Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.15

1.5       mspo        1: Introduction
1.13      gdt         2: ============
1.1       mspo        3: 
                      4: [![[Xen
1.7       mspo        5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
1.1       mspo        6: 
1.12      gdt         7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
                      8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
                      9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
                     10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
                     11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
                     12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
                     13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
                     14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
                     15: fulfilled.
                     16: 
                     17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
                     18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
                     19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
                     20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
                     21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
                     22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
                     23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
                     24: 
                     25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
                     26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
                     27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
                     28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
                     29: 
                     30: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
                     31: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
                     32: in the dom0 section.)
                     33: 
                     34: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
                     35: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
                     36: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
                     37: and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
                     38: 
                     39: Prerequisites
1.13      gdt        40: -------------
1.12      gdt        41: 
                     42: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
                     43: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
1.15    ! gdt        44: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
        !            45: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
        !            46: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
1.12      gdt        47: 
                     48: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
                     49: architecture.
                     50: 
                     51: This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64
                     52: hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
                     53: 
                     54: For more details on Xen, see [](http://www.xen.org/).
1.1       mspo       55: 
1.15    ! gdt        56: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
        !            57: ==========================
        !            58: 
        !            59: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent of
        !            60: Xen version.  This section gives advice on which version to choose.
        !            61: Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported versions of NetBSD are
        !            62: inentionally ignored.
        !            63: 
        !            64: Xen
        !            65: ---
        !            66: 
        !            67: In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
        !            68: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
        !            69: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
        !            70: matching versions.
        !            71: 
        !            72: xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
        !            73: receive security patches and should not be used.
        !            74: 
        !            75: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
        !            76: but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
        !            77: reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
        !            78: 
        !            79: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
        !            80: of 2014-12.
        !            81: 
        !            82: Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
        !            83: 
        !            84: NetBSD
        !            85: ------
        !            86: 
        !            87: The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
        !            88: reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
        !            89: non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
        !            90: of the most recent release.
        !            91: 
        !            92: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
        !            93: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
        !            94: need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
        !            95: a normal computer.)
        !            96: 
        !            97: Recommendation
        !            98: --------------
        !            99: 
        !           100: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42)
        !           101: and NetBSD 6 stable branch.
        !           102: 
        !           103: NetBSD as a dom0
        !           104: ================
        !           105: 
        !           106: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
        !           107: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
        !           108: 
        !           109: Styles of dom0 operation
        !           110: ------------------------
        !           111: 
        !           112: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
        !           113: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
        !           114: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
        !           115: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
        !           116: 
        !           117: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
        !           118: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
        !           119: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
        !           120: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
        !           121: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
        !           122: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
        !           123: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
        !           124: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
        !           125: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
        !           126: 
        !           127: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
        !           128: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
        !           129: 
        !           130: Installation of NetBSD and Xen
        !           131: ------------------------------
1.13      gdt       132: 
                    133: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
                    134: without also installing Xen itself.
1.1       mspo      135: 
                    136: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
                    137: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
                    138: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
1.5       mspo      139: available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots
                    140: for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.
                    141: If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk
                    142: you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
1.1       mspo      143: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
                    144: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
                    145: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
                    146: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
                    147: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
                    148: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
                    149: other domains.
                    150: 
                    151: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
                    152: packages. See [the pkgsrc
                    153: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
                    154: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
                    155: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
1.5       mspo      156: not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`
                    157: for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen
                    158: 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or
                    159: `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll
                    160: also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If
                    161: using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`
1.1       mspo      162: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
                    163: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
1.5       mspo      164: `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel
                    165: CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You
                    166: can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl
                    167: command:
1.1       mspo      168: 
1.3       mspo      169:     # cpuctl identify 0
                    170:     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
                    171:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
                    172:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
                    173:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
1.5       mspo      174:     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
1.3       mspo      175:     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
                    176:     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
                    177:     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
                    178:     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
                    179:     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
                    180:     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
                    181:     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
                    182:     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
                    183:     cpu0: Core ID 0
                    184:     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
1.1       mspo      185: 
                    186: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
                    187: SVM or VMX.
                    188: 
                    189: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
1.5       mspo      190: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is
                    191: `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel
                    192: with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial
                    193: console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial
                    194: console. It is not useful with a VGA console.
1.1       mspo      195: 
                    196: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
                    197: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
                    198: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
                    199: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
1.5       mspo      200: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`
                    201: must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.
                    202: 
                    203: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the
                    204: NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot
                    205: loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)
                    206: manual page for an example using the latter.
1.1       mspo      207: 
                    208: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
                    209: console to use, etc ...
                    210: 
1.5       mspo      211: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:
1.1       mspo      212: 
1.5       mspo      213:     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
1.3       mspo      214:     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
                    215:     #
                    216:     # The default entry to load will be the first one
                    217:     default=0
1.5       mspo      218: 
1.3       mspo      219:     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
                    220:     timeout=10
1.5       mspo      221: 
1.3       mspo      222:     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
                    223:     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
1.5       mspo      224: 
1.3       mspo      225:     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
                    226:     # to serial after 10s
                    227:     terminal --timeout=10 serial console
1.5       mspo      228: 
1.3       mspo      229:     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
                    230:     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
                    231:     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
                    232:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
                    233:       root(hd0,0)
                    234:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    235:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
1.5       mspo      236: 
1.3       mspo      237:     # Same as above, but using VGA console
                    238:     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
                    239:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
                    240:       root(hd0,0)
                    241:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    242:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      243: 
1.3       mspo      244:     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
                    245:     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
                    246:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
                    247:       root(hd0,0)
                    248:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    249:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
                    250:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
                    251:       root(hd0,0)
                    252:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    253:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      254: 
1.3       mspo      255:     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
                    256:     #nonworking /xen.gz
                    257:     title NetBSD 5.1
                    258:       root (hd0,a)
                    259:       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
1.5       mspo      260: 
1.3       mspo      261:     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
                    262:     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
                    263:     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
                    264:     title NetBSD chain
                    265:       root        (hd0,0)
                    266:       chainloader +1
1.5       mspo      267: 
1.3       mspo      268:     ## end of grub config file.
1.5       mspo      269:           
                    270: 
1.1       mspo      271: Install grub with the following command:
                    272: 
1.3       mspo      273:     # grub --no-floppy
1.5       mspo      274: 
1.3       mspo      275:     grub> root (hd0,a)
                    276:      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
1.5       mspo      277: 
1.3       mspo      278:     grub> setup (hd0)
                    279:      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
                    280:      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
                    281:      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
                    282:      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
                    283:      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
                    284:     succeeded
                    285:      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
                    286:      succeeded
                    287:     Done.
1.5       mspo      288:           
1.1       mspo      289: 
1.15    ! gdt       290: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
        !           291: -------------------------
        !           292: 
        !           293: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
        !           294: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
        !           295: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
        !           296: and adjusts /etc.
        !           297: 
        !           298: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
        !           299: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
        !           300: 
        !           301: Updating Xen versions
        !           302: ---------------------
        !           303: 
        !           304: TODO: write
        !           305: 
1.14      gdt       306: Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
                    307: ====================================
                    308: 
                    309: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
                    310: first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
                    311: 
                    312: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
                    313: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      314: 
                    315: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
1.5       mspo      316: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
                    317: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
                    318: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
                    319: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
                    320: can create them with this command:
1.1       mspo      321: 
1.3       mspo      322:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.1       mspo      323: 
1.5       mspo      324: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
                    325: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
                    326: 'xm list' will show something like:
1.1       mspo      327: 
1.3       mspo      328:     # xm list
                    329:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    330:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.1       mspo      331: 
                    332: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
                    333: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
1.5       mspo      334: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
                    335: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
                    336: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
                    337: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
                    338: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
                    339: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
1.1       mspo      340: 
                    341: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
                    342: 
1.3       mspo      343:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
                    344:     #============================================================================
                    345:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
                    346:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
                    347:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      348: 
1.3       mspo      349:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    350:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
                    351:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
                    352:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5       mspo      353: 
1.3       mspo      354:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
                    355:     memory = 128
1.5       mspo      356: 
1.3       mspo      357:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
                    358:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
                    359:     # number. All domains must have different names.
                    360:     #
                    361:     name = "nbsd"
1.5       mspo      362: 
1.3       mspo      363:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
                    364:     #
                    365:     vcpus = 1
1.5       mspo      366: 
1.3       mspo      367:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    368:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      369: 
1.3       mspo      370:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
                    371:     nics = 1
1.5       mspo      372: 
1.3       mspo      373:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
                    374:     #
                    375:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
                    376:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
                    377:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
                    378:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
                    379:     #
                    380:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
                    381:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
                    382:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
                    383:     #
                    384:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
                    385:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
                    386:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
                    387:     #
                    388:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
1.5       mspo      389: 
1.3       mspo      390:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    391:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
                    392:     # what you want them accessible as.
                    393:     #
                    394:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
                    395:     #
1.5       mspo      396:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      397:     #
                    398:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
                    399:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
                    400:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
                    401:     #
1.5       mspo      402:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      403:     #
                    404:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
                    405:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
                    406:     #
                    407:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
                    408:     # but it does for Linux.
                    409:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
                    410:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
                    411:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
                    412:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
                    413:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
                    414:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
1.5       mspo      415: 
1.3       mspo      416:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
                    417:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
                    418:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
1.5       mspo      419: 
1.3       mspo      420:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    421:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      422: 
1.3       mspo      423:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
                    424:     root = "xbd0"
                    425:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
                    426:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
                    427:     #extra = ""
1.5       mspo      428: 
1.3       mspo      429:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    430:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
                    431:     # The default is False.
                    432:     #autorestart = True
1.5       mspo      433: 
1.3       mspo      434:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
1.1       mspo      435: 
                    436: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
1.5       mspo      437: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
                    438: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
                    439: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
                    440: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
                    441: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
                    442: like this:
1.1       mspo      443: 
1.3       mspo      444:     create
                    445:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
1.1       mspo      446: 
1.5       mspo      447: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
                    448: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
1.1       mspo      449: 
1.5       mspo      450: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
                    451: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
1.1       mspo      452: 
1.5       mspo      453:     #!/bin/sh
1.3       mspo      454:     #============================================================================
1.15    ! gdt       455:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.14 2014/12/23 23:43:27 gdt Exp $
1.3       mspo      456:     #
                    457:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
                    458:     #
                    459:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
                    460:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
                    461:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
                    462:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
                    463:     #
                    464:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
                    465:     #
                    466:     # Actions:
1.5       mspo      467:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
                    468:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
1.3       mspo      469:     #
                    470:     # Variables:
1.5       mspo      471:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
                    472:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
                    473:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
                    474:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
1.3       mspo      475:     #
                    476:     # Example invocation:
                    477:     #
                    478:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
                    479:     #
                    480:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      481: 
1.3       mspo      482:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
                    483:     set -e
1.5       mspo      484: 
1.3       mspo      485:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
1.5       mspo      486: 
1.3       mspo      487:     # Operation name.
                    488:     OP=$1; shift
1.5       mspo      489: 
1.3       mspo      490:     # Pull variables in args into environment
                    491:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
1.5       mspo      492: 
1.3       mspo      493:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
                    494:     domain=${domain:?}
                    495:     vif=${vif:?}
                    496:     mac=${mac:?}
                    497:     bridge=${bridge:?}
1.5       mspo      498: 
1.3       mspo      499:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
                    500:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
1.5       mspo      501: 
1.3       mspo      502:     # Are we going up or down?
                    503:     case $OP in
1.5       mspo      504:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
1.3       mspo      505:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
                    506:     *)
1.5       mspo      507:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
                    508:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
                    509:         exit 1
                    510:         ;;
1.3       mspo      511:     esac
1.5       mspo      512: 
1.3       mspo      513:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
                    514:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
1.5       mspo      515:         exit
1.3       mspo      516:     fi
1.5       mspo      517: 
1.3       mspo      518:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
                    519:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
1.5       mspo      520:         exit
1.3       mspo      521:     fi
1.5       mspo      522: 
1.3       mspo      523:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
                    524:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
                    525:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
1.1       mspo      526: 
                    527: Now, running
                    528: 
1.3       mspo      529:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
1.1       mspo      530: 
1.5       mspo      531: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
                    532: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
                    533: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
                    534: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
                    535: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
                    536: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
                    537: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
                    538: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
                    539: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
                    540: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
1.1       mspo      541: 
                    542: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
1.5       mspo      543: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
1.1       mspo      544: 
1.3       mspo      545:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      546: 
                    547: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.5       mspo      548: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      549: 
1.5       mspo      550: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
                    551: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
1.1       mspo      552: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
1.5       mspo      553: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
                    554: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
                    555: installation.
1.1       mspo      556: 
                    557: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    558: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5       mspo      559: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
                    560: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      561: 
1.3       mspo      562:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    563:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    564:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    565:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    566:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      567: 
1.5       mspo      568: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      569: 
                    570: It is also desirable to add
                    571: 
1.3       mspo      572:     powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      573: 
1.5       mspo      574: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
                    575: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
1.1       mspo      576: 
                    577: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
                    578: 
1.14      gdt       579: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      580: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      581: 
                    582: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    583: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    584: 
                    585: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    586: the example below)
                    587: 
1.3       mspo      588:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      589: 
                    590: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
                    591: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
                    592: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
                    593: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
                    594: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
                    595: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
                    596: 
1.3       mspo      597:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    598:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      599: 
                    600: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    601: partition.
                    602: 
                    603: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
                    604: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
                    605: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
                    606: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
1.5       mspo      607: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
                    608: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
                    609: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
                    610: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
                    611: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
                    612: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
                    613: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
                    614: available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      615: 
                    616: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
                    617: 
1.3       mspo      618:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      619: 
                    620: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
                    621: tty to the xen console.
                    622: 
1.14      gdt       623: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      624: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      625: 
                    626: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
                    627: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
1.5       mspo      628: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
                    629: image to your dom0 filesystem.
1.1       mspo      630: 
1.3       mspo      631:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
                    632:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
                    633:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
1.5       mspo      634: 
1.3       mspo      635:     ## for a 64-bit guest
                    636:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    637:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      638: 
1.3       mspo      639:     ## for a 32-bit guest
                    640:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    641:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      642: 
1.3       mspo      643:     dom0# umount /mnt
1.5       mspo      644:           
                    645: 
                    646: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
                    647: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
                    648: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
                    649: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
1.1       mspo      650: 
1.4       mspo      651:     memory = 640
                    652:     name = 'solaris'
                    653:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    654:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
                    655:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    656:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    657:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    658:     # for a 64-bit guest
                    659:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
                    660:     # for a 32-bit guest
                    661:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
1.5       mspo      662:           
                    663: 
1.1       mspo      664: Start the guest.
                    665: 
1.4       mspo      666:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    667:     Started domain solaris
                    668:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    669:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    670:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    671:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    672:     Hostname: opensolaris
                    673:     Remounting root read/write
                    674:     Probing for device nodes ...
                    675:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    676:     Preparing live image for use
                    677:     Done mounting Live image
1.5       mspo      678:           
1.1       mspo      679: 
                    680: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
                    681: the xnf0 interface to appear.
                    682: 
1.4       mspo      683:     opensolaris console login: jack
                    684:     Password: jack
                    685:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
                    686:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
                    687:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
                    688:     sh-3.2# exit
1.5       mspo      689:           
1.1       mspo      690: 
                    691: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
                    692: display where the installation program runs.
                    693: 
1.4       mspo      694:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
                    695:     Password: solaris
                    696:     Verify: solaris
                    697:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
                    698:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
1.5       mspo      699:           
1.1       mspo      700: 
1.5       mspo      701: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
                    702: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
1.1       mspo      703: 
1.4       mspo      704:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
1.5       mspo      705:           
1.1       mspo      706: 
                    707: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
                    708: 
1.4       mspo      709:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
                    710:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
1.5       mspo      711:            
1.1       mspo      712: 
                    713: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
                    714: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
                    715: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
                    716: console.
                    717: 
1.4       mspo      718:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
                    719:                     bootfs = 43
                    720:     ^C
                    721:     jack@opensolaris:~$
1.5       mspo      722:            
1.1       mspo      723: 
                    724: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
                    725: the last line.
                    726: 
1.4       mspo      727:     memory = 640
                    728:     name = 'solaris'
                    729:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    730:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    731:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    732:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    733:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
1.5       mspo      734:            
1.1       mspo      735: 
                    736: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
                    737: 
1.4       mspo      738:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
                    739:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    740:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
                    741:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    742:     Started domain solaris
                    743:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    744:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    745:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    746:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    747:     Hostname: osol
                    748:     Configuring devices.
                    749:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
                    750:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
                    751:     Reading ZFS config: done.
                    752:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
                    753:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
                    754:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
1.5       mspo      755: 
1.4       mspo      756:     osol console login:
1.5       mspo      757:            
1.1       mspo      758: 
                    759: Using PCI devices in guest domains
1.14      gdt       760: ----------------------------------
1.1       mspo      761: 
                    762: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
                    763: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
                    764: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
                    765: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
                    766: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
                    767: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
                    768: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
                    769: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
                    770: access the VGA registers will panic).
                    771: 
                    772: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
                    773: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
                    774: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    775: 
                    776: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
1.5       mspo      777: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
                    778: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
                    779: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
                    780: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
                    781: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      782: 
1.4       mspo      783:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      784: 
                    785: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
1.5       mspo      786: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      787: 
1.5       mspo      788: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
                    789: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
1.1       mspo      790: 
1.4       mspo      791:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      792: 
1.5       mspo      793: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
                    794: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
                    795: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
                    796: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
                    797: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
1.1       mspo      798: 
1.4       mspo      799:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                    800:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
1.5       mspo      801: 
1.4       mspo      802:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
                    803:     xpci* at xenbus ?
                    804:     pci* at xpci ?
1.5       mspo      805: 
1.4       mspo      806:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
                    807:     # USB Controller and Devices
1.5       mspo      808: 
1.4       mspo      809:     # PCI USB controllers
                    810:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
1.5       mspo      811: 
1.4       mspo      812:     # USB bus support
                    813:     usb*    at uhci?
1.5       mspo      814: 
1.4       mspo      815:     # USB Hubs
                    816:     uhub*   at usb?
                    817:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
1.5       mspo      818: 
1.4       mspo      819:     # USB Mass Storage
                    820:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                    821:     wd*     at umass?
                    822:     # SCSI controllers
                    823:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
1.5       mspo      824: 
1.4       mspo      825:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                    826:     scsibus* at scsi?
1.5       mspo      827: 
1.4       mspo      828:     # SCSI devices
                    829:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                    830:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo      831: 
                    832: Links and further information
1.5       mspo      833: =============================
1.1       mspo      834: 
1.9       gdt       835: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
1.8       gdt       836:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
                    837:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
                    838:     NetBSD's native boot.)
1.1       mspo      839: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
1.9       gdt       840:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
                    841:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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