Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.13

1.5       mspo        1: Introduction
1.13    ! gdt         2: ============
1.1       mspo        3: 
                      4: [![[Xen
1.7       mspo        5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
1.1       mspo        6: 
1.12      gdt         7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
                      8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
                      9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
                     10: the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
                     11: operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
                     12: network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
                     13: an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
                     14: systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
                     15: fulfilled.
                     16: 
                     17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
                     18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
                     19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
                     20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
                     21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
                     22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
                     23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
                     24: 
                     25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
                     26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
                     27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
                     28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
                     29: 
                     30: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
                     31: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
                     32: in the dom0 section.)
                     33: 
                     34: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
                     35: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
                     36: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
                     37: and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
                     38: 
                     39: Prerequisites
1.13    ! gdt        40: -------------
1.12      gdt        41: 
                     42: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
                     43: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
                     44: 
                     45: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
                     46: architecture.
                     47: 
                     48: This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64
                     49: hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
                     50: 
                     51: For more details on Xen, see [](http://www.xen.org/).
1.1       mspo       52: 
1.13    ! gdt        53: Installing Xen with NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)
        !            54: ======================================================
        !            55: 
        !            56: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
        !            57: without also installing Xen itself.
1.1       mspo       58: 
                     59: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
                     60: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
                     61: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
1.5       mspo       62: available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots
                     63: for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.
                     64: If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk
                     65: you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
1.1       mspo       66: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
                     67: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
                     68: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
                     69: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
                     70: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
                     71: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
                     72: other domains.
                     73: 
                     74: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
                     75: packages. See [the pkgsrc
                     76: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
                     77: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
                     78: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
1.5       mspo       79: not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`
                     80: for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen
                     81: 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or
                     82: `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll
                     83: also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If
                     84: using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`
1.1       mspo       85: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
                     86: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
1.5       mspo       87: `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel
                     88: CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You
                     89: can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl
                     90: command:
1.1       mspo       91: 
1.3       mspo       92:     # cpuctl identify 0
                     93:     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
                     94:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
                     95:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
                     96:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
1.5       mspo       97:     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
1.3       mspo       98:     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
                     99:     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
                    100:     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
                    101:     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
                    102:     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
                    103:     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
                    104:     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
                    105:     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
                    106:     cpu0: Core ID 0
                    107:     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
1.1       mspo      108: 
                    109: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
                    110: SVM or VMX.
                    111: 
                    112: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
1.5       mspo      113: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is
                    114: `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel
                    115: with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial
                    116: console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial
                    117: console. It is not useful with a VGA console.
1.1       mspo      118: 
                    119: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
                    120: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
                    121: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
                    122: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
1.5       mspo      123: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`
                    124: must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.
                    125: 
                    126: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the
                    127: NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot
                    128: loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)
                    129: manual page for an example using the latter.
1.1       mspo      130: 
                    131: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
                    132: console to use, etc ...
                    133: 
1.5       mspo      134: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:
1.1       mspo      135: 
1.5       mspo      136:     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
1.3       mspo      137:     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
                    138:     #
                    139:     # The default entry to load will be the first one
                    140:     default=0
1.5       mspo      141: 
1.3       mspo      142:     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
                    143:     timeout=10
1.5       mspo      144: 
1.3       mspo      145:     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
                    146:     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
1.5       mspo      147: 
1.3       mspo      148:     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
                    149:     # to serial after 10s
                    150:     terminal --timeout=10 serial console
1.5       mspo      151: 
1.3       mspo      152:     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
                    153:     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
                    154:     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
                    155:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
                    156:       root(hd0,0)
                    157:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    158:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
1.5       mspo      159: 
1.3       mspo      160:     # Same as above, but using VGA console
                    161:     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
                    162:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
                    163:       root(hd0,0)
                    164:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    165:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      166: 
1.3       mspo      167:     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
                    168:     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
                    169:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
                    170:       root(hd0,0)
                    171:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    172:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
                    173:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
                    174:       root(hd0,0)
                    175:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    176:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      177: 
1.3       mspo      178:     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
                    179:     #nonworking /xen.gz
                    180:     title NetBSD 5.1
                    181:       root (hd0,a)
                    182:       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
1.5       mspo      183: 
1.3       mspo      184:     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
                    185:     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
                    186:     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
                    187:     title NetBSD chain
                    188:       root        (hd0,0)
                    189:       chainloader +1
1.5       mspo      190: 
1.3       mspo      191:     ## end of grub config file.
1.5       mspo      192:           
                    193: 
1.1       mspo      194: Install grub with the following command:
                    195: 
1.3       mspo      196:     # grub --no-floppy
1.5       mspo      197: 
1.3       mspo      198:     grub> root (hd0,a)
                    199:      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
1.5       mspo      200: 
1.3       mspo      201:     grub> setup (hd0)
                    202:      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
                    203:      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
                    204:      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
                    205:      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
                    206:      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
                    207:     succeeded
                    208:      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
                    209:      succeeded
                    210:     Done.
1.5       mspo      211:           
1.1       mspo      212: 
1.5       mspo      213: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)
1.13    ! gdt       214: =============================================
1.1       mspo      215: 
                    216: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
1.5       mspo      217: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
                    218: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
                    219: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
                    220: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
                    221: can create them with this command:
1.1       mspo      222: 
1.3       mspo      223:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.1       mspo      224: 
1.5       mspo      225: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
                    226: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
                    227: 'xm list' will show something like:
1.1       mspo      228: 
1.3       mspo      229:     # xm list
                    230:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    231:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.1       mspo      232: 
                    233: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
                    234: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
1.5       mspo      235: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
                    236: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
                    237: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
                    238: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
                    239: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
                    240: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
1.1       mspo      241: 
                    242: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
                    243: 
1.3       mspo      244:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
                    245:     #============================================================================
                    246:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
                    247:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
                    248:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      249: 
1.3       mspo      250:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    251:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
                    252:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
                    253:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5       mspo      254: 
1.3       mspo      255:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
                    256:     memory = 128
1.5       mspo      257: 
1.3       mspo      258:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
                    259:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
                    260:     # number. All domains must have different names.
                    261:     #
                    262:     name = "nbsd"
1.5       mspo      263: 
1.3       mspo      264:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
                    265:     #
                    266:     vcpus = 1
1.5       mspo      267: 
1.3       mspo      268:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    269:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      270: 
1.3       mspo      271:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
                    272:     nics = 1
1.5       mspo      273: 
1.3       mspo      274:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
                    275:     #
                    276:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
                    277:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
                    278:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
                    279:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
                    280:     #
                    281:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
                    282:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
                    283:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
                    284:     #
                    285:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
                    286:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
                    287:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
                    288:     #
                    289:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
1.5       mspo      290: 
1.3       mspo      291:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    292:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
                    293:     # what you want them accessible as.
                    294:     #
                    295:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
                    296:     #
1.5       mspo      297:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      298:     #
                    299:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
                    300:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
                    301:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
                    302:     #
1.5       mspo      303:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      304:     #
                    305:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
                    306:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
                    307:     #
                    308:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
                    309:     # but it does for Linux.
                    310:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
                    311:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
                    312:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
                    313:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
                    314:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
                    315:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
1.5       mspo      316: 
1.3       mspo      317:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
                    318:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
                    319:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
1.5       mspo      320: 
1.3       mspo      321:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    322:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      323: 
1.3       mspo      324:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
                    325:     root = "xbd0"
                    326:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
                    327:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
                    328:     #extra = ""
1.5       mspo      329: 
1.3       mspo      330:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    331:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
                    332:     # The default is False.
                    333:     #autorestart = True
1.5       mspo      334: 
1.3       mspo      335:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
1.1       mspo      336: 
                    337: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
1.5       mspo      338: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
                    339: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
                    340: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
                    341: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
                    342: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
                    343: like this:
1.1       mspo      344: 
1.3       mspo      345:     create
                    346:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
1.1       mspo      347: 
1.5       mspo      348: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
                    349: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
1.1       mspo      350: 
1.5       mspo      351: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
                    352: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
1.1       mspo      353: 
1.5       mspo      354:     #!/bin/sh
1.3       mspo      355:     #============================================================================
1.13    ! gdt       356:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.12 2014/12/23 23:37:56 gdt Exp $
1.3       mspo      357:     #
                    358:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
                    359:     #
                    360:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
                    361:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
                    362:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
                    363:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
                    364:     #
                    365:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
                    366:     #
                    367:     # Actions:
1.5       mspo      368:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
                    369:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
1.3       mspo      370:     #
                    371:     # Variables:
1.5       mspo      372:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
                    373:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
                    374:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
                    375:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
1.3       mspo      376:     #
                    377:     # Example invocation:
                    378:     #
                    379:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
                    380:     #
                    381:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      382: 
1.3       mspo      383:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
                    384:     set -e
1.5       mspo      385: 
1.3       mspo      386:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
1.5       mspo      387: 
1.3       mspo      388:     # Operation name.
                    389:     OP=$1; shift
1.5       mspo      390: 
1.3       mspo      391:     # Pull variables in args into environment
                    392:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
1.5       mspo      393: 
1.3       mspo      394:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
                    395:     domain=${domain:?}
                    396:     vif=${vif:?}
                    397:     mac=${mac:?}
                    398:     bridge=${bridge:?}
1.5       mspo      399: 
1.3       mspo      400:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
                    401:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
1.5       mspo      402: 
1.3       mspo      403:     # Are we going up or down?
                    404:     case $OP in
1.5       mspo      405:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
1.3       mspo      406:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
                    407:     *)
1.5       mspo      408:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
                    409:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
                    410:         exit 1
                    411:         ;;
1.3       mspo      412:     esac
1.5       mspo      413: 
1.3       mspo      414:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
                    415:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
1.5       mspo      416:         exit
1.3       mspo      417:     fi
1.5       mspo      418: 
1.3       mspo      419:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
                    420:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
1.5       mspo      421:         exit
1.3       mspo      422:     fi
1.5       mspo      423: 
1.3       mspo      424:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
                    425:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
                    426:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
1.1       mspo      427: 
                    428: Now, running
                    429: 
1.3       mspo      430:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
1.1       mspo      431: 
1.5       mspo      432: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
                    433: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
                    434: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
                    435: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
                    436: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
                    437: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
                    438: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
                    439: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
                    440: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
                    441: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
1.1       mspo      442: 
                    443: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
1.5       mspo      444: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
1.1       mspo      445: 
1.3       mspo      446:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      447: 
                    448: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.5       mspo      449: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      450: 
1.5       mspo      451: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
                    452: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
1.1       mspo      453: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
1.5       mspo      454: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
                    455: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
                    456: installation.
1.1       mspo      457: 
                    458: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    459: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5       mspo      460: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
                    461: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      462: 
1.3       mspo      463:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    464:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    465:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    466:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    467:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      468: 
1.5       mspo      469: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      470: 
                    471: It is also desirable to add
                    472: 
1.3       mspo      473:     powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      474: 
1.5       mspo      475: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
                    476: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
1.1       mspo      477: 
                    478: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
                    479: 
1.5       mspo      480: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)
                    481: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      482: 
                    483: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    484: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    485: 
                    486: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    487: the example below)
                    488: 
1.3       mspo      489:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      490: 
                    491: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
                    492: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
                    493: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
                    494: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
                    495: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
                    496: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
                    497: 
1.3       mspo      498:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    499:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      500: 
                    501: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    502: partition.
                    503: 
                    504: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
                    505: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
                    506: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
                    507: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
1.5       mspo      508: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
                    509: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
                    510: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
                    511: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
                    512: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
                    513: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
                    514: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
                    515: available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      516: 
                    517: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
                    518: 
1.3       mspo      519:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      520: 
                    521: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
                    522: tty to the xen console.
                    523: 
1.5       mspo      524: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)
                    525: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      526: 
                    527: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
                    528: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
1.5       mspo      529: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
                    530: image to your dom0 filesystem.
1.1       mspo      531: 
1.3       mspo      532:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
                    533:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
                    534:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
1.5       mspo      535: 
1.3       mspo      536:     ## for a 64-bit guest
                    537:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    538:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      539: 
1.3       mspo      540:     ## for a 32-bit guest
                    541:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    542:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      543: 
1.3       mspo      544:     dom0# umount /mnt
1.5       mspo      545:           
                    546: 
                    547: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
                    548: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
                    549: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
                    550: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
1.1       mspo      551: 
1.4       mspo      552:     memory = 640
                    553:     name = 'solaris'
                    554:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    555:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
                    556:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    557:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    558:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    559:     # for a 64-bit guest
                    560:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
                    561:     # for a 32-bit guest
                    562:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
1.5       mspo      563:           
                    564: 
1.1       mspo      565: Start the guest.
                    566: 
1.4       mspo      567:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    568:     Started domain solaris
                    569:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    570:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    571:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    572:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    573:     Hostname: opensolaris
                    574:     Remounting root read/write
                    575:     Probing for device nodes ...
                    576:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    577:     Preparing live image for use
                    578:     Done mounting Live image
1.5       mspo      579:           
1.1       mspo      580: 
                    581: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
                    582: the xnf0 interface to appear.
                    583: 
1.4       mspo      584:     opensolaris console login: jack
                    585:     Password: jack
                    586:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
                    587:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
                    588:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
                    589:     sh-3.2# exit
1.5       mspo      590:           
1.1       mspo      591: 
                    592: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
                    593: display where the installation program runs.
                    594: 
1.4       mspo      595:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
                    596:     Password: solaris
                    597:     Verify: solaris
                    598:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
                    599:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
1.5       mspo      600:           
1.1       mspo      601: 
1.5       mspo      602: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
                    603: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
1.1       mspo      604: 
1.4       mspo      605:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
1.5       mspo      606:           
1.1       mspo      607: 
                    608: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
                    609: 
1.4       mspo      610:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
                    611:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
1.5       mspo      612:            
1.1       mspo      613: 
                    614: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
                    615: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
                    616: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
                    617: console.
                    618: 
1.4       mspo      619:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
                    620:                     bootfs = 43
                    621:     ^C
                    622:     jack@opensolaris:~$
1.5       mspo      623:            
1.1       mspo      624: 
                    625: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
                    626: the last line.
                    627: 
1.4       mspo      628:     memory = 640
                    629:     name = 'solaris'
                    630:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    631:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    632:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    633:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    634:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
1.5       mspo      635:            
1.1       mspo      636: 
                    637: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
                    638: 
1.4       mspo      639:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
                    640:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    641:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
                    642:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    643:     Started domain solaris
                    644:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    645:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    646:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    647:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    648:     Hostname: osol
                    649:     Configuring devices.
                    650:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
                    651:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
                    652:     Reading ZFS config: done.
                    653:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
                    654:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
                    655:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
1.5       mspo      656: 
1.4       mspo      657:     osol console login:
1.5       mspo      658:            
1.1       mspo      659: 
                    660: Using PCI devices in guest domains
1.5       mspo      661: ==================================
1.1       mspo      662: 
                    663: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
                    664: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
                    665: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
                    666: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
                    667: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
                    668: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
                    669: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
                    670: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
                    671: access the VGA registers will panic).
                    672: 
                    673: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
                    674: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
                    675: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    676: 
                    677: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
1.5       mspo      678: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
                    679: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
                    680: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
                    681: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
                    682: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      683: 
1.4       mspo      684:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      685: 
                    686: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
1.5       mspo      687: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      688: 
1.5       mspo      689: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
                    690: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
1.1       mspo      691: 
1.4       mspo      692:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      693: 
1.5       mspo      694: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
                    695: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
                    696: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
                    697: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
                    698: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
1.1       mspo      699: 
1.4       mspo      700:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                    701:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
1.5       mspo      702: 
1.4       mspo      703:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
                    704:     xpci* at xenbus ?
                    705:     pci* at xpci ?
1.5       mspo      706: 
1.4       mspo      707:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
                    708:     # USB Controller and Devices
1.5       mspo      709: 
1.4       mspo      710:     # PCI USB controllers
                    711:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
1.5       mspo      712: 
1.4       mspo      713:     # USB bus support
                    714:     usb*    at uhci?
1.5       mspo      715: 
1.4       mspo      716:     # USB Hubs
                    717:     uhub*   at usb?
                    718:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
1.5       mspo      719: 
1.4       mspo      720:     # USB Mass Storage
                    721:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                    722:     wd*     at umass?
                    723:     # SCSI controllers
                    724:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
1.5       mspo      725: 
1.4       mspo      726:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                    727:     scsibus* at scsi?
1.5       mspo      728: 
1.4       mspo      729:     # SCSI devices
                    730:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                    731:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo      732: 
                    733: Links and further information
1.5       mspo      734: =============================
1.1       mspo      735: 
1.9       gdt       736: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
1.8       gdt       737:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
                    738:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
                    739:     NetBSD's native boot.)
1.1       mspo      740: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
1.9       gdt       741:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
                    742:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb