Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.17

1.5       mspo        1: Introduction
1.13      gdt         2: ============
1.1       mspo        3: 
                      4: [![[Xen
1.7       mspo        5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
1.1       mspo        6: 
1.12      gdt         7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
                      8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
                      9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
                     10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
                     11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
                     12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
                     13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
                     14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
                     15: fulfilled.
                     16: 
                     17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
                     18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
                     19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
                     20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
                     21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
                     22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
                     23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
                     24: 
                     25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
                     26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
                     27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
                     28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
                     29: 
                     30: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
                     31: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
                     32: in the dom0 section.)
                     33: 
                     34: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
                     35: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
                     36: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
                     37: and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
                     38: 
                     39: Prerequisites
1.13      gdt        40: -------------
1.12      gdt        41: 
                     42: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
                     43: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
1.15      gdt        44: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
                     45: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
                     46: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
1.12      gdt        47: 
                     48: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
1.16      gdt        49: architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
                     50: on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
                     51: See also the [Xen website](http://www.xen.org/).
1.1       mspo       52: 
1.15      gdt        53: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
                     54: ==========================
                     55: 
                     56: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent of
                     57: Xen version.  This section gives advice on which version to choose.
                     58: Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported versions of NetBSD are
                     59: inentionally ignored.
                     60: 
                     61: Xen
                     62: ---
                     63: 
                     64: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
                     65: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
                     66: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
                     67: matching versions.
                     68: 
                     69: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
                     70: receive security patches and should not be used.
                     71: 
                     72: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
                     73: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
                     74: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
                     75: 
                     76: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
                     77: of 2014-12.
                     78: 
                     79: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
                     80: 
                     81: NetBSD
                     82: ------
                     83: 
                     84: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
                     85: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
                     86: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
                     87: of the most recent release.
                     88: 
                     89: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
                     90: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
                     91: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
                     92: a normal computer.)
                     93: 
                     94: Recommendation
                     95: --------------
                     96: 
                     97: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42)
                     98: and NetBSD 6 stable branch.
                     99: 
                    100: NetBSD as a dom0
                    101: ================
                    102: 
                    103: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
                    104: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
                    105: 
                    106: Styles of dom0 operation
                    107: ------------------------
                    108: 
                    109: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
                    110: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
                    111: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
                    112: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
                    113: 
                    114: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
                    115: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
                    116: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
                    117: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
                    118: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
                    119: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
                    120: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
                    121: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
                    122: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
                    123: 
                    124: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
                    125: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
                    126: 
                    127: Installation of NetBSD and Xen
                    128: ------------------------------
1.13      gdt       129: 
                    130: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
                    131: without also installing Xen itself.
1.1       mspo      132: 
                    133: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
                    134: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
                    135: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
1.5       mspo      136: available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots
                    137: for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.
                    138: If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk
                    139: you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
1.1       mspo      140: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
                    141: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
                    142: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
                    143: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
                    144: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
                    145: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
                    146: other domains.
                    147: 
                    148: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
                    149: packages. See [the pkgsrc
                    150: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
                    151: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
                    152: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
1.5       mspo      153: not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`
                    154: for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen
                    155: 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or
                    156: `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll
                    157: also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If
                    158: using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`
1.1       mspo      159: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
                    160: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
1.5       mspo      161: `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel
                    162: CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You
                    163: can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl
                    164: command:
1.1       mspo      165: 
1.3       mspo      166:     # cpuctl identify 0
                    167:     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
                    168:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
                    169:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
                    170:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
1.5       mspo      171:     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
1.3       mspo      172:     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
                    173:     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
                    174:     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
                    175:     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
                    176:     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
                    177:     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
                    178:     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
                    179:     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
                    180:     cpu0: Core ID 0
                    181:     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
1.1       mspo      182: 
                    183: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
                    184: SVM or VMX.
                    185: 
                    186: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
1.5       mspo      187: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is
                    188: `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel
                    189: with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial
                    190: console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial
                    191: console. It is not useful with a VGA console.
1.1       mspo      192: 
                    193: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
                    194: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
                    195: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
                    196: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
1.5       mspo      197: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`
                    198: must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.
                    199: 
                    200: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the
                    201: NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot
                    202: loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)
                    203: manual page for an example using the latter.
1.1       mspo      204: 
                    205: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
                    206: console to use, etc ...
                    207: 
1.5       mspo      208: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:
1.1       mspo      209: 
1.5       mspo      210:     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
1.3       mspo      211:     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
                    212:     #
                    213:     # The default entry to load will be the first one
                    214:     default=0
1.5       mspo      215: 
1.3       mspo      216:     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
                    217:     timeout=10
1.5       mspo      218: 
1.3       mspo      219:     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
                    220:     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
1.5       mspo      221: 
1.3       mspo      222:     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
                    223:     # to serial after 10s
                    224:     terminal --timeout=10 serial console
1.5       mspo      225: 
1.3       mspo      226:     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
                    227:     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
                    228:     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
                    229:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
                    230:       root(hd0,0)
                    231:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    232:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
1.5       mspo      233: 
1.3       mspo      234:     # Same as above, but using VGA console
                    235:     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
                    236:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
                    237:       root(hd0,0)
                    238:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    239:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      240: 
1.3       mspo      241:     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
                    242:     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
                    243:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
                    244:       root(hd0,0)
                    245:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    246:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
                    247:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
                    248:       root(hd0,0)
                    249:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    250:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      251: 
1.3       mspo      252:     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
                    253:     #nonworking /xen.gz
                    254:     title NetBSD 5.1
                    255:       root (hd0,a)
                    256:       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
1.5       mspo      257: 
1.3       mspo      258:     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
                    259:     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
                    260:     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
                    261:     title NetBSD chain
                    262:       root        (hd0,0)
                    263:       chainloader +1
1.5       mspo      264: 
1.3       mspo      265:     ## end of grub config file.
1.5       mspo      266:           
                    267: 
1.1       mspo      268: Install grub with the following command:
                    269: 
1.3       mspo      270:     # grub --no-floppy
1.5       mspo      271: 
1.3       mspo      272:     grub> root (hd0,a)
                    273:      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
1.5       mspo      274: 
1.3       mspo      275:     grub> setup (hd0)
                    276:      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
                    277:      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
                    278:      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
                    279:      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
                    280:      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
                    281:     succeeded
                    282:      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
                    283:      succeeded
                    284:     Done.
1.5       mspo      285:           
1.1       mspo      286: 
1.15      gdt       287: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
                    288: -------------------------
                    289: 
                    290: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
                    291: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
                    292: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
                    293: and adjusts /etc.
                    294: 
                    295: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
                    296: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
                    297: 
                    298: Updating Xen versions
                    299: ---------------------
                    300: 
                    301: TODO: write
                    302: 
1.14      gdt       303: Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
                    304: ====================================
                    305: 
                    306: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
                    307: first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
                    308: 
                    309: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
                    310: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      311: 
                    312: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
1.5       mspo      313: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
                    314: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
                    315: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
                    316: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
                    317: can create them with this command:
1.1       mspo      318: 
1.3       mspo      319:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.1       mspo      320: 
1.5       mspo      321: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
                    322: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
                    323: 'xm list' will show something like:
1.1       mspo      324: 
1.3       mspo      325:     # xm list
                    326:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    327:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.1       mspo      328: 
                    329: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
                    330: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
1.5       mspo      331: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
                    332: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
                    333: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
                    334: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
                    335: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
                    336: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
1.1       mspo      337: 
                    338: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
                    339: 
1.3       mspo      340:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
                    341:     #============================================================================
                    342:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
                    343:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
                    344:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      345: 
1.3       mspo      346:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    347:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
                    348:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
                    349:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5       mspo      350: 
1.3       mspo      351:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
                    352:     memory = 128
1.5       mspo      353: 
1.3       mspo      354:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
                    355:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
                    356:     # number. All domains must have different names.
                    357:     #
                    358:     name = "nbsd"
1.5       mspo      359: 
1.3       mspo      360:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
                    361:     #
                    362:     vcpus = 1
1.5       mspo      363: 
1.3       mspo      364:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    365:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      366: 
1.3       mspo      367:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
                    368:     nics = 1
1.5       mspo      369: 
1.3       mspo      370:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
                    371:     #
                    372:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
                    373:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
                    374:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
                    375:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
                    376:     #
                    377:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
                    378:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
                    379:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
                    380:     #
                    381:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
                    382:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
                    383:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
                    384:     #
                    385:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
1.5       mspo      386: 
1.3       mspo      387:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    388:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
                    389:     # what you want them accessible as.
                    390:     #
                    391:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
                    392:     #
1.5       mspo      393:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      394:     #
                    395:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
                    396:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
                    397:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
                    398:     #
1.5       mspo      399:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      400:     #
                    401:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
                    402:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
                    403:     #
                    404:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
                    405:     # but it does for Linux.
                    406:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
                    407:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
                    408:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
                    409:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
                    410:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
                    411:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
1.5       mspo      412: 
1.3       mspo      413:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
                    414:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
                    415:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
1.5       mspo      416: 
1.3       mspo      417:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    418:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      419: 
1.3       mspo      420:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
                    421:     root = "xbd0"
                    422:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
                    423:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
                    424:     #extra = ""
1.5       mspo      425: 
1.3       mspo      426:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    427:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
                    428:     # The default is False.
                    429:     #autorestart = True
1.5       mspo      430: 
1.3       mspo      431:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
1.1       mspo      432: 
                    433: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
1.5       mspo      434: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
                    435: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
                    436: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
                    437: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
                    438: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
                    439: like this:
1.1       mspo      440: 
1.3       mspo      441:     create
                    442:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
1.1       mspo      443: 
1.5       mspo      444: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
                    445: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
1.1       mspo      446: 
1.5       mspo      447: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
                    448: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
1.1       mspo      449: 
1.5       mspo      450:     #!/bin/sh
1.3       mspo      451:     #============================================================================
1.17    ! gdt       452:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.16 2014/12/24 00:06:01 gdt Exp $
1.3       mspo      453:     #
                    454:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
                    455:     #
                    456:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
                    457:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
                    458:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
                    459:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
                    460:     #
                    461:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
                    462:     #
                    463:     # Actions:
1.5       mspo      464:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
                    465:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
1.3       mspo      466:     #
                    467:     # Variables:
1.5       mspo      468:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
                    469:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
                    470:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
                    471:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
1.3       mspo      472:     #
                    473:     # Example invocation:
                    474:     #
                    475:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
                    476:     #
                    477:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      478: 
1.3       mspo      479:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
                    480:     set -e
1.5       mspo      481: 
1.3       mspo      482:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
1.5       mspo      483: 
1.3       mspo      484:     # Operation name.
                    485:     OP=$1; shift
1.5       mspo      486: 
1.3       mspo      487:     # Pull variables in args into environment
                    488:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
1.5       mspo      489: 
1.3       mspo      490:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
                    491:     domain=${domain:?}
                    492:     vif=${vif:?}
                    493:     mac=${mac:?}
                    494:     bridge=${bridge:?}
1.5       mspo      495: 
1.3       mspo      496:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
                    497:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
1.5       mspo      498: 
1.3       mspo      499:     # Are we going up or down?
                    500:     case $OP in
1.5       mspo      501:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
1.3       mspo      502:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
                    503:     *)
1.5       mspo      504:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
                    505:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
                    506:         exit 1
                    507:         ;;
1.3       mspo      508:     esac
1.5       mspo      509: 
1.3       mspo      510:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
                    511:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
1.5       mspo      512:         exit
1.3       mspo      513:     fi
1.5       mspo      514: 
1.3       mspo      515:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
                    516:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
1.5       mspo      517:         exit
1.3       mspo      518:     fi
1.5       mspo      519: 
1.3       mspo      520:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
                    521:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
                    522:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
1.1       mspo      523: 
                    524: Now, running
                    525: 
1.3       mspo      526:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
1.1       mspo      527: 
1.5       mspo      528: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
                    529: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
                    530: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
                    531: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
                    532: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
                    533: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
                    534: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
                    535: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
                    536: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
                    537: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
1.1       mspo      538: 
                    539: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
1.5       mspo      540: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
1.1       mspo      541: 
1.3       mspo      542:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      543: 
                    544: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.5       mspo      545: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      546: 
1.5       mspo      547: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
                    548: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
1.1       mspo      549: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
1.5       mspo      550: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
                    551: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
                    552: installation.
1.1       mspo      553: 
                    554: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    555: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5       mspo      556: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
                    557: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      558: 
1.3       mspo      559:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    560:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    561:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    562:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    563:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      564: 
1.5       mspo      565: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      566: 
                    567: It is also desirable to add
                    568: 
1.3       mspo      569:     powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      570: 
1.5       mspo      571: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
                    572: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
1.1       mspo      573: 
                    574: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
                    575: 
1.14      gdt       576: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      577: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      578: 
                    579: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    580: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    581: 
                    582: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    583: the example below)
                    584: 
1.3       mspo      585:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      586: 
                    587: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
                    588: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
                    589: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
                    590: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
                    591: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
                    592: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
                    593: 
1.3       mspo      594:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    595:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      596: 
                    597: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    598: partition.
                    599: 
                    600: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
                    601: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
                    602: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
                    603: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
1.5       mspo      604: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
                    605: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
                    606: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
                    607: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
                    608: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
                    609: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
                    610: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
                    611: available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      612: 
                    613: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
                    614: 
1.3       mspo      615:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      616: 
                    617: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
                    618: tty to the xen console.
                    619: 
1.14      gdt       620: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      621: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      622: 
                    623: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
                    624: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
1.5       mspo      625: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
                    626: image to your dom0 filesystem.
1.1       mspo      627: 
1.3       mspo      628:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
                    629:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
                    630:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
1.5       mspo      631: 
1.3       mspo      632:     ## for a 64-bit guest
                    633:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    634:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      635: 
1.3       mspo      636:     ## for a 32-bit guest
                    637:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    638:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      639: 
1.3       mspo      640:     dom0# umount /mnt
1.5       mspo      641:           
                    642: 
                    643: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
                    644: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
                    645: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
                    646: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
1.1       mspo      647: 
1.4       mspo      648:     memory = 640
                    649:     name = 'solaris'
                    650:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    651:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
                    652:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    653:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    654:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    655:     # for a 64-bit guest
                    656:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
                    657:     # for a 32-bit guest
                    658:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
1.5       mspo      659:           
                    660: 
1.1       mspo      661: Start the guest.
                    662: 
1.4       mspo      663:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    664:     Started domain solaris
                    665:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    666:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    667:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    668:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    669:     Hostname: opensolaris
                    670:     Remounting root read/write
                    671:     Probing for device nodes ...
                    672:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    673:     Preparing live image for use
                    674:     Done mounting Live image
1.5       mspo      675:           
1.1       mspo      676: 
                    677: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
                    678: the xnf0 interface to appear.
                    679: 
1.4       mspo      680:     opensolaris console login: jack
                    681:     Password: jack
                    682:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
                    683:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
                    684:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
                    685:     sh-3.2# exit
1.5       mspo      686:           
1.1       mspo      687: 
                    688: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
                    689: display where the installation program runs.
                    690: 
1.4       mspo      691:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
                    692:     Password: solaris
                    693:     Verify: solaris
                    694:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
                    695:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
1.5       mspo      696:           
1.1       mspo      697: 
1.5       mspo      698: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
                    699: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
1.1       mspo      700: 
1.4       mspo      701:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
1.5       mspo      702:           
1.1       mspo      703: 
                    704: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
                    705: 
1.4       mspo      706:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
                    707:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
1.5       mspo      708:            
1.1       mspo      709: 
                    710: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
                    711: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
                    712: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
                    713: console.
                    714: 
1.4       mspo      715:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
                    716:                     bootfs = 43
                    717:     ^C
                    718:     jack@opensolaris:~$
1.5       mspo      719:            
1.1       mspo      720: 
                    721: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
                    722: the last line.
                    723: 
1.4       mspo      724:     memory = 640
                    725:     name = 'solaris'
                    726:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    727:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    728:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    729:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    730:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
1.5       mspo      731:            
1.1       mspo      732: 
                    733: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
                    734: 
1.4       mspo      735:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
                    736:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    737:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
                    738:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    739:     Started domain solaris
                    740:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    741:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    742:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    743:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    744:     Hostname: osol
                    745:     Configuring devices.
                    746:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
                    747:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
                    748:     Reading ZFS config: done.
                    749:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
                    750:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
                    751:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
1.5       mspo      752: 
1.4       mspo      753:     osol console login:
1.5       mspo      754:            
1.1       mspo      755: 
                    756: Using PCI devices in guest domains
1.14      gdt       757: ----------------------------------
1.1       mspo      758: 
                    759: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
                    760: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
                    761: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
                    762: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
                    763: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
                    764: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
                    765: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
                    766: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
                    767: access the VGA registers will panic).
                    768: 
                    769: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
                    770: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
                    771: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    772: 
                    773: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
1.5       mspo      774: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
                    775: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
                    776: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
                    777: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
                    778: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      779: 
1.4       mspo      780:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      781: 
                    782: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
1.5       mspo      783: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      784: 
1.5       mspo      785: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
                    786: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
1.1       mspo      787: 
1.4       mspo      788:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      789: 
1.5       mspo      790: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
                    791: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
                    792: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
                    793: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
                    794: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
1.1       mspo      795: 
1.4       mspo      796:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                    797:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
1.5       mspo      798: 
1.4       mspo      799:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
                    800:     xpci* at xenbus ?
                    801:     pci* at xpci ?
1.5       mspo      802: 
1.4       mspo      803:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
                    804:     # USB Controller and Devices
1.5       mspo      805: 
1.4       mspo      806:     # PCI USB controllers
                    807:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
1.5       mspo      808: 
1.4       mspo      809:     # USB bus support
                    810:     usb*    at uhci?
1.5       mspo      811: 
1.4       mspo      812:     # USB Hubs
                    813:     uhub*   at usb?
                    814:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
1.5       mspo      815: 
1.4       mspo      816:     # USB Mass Storage
                    817:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                    818:     wd*     at umass?
                    819:     # SCSI controllers
                    820:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
1.5       mspo      821: 
1.4       mspo      822:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                    823:     scsibus* at scsi?
1.5       mspo      824: 
1.4       mspo      825:     # SCSI devices
                    826:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                    827:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo      828: 
                    829: Links and further information
1.5       mspo      830: =============================
1.1       mspo      831: 
1.9       gdt       832: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
1.8       gdt       833:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
                    834:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
                    835:     NetBSD's native boot.)
1.1       mspo      836: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
1.9       gdt       837:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
                    838:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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