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    727:     Preparing live image for use
                    728:     Done mounting Live image
1.5       mspo      729:           
1.1       mspo      730: 
                    731: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
                    732: the xnf0 interface to appear.
                    733: 
1.4       mspo      734:     opensolaris console login: jack
                    735:     Password: jack
                    736:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
                    737:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
                    738:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
                    739:     sh-3.2# exit
1.5       mspo      740:           
1.1       mspo      741: 
                    742: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
                    743: display where the installation program runs.
                    744: 
1.4       mspo      745:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
                    746:     Password: solaris
                    747:     Verify: solaris
                    748:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
                    749:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
1.5       mspo      750:           
1.1       mspo      751: 
1.5       mspo      752: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
                    753: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
1.1       mspo      754: 
1.4       mspo      755:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
1.5       mspo      756:           
1.1       mspo      757: 
                    758: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
                    759: 
1.4       mspo      760:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
                    761:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
1.5       mspo      762:            
1.1       mspo      763: 
                    764: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
                    765: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
                    766: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
                    767: console.
                    768: 
1.4       mspo      769:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
                    770:                     bootfs = 43
                    771:     ^C
                    772:     jack@opensolaris:~$
1.5       mspo      773:            
1.1       mspo      774: 
                    775: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
                    776: the last line.
                    777: 
1.4       mspo      778:     memory = 640
                    779:     name = 'solaris'
                    780:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    781:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    782:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    783:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    784:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
1.5       mspo      785:            
1.1       mspo      786: 
                    787: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
                    788: 
1.4       mspo      789:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
                    790:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    791:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
                    792:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    793:     Started domain solaris
                    794:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    795:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    796:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    797:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    798:     Hostname: osol
                    799:     Configuring devices.
                    800:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
                    801:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
                    802:     Reading ZFS config: done.
                    803:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
                    804:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
                    805:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
1.5       mspo      806: 
1.4       mspo      807:     osol console login:
1.5       mspo      808:            
1.1       mspo      809: 
                    810: Using PCI devices in guest domains
1.14      gdt       811: ----------------------------------
1.1       mspo      812: 
                    813: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
                    814: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
                    815: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
                    816: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
                    817: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
                    818: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
                    819: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
                    820: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
                    821: access the VGA registers will panic).
                    822: 
                    823: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
                    824: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
                    825: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    826: 
                    827: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
1.5       mspo      828: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
                    829: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
                    830: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
                    831: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
                    832: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      833: 
1.4       mspo      834:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      835: 
                    836: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
1.5       mspo      837: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      838: 
1.5       mspo      839: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
                    840: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
1.1       mspo      841: 
1.4       mspo      842:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      843: 
1.5       mspo      844: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
                    845: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
                    846: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
                    847: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
                    848: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
1.1       mspo      849: 
1.4       mspo      850:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                    851:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
1.5       mspo      852: 
1.4       mspo      853:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
                    854:     xpci* at xenbus ?
                    855:     pci* at xpci ?
1.5       mspo      856: 
1.4       mspo      857:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
                    858:     # USB Controller and Devices
1.5       mspo      859: 
1.4       mspo      860:     # PCI USB controllers
                    861:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
1.5       mspo      862: 
1.4       mspo      863:     # USB bus support
                    864:     usb*    at uhci?
1.5       mspo      865: 
1.4       mspo      866:     # USB Hubs
                    867:     uhub*   at usb?
                    868:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
1.5       mspo      869: 
1.4       mspo      870:     # USB Mass Storage
                    871:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                    872:     wd*     at umass?
                    873:     # SCSI controllers
                    874:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
1.5       mspo      875: 
1.4       mspo      876:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                    877:     scsibus* at scsi?
1.5       mspo      878: 
1.4       mspo      879:     # SCSI devices
                    880:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                    881:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo      882: 
                    883: Links and further information
1.5       mspo      884: =============================
1.1       mspo      885: 
1.9       gdt       886: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
1.8       gdt       887:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
                    888:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
                    889:     NetBSD's native boot.)
1.1       mspo      890: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
1.9       gdt       891:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
                    892:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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