Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.125

1.5       mspo        1: Introduction
1.13      gdt         2: ============
1.1       mspo        3: 
                      4: [![[Xen
1.57      gdt         5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
1.1       mspo        6: 
1.58      gdt         7: Xen is a hypervisor (or virtual machine monitor) for x86 hardware
1.12      gdt         8: (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
1.58      gdt         9: operating systems on a single physical machine.  Xen is a Type 1 or
                     10: bare-metal hypervisor; one uses the Xen kernel to control the CPU,
                     11: memory and console, a dom0 operating system which mediates access to
                     12: other hardware (e.g., disks, network, USB), and one or more domU
                     13: operating systems which operate in an unprivileged virtualized
                     14: environment.  IO requests from the domU systems are forwarded by the
                     15: hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be fulfilled.
1.12      gdt        16: 
                     17: Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
                     18: (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
                     19: directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
                     20: analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
                     21: operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
                     22: memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
                     23: and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
                     24: 
                     25: The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
                     26: code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
                     27: Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
                     28: style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
                     29: 
1.123     gdt        30: Generally any machine that runs NetBSD/amd64 will work with Xen and PV
                     31: guests.  In theory i386 computers (without x86_64/amd64 support) can
                     32: be used for Xen <= 4.2, but we have no recent reports of this working
                     33: (this is a hint).  For HVM guests, hardware support is needed, but it
                     34: is common on recent machines.  For Intel CPUs, one needs the VT-x
                     35: extension, shown in "cpuctl identify 0" as VMX.  For AMD CPUs, one
                     36: needs the AMD-V extensions, shown in "cpuctl identify 0" as SVM.
                     37: There are further features for IOMMU virtualization, Intel's VT-d and
                     38: AMD's AMD-Vi.  TODO: Explain whether Xen on NetBSD makes use of these
                     39: features.  TODO: Review by someone who really understands this.
1.19      gdt        40: 
1.123     gdt        41: Note that a FreeBSD dom0 requires VT-x and VT-d (or equivalent); this
                     42: is because the FreeBSD dom0 does not run in PV mode.
1.118     gdt        43: 
1.27      jnemeth    44: At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
1.12      gdt        45: The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
                     46: in the dom0 section.)
                     47: 
                     48: NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
                     49: and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
                     50: attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
1.24      gdt        51: and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
                     52: as a domU in a VPS.
1.12      gdt        53: 
1.123     gdt        54: Xen 3.1 in pkgsrc supports "PCI passthrough", which means that
1.20      gdt        55: specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
                     56: of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
                     57: network interface or other peripheral.
                     58: 
1.111     wiz        59: NetBSD 6 and earlier supported Xen 2; support was removed from NetBSD
1.104     gdt        60: 7.  Xen 2 has been removed from pkgsrc.
1.54      gdt        61: 
1.12      gdt        62: Prerequisites
1.13      gdt        63: -------------
1.12      gdt        64: 
                     65: Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
                     66: complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
1.15      gdt        67: In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
                     68: things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
                     69: path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
1.12      gdt        70: 
                     71: This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
1.123     gdt        72: architecture, with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64 hardware, and with
                     73: installing software from pkgsrc.  See also the [Xen
                     74: website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
1.1       mspo       75: 
1.15      gdt        76: Versions of Xen and NetBSD
                     77: ==========================
                     78: 
1.27      jnemeth    79: Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
                     80: of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
                     81: which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
                     82: versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
1.15      gdt        83: 
                     84: Xen
                     85: ---
                     86: 
1.111     wiz        87: In NetBSD, Xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
1.15      gdt        88: xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
                     89: but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
                     90: matching versions.
                     91: 
1.104     gdt        92: xenkernel3 provides Xen 3.1.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, and the last applied security patch was in
                     93: 2011. Thus, it should not be used.  It supports PCI passthrough,
                     94: which is why people use it anyway. Xen 3.1 supports i386, both PAE and
                     95: non-PAE.
                     96: 
                     97: xenkernel33 provides Xen 3.3.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, and
                     98: the last applied security patch was in 2012.  Thus, it should not be
                     99: used.  Xen 3.3 supports i386, but only in PAE mode.  There are no good
                    100: reasons to run this version.
                    101: 
                    102: xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
1.112     gdt       103: as of 2016-12 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.1 supports
1.104     gdt       104: i386, but only in PAE mode.  There are no good reasons to run this
                    105: version.
1.102     gdt       106: 
1.104     gdt       107: xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
1.112     gdt       108: as of 2016-12 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.2 supports
1.104     gdt       109: i386, but only in PAE mode.  The only reason to run this is if you
                    110: need to use xm instead of xl, or if you need to run an i386 dom0
                    111: (because your hardware is i386 only).
                    112: 
1.114     gdt       113: xenkernel45 provides Xen 4.5.  As of 2016-12, security patches were
1.119     gdt       114: released by Xen and applied to pkgsrc.  Xen 4.5 requires using a dom0
                    115: running NetBSD's amd64 port (Intel or AMD hardware is fine), but domUs
                    116: can be amd64 or i386 PAE.  TODO: It is either a conservative choice or
                    117: somewhat old.
1.104     gdt       118: 
1.115     gdt       119: xenkernel46 provides Xen 4.6.  It is new to pkgsrc as of 2016-05.  As
1.114     gdt       120: of 2016-12, security patches were released by Xen and applied to
1.119     gdt       121: pkgsrc.  Xen 4.6 similarly requires a NetBSD/amd64 dom0, but domUs can
                    122: be amd64 or i386 PAE.  TODO: It is either a somewhat aggressive choice
                    123: or the standard choice.
1.85      gdt       124: 
1.114     gdt       125: Xen 4.7 (released 2016-06) and 4.8 (released 2016-12) are not yet in
                    126: pkgsrc.
1.113     gdt       127: 
1.96      gdt       128: See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).
                    129: 
1.85      gdt       130: Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with Xen 3 and Xen
                    131: 4 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
1.20      gdt       132: 
1.19      gdt       133: Xen command program
                    134: -------------------
                    135: 
1.79      gdt       136: Early Xen used a program called xm to manipulate the system from the
1.19      gdt       137: dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
1.79      gdt       138: called xl is provided, but it does not work well in 4.1.  In 4.2, both
                    139: xm and xl work fine.  4.4 is the last version that has xm.  You must
                    140: choose one or the other, because it affects which daemons you run.
1.106     gdt       141: However, the rc.d scripts provided by xentools packages expect a
                    142: particular version, and you should use the version used by the
                    143: scripts.
1.19      gdt       144: 
1.15      gdt       145: NetBSD
                    146: ------
                    147: 
1.105     gdt       148: The netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all reasonable
                    149: choices, with more or less the same considerations for non-Xen use.
                    150: Therefore, netbsd-7 is recommended as the stable version of the most
1.117     gdt       151: recent release for production use.  In addition, netbsd-7 and -current
                    152: have a important scheduler fix (in November of 2015) affecting
                    153: contention between dom0 and domUs; see
                    154: https://releng.netbsd.org/cgi-bin/req-7.cgi?show=1040 for a
                    155: description.  For those wanting to learn Xen or without production
                    156: stability concerns, netbsd-7 is still likely most appropriate, but
                    157: -current is also a reasonable choice.  (Xen runs ok on netbsd-5, but
                    158: the xentools packages are likely difficult to build, and netbsd-5 is
                    159: not supported.)
1.15      gdt       160: 
                    161: As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
                    162: no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
1.105     gdt       163: need SMP for dom0 functions; the lack of support is really a problem
                    164: when using a dom0 as a normal computer.)
1.15      gdt       165: 
1.18      gdt       166: Architecture
                    167: ------------
                    168: 
1.108     gdt       169: Xen itself can run on i386 (Xen < 3.1) or amd64 machines (all Xen
1.105     gdt       170: versions).  (Practically, almost any computer where one would want to
                    171: run Xen today supports amd64.)
1.99      gdt       172: 
                    173: Xen, the dom0 kernel, and each domU kernel can be either i386 or
                    174: amd64.  When building a xenkernel package, one obtains i386 on an i386
1.111     wiz       175: host, and amd64 on an amd64 host.  If the Xen kernel is i386, then the
                    176: dom0 kernel and all domU kernels must be i386.  With an amd64 Xen
1.105     gdt       177: kernel, an amd64 dom0 kernel is known to work, and an i386PAE dom0
1.111     wiz       178: kernel should in theory work.  An amd64 Xen/dom0 is known to support
1.105     gdt       179: both i386PAE and amd64 domUs.
1.99      gdt       180: 
1.101     gdt       181: i386 dom0 and domU kernels must be PAE (except for Xen 3.1); these are
                    182: built by default.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386
                    183: with PAE when built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in
                    184: the undump code.)
1.99      gdt       185: 
                    186: Because of the above, the standard approach is to use amd64 for the
                    187: dom0.
1.29      gdt       188: 
                    189: Xen 4.2 is the last version to support i386 as a host.  TODO: Clarify
1.111     wiz       190: if this is about the CPU, the Xen kernel, or the dom0 kernel having to
1.100     gdt       191: be amd64.
                    192: 
1.29      gdt       193: 
1.89      gdt       194: Stability
                    195: ---------
                    196: 
                    197: Mostly, NetBSD as a dom0 or domU is quite stable.
                    198: However, there are some open PRs indicating problems.
                    199: 
1.91      gdt       200:  - [PR 48125](http://gnats.netbsd.org/48125)
                    201:  - [PR 47720](http://gnats.netbsd.org/47720)
1.89      gdt       202: 
                    203: Note also that there are issues with sparse vnd(4) instances, but
1.105     gdt       204: these are not about Xen -- they just are noticed with sparse vnd(4)
                    205: instances in support of virtual disks in a dom0.
1.89      gdt       206: 
1.15      gdt       207: Recommendation
                    208: --------------
                    209: 
1.105     gdt       210: Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel45 or xenkernel46,
                    211: xl, the NetBSD 7 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the
                    212: dom0.  Either the i386PAE or amd64 version of NetBSD may be used as
                    213: domUs.
1.15      gdt       214: 
1.125   ! gdt       215: Status
        !           216: ------
1.36      gdt       217: 
1.120     gdt       218: Ideally, all versions of Xen in pkgsrc would build on all supported
1.121     gdt       219: versions of NetBSD/amd64, to the point where this section would be
                    220: silly.  However, that has not always been the case.  Besides aging
                    221: code and aging compilers, qemu (included in xentools for HVM support)
1.124     gdt       222: is difficult to build.  Note that there is intentionally no data for
1.125   ! gdt       223: 4.5+ up for i386, and often omits xentools info if the corresponding
        !           224: kernel fails.
        !           225: 
        !           226: The following table gives status, with the date last checked
        !           227: (generally on the most recent quarterly branch).  The first code is
        !           228: "builds" if it builds ok, and "FAIL" for a failure to build.  The
        !           229: second code/date only appears for xenkernel* and is "works" if it runs
        !           230: ok as a dom0, and "FAIL" if it won't boot or run a domU.
1.124     gdt       231: 
                    232:        xenkernel3 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201612
                    233:        xenkernel33 netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201612
1.125   ! gdt       234:        xenkernel41 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201612
        !           235:        xenkernel42 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201612
        !           236:        xentools3 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201412
1.122     gdt       237:        xentools3-hvm netbsd-6 i386 FAIL 201412
1.125   ! gdt       238:        xentools33 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201412
        !           239:        xentools41 netbsd-6 i386 builds 201612
        !           240:        xentools42 netbsd-6 i386 ? 201412
1.64      gdt       241: 
1.124     gdt       242:        xenkernel3 netbsd-7 i386 FAIL 201412
                    243:        xenkernel33 netbsd-7 i386 FAIL 201412
1.125   ! gdt       244:        xenkernel41 netbsd-7 i386 builds 201412
        !           245:        xenkernel42 netbsd-7 i386 builds 201412
        !           246:        xentools41 netbsd-7 i386 builds 201412
1.122     gdt       247:        xentools42 netbsd-7 i386 ??FAIL 201412
1.121     gdt       248: 
1.124     gdt       249:        xenkernel3 netbsd-6 amd64 FAIL 201612
                    250:        xenkernel33 netbsd-6 amd64 FAIL 201612
1.125   ! gdt       251:        xenkernel41 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612 works 201612
        !           252:        xenkernel42 netbsd-6 amd64 builds  201612 works 201612
        !           253:        xenkernel45 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
        !           254:        xenkernel46 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
        !           255:        xentools41 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
        !           256:        xentools42 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
        !           257:        xentools45 netbsd-6 amd64 builds 201612
1.124     gdt       258:        xentools46 netbsd-6 amd64 FAIL 201612
1.121     gdt       259: 
1.125   ! gdt       260:        xenkernel3 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           261:        xenkernel33 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           262:        xenkernel41 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           263:        xenkernel42 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           264:        xenkernel45 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           265:        xenkernel46 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           266:        xentools3 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           267:        xentools3-hvm netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
1.121     gdt       268:        xentools33 netbsd-7 amd64 FAIL 201612
1.125   ! gdt       269:        xentools41 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           270:        xentools42 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           271:        xentools45 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
        !           272:        xentools46 netbsd-7 amd64 builds 201612
1.69      gdt       273: 
1.15      gdt       274: NetBSD as a dom0
                    275: ================
                    276: 
                    277: NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
                    278: sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
1.19      gdt       279: Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
                    280: without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
                    281: NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
                    282: NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
                    283: configuration.
1.15      gdt       284: 
1.45      gdt       285: For experimenting with Xen, a machine with as little as 1G of RAM and
                    286: 100G of disk can work.  For running many domUs in productions, far
                    287: more will be needed.
                    288: 
1.15      gdt       289: Styles of dom0 operation
                    290: ------------------------
                    291: 
                    292: There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
                    293: the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
                    294: number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
                    295: purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
                    296: 
                    297: The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
                    298: dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
                    299: desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
                    300: deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
                    301: computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
1.93      gdt       302: dom0 (without domUs) is not meaningfully less secure than the same
1.15      gdt       303: things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
                    304: alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
                    305: Xen daemons when not running Xen.
                    306: 
                    307: Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
1.51      gdt       308: limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.  In theory
                    309: the only issue is that the "backend drivers" are not yet MPSAFE:
                    310:   http://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/08/29/msg015195.html
1.15      gdt       311: 
1.19      gdt       312: Installation of NetBSD
                    313: ----------------------
1.13      gdt       314: 
1.19      gdt       315: First,
1.27      jnemeth   316: [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
1.19      gdt       317: just as you would if you were not using Xen.
                    318: However, the partitioning approach is very important.
                    319: 
                    320: If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
                    321: for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
1.22      gdt       322: domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
1.111     wiz       323: over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a file system within a RAID
1.22      gdt       324: partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
1.19      gdt       325: 
                    326: There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
1.93      gdt       327: used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN.
1.19      gdt       328: 
                    329: With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
                    330: each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
                    331: how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
                    332: Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
                    333: 
1.27      jnemeth   334: One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
                    335: for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
                    336: and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
                    337: be used.
1.19      gdt       338: 
1.111     wiz       339: One can use files in the dom0 file system, typically created by dd'ing
1.19      gdt       340: /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
                    341: but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
                    342: between dom0 hosts.
                    343: 
                    344: Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
                    345: SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
                    346: HOWTO page.)
1.1       mspo      347: 
1.19      gdt       348: Installation of Xen
                    349: -------------------
1.1       mspo      350: 
1.20      gdt       351: In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
                    352: pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
                    353: See [the pkgsrc
                    354: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
                    355: 
                    356: For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
                    357: recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
                    358: package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
                    359: 
                    360: Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
                    361: installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
                    362: For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
                    363: to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
                    364: useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
                    365: in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
1.75      gdt       366: of a NetBSD build.  If using i386, use
                    367: releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.  (If using Xen
                    368: 3.1 and i386, you may use XEN3_DOM0 with the non-PAE Xen.  But you
                    369: should not use Xen 3.1.)  Both xen and the NetBSD kernel may be (and
                    370: typically are) left compressed.
                    371: 
1.111     wiz       372: In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to communicate with the
1.75      gdt       373: kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.  TODO: Say this is default,
                    374: or file a PR and give a reference.
1.20      gdt       375: 
                    376: Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
                    377: with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
1.111     wiz       378: beginning of your root file system, /boot present, and likely
1.20      gdt       379: /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
                    380: 
1.76      gdt       381: Add a line to to /boot.cfg to boot Xen.  See boot.cfg(5) for an
                    382: example.  The basic line is
1.20      gdt       383: 
1.37      gdt       384:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
1.20      gdt       385: 
                    386: which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
1.77      gdt       387: allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use
                    388: 
                    389:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=com0;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
                    390: 
                    391: which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
                    392: from 1), forcing speed/parity, and also for NetBSD (which counts
                    393: starting at 0).  In an attempt to add performance, one can also add
1.37      gdt       394: 
                    395:         dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
                    396: 
                    397: to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
1.111     wiz       398: more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU.  TODO: benchmark this.
1.20      gdt       399: 
1.93      gdt       400: Xen has [many boot
                    401: options](http://xenbits.xenproject.org/docs/4.5-testing/misc/xen-command-line.html),
1.111     wiz       402: and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
1.93      gdt       403: necessary.
                    404: 
1.20      gdt       405: As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
                    406: kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
                    407: kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
1.1       mspo      408: 
1.76      gdt       409: Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
                    410: than GENERIC without Xen.
                    411: 
1.54      gdt       412: Using grub (historic)
                    413: ---------------------
                    414: 
                    415: Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
                    416: grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
                    417: [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
                    418: 
1.28      gdt       419: The [HowTo on Installing into
                    420: RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
                    421: explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with
                    422: NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native
                    423: boot.)
                    424: 
1.21      gdt       425: Configuring Xen
                    426: ---------------
                    427: 
1.53      gdt       428: Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.
                    429: 
1.76      gdt       430: Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, but not
                    431: do anything else special.  Make sure that you have rebooted into Xen.
                    432: There will be no domUs, and none can be started because you still have
1.102     gdt       433: to configure the dom0 daemons.
1.21      gdt       434: 
1.102     gdt       435: The daemons which should be run vary with Xen version and with whether
                    436: one is using xm or xl.  The Xen 3.1 and 3.3 packages use xm.  Xen 4.1
                    437: and higher packages use xl.  While is is possible to use xm with some
                    438: 4.x versions (TODO: 4.1 and 4.2?), the pkgsrc-provided rc.d scripts do
                    439: not support this as of 2014-12-26, and thus the HOWTO does not support
                    440: it either.  (Make sure your packages are reasonably recent.)
1.43      gdt       441: 
1.102     gdt       442: For "xm" (3.1 and 3.3), you should enable xend and xenbackendd (but
                    443: note that you should be using 4.x):
1.31      gdt       444: 
1.32      gdt       445:         xend=YES
                    446:         xenbackendd=YES
1.31      gdt       447: 
1.102     gdt       448: For "xl" (4.x), you should enabled xend and xencommons (xenstored).
                    449: Trying to boot 4.x without xencommons=YES will result in a hang; it is
1.111     wiz       450: necessary to hit ^C on the console to let the machine finish booting.
1.102     gdt       451: TODO: explain why xend is installed by the package.
1.31      gdt       452: 
1.53      gdt       453:         xencommons=YES
1.31      gdt       454: 
1.102     gdt       455: The installation of NetBSD should already have created devices for xen
                    456: (xencons, xenevt), but if they are not present, create them:
1.31      gdt       457: 
1.102     gdt       458:         cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.86      gdt       459: 
1.31      gdt       460: TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
1.27      jnemeth   461: 
1.53      gdt       462: After you have configured the daemons and either started them (in the
1.79      gdt       463: order given) or rebooted, use xm or xl to inspect Xen's boot messages,
1.102     gdt       464: available resources, and running domains.  An example with xl follows:
1.34      gdt       465: 
1.102     gdt       466:         # xl dmesg
1.43      gdt       467:        [xen's boot info]
1.102     gdt       468:         # xl info
1.43      gdt       469:        [available memory, etc.]
1.102     gdt       470:         # xl list
1.43      gdt       471:         Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    472:         Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.33      gdt       473: 
1.88      gdt       474: ### Issues with xencommons
                    475: 
                    476: xencommons starts xenstored, which stores data on behalf of dom0 and
                    477: domUs.  It does not currently work to stop and start xenstored.
                    478: Certainly all domUs should be shutdown first, following the sort order
                    479: of the rc.d scripts.  However, the dom0 sets up state with xenstored,
                    480: and is not notified when xenstored exits, leading to not recreating
                    481: the state when the new xenstored starts.  Until there's a mechanism to
                    482: make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
                    483: (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that
                    484: this will get fixed any time soon.
                    485: 
1.41      gdt       486: anita (for testing NetBSD)
                    487: --------------------------
                    488: 
1.82      gdt       489: With the setup so far (assuming 4.2/xl), one should be able to run
                    490: anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
                    491: root, because anita must create a domU):
                    492: 
                    493:         anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
                    494: 
                    495: Alternatively, one can use --vmm=xm to use xm-based domU creation
                    496: instead (and must, on Xen <= 4.1).   TODO: confirm that anita xl really works.
                    497:     
1.40      gdt       498: Xen-specific NetBSD issues
                    499: --------------------------
                    500: 
                    501: There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
                    502: dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
                    503: 
1.111     wiz       504: One is that the module ABI is different because some of the #defines
1.109     gdt       505: change, so one must build modules for Xen.  As of netbsd-7, the build
                    506: system does this automatically.  TODO: check this.  (Before building
                    507: Xen modules was added, it was awkward to use modules to the point
                    508: where it was considered that it did not work.)
1.40      gdt       509: 
                    510: The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
                    511: options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a
                    512: bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
                    513: items if desired.
                    514: 
1.15      gdt       515: Updating NetBSD in a dom0
                    516: -------------------------
                    517: 
                    518: This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
                    519: version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
                    520: replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
                    521: and adjusts /etc.
                    522: 
                    523: Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
                    524: rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
                    525: 
1.55      gdt       526: Converting from grub to /boot
                    527: -----------------------------
                    528: 
                    529: These instructions were [TODO: will be] used to convert a system from
                    530: grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of
                    531: 2006 with a RAID1 setup and grub to boot Xen 2, and has been updated
                    532: over time.  Before these commands, it was running NetBSD 6 i386, Xen
                    533: 4.1 and grub, much like the message linked earlier in the grub
                    534: section.
                    535: 
1.111     wiz       536:         # Install MBR bootblocks on both disks. 
1.55      gdt       537:         fdisk -i /dev/rwd0d
                    538:         fdisk -i /dev/rwd1d
                    539:         # Install NetBSD primary boot loader (/ is FFSv1) into RAID1 components.
                    540:         installboot -v /dev/rwd0d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
                    541:         installboot -v /dev/rwd1d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
                    542:         # Install secondary boot loader
                    543:         cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /
1.111     wiz       544:         # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:
1.55      gdt       545:         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
                    546:         menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=256M
                    547:         menu=GENERIC:boot
                    548:         menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s
                    549:         menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok
                    550:         menu=GENERIC.ok single-user:boot netbsd.ok -s
                    551:         menu=Drop to boot prompt:prompt
                    552:         default=1
                    553:         timeout=30
                    554: 
                    555: TODO: actually do this and fix it if necessary.
1.22      gdt       556: 
1.102     gdt       557: Upgrading Xen versions
1.15      gdt       558: ---------------------
                    559: 
1.110     gdt       560: Minor version upgrades are trivial.  Just rebuild/replace the
                    561: xenkernel version and copy the new xen.gz to / (where /boot.cfg
                    562: references it), and reboot.
                    563: 
                    564: Major version upgrades are conceptually not difficult, but can run
                    565: into all the issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration
                    566: from 4.1 to 4.2, remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and
                    567: install the xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz
                    568: to /.
1.21      gdt       569: 
1.102     gdt       570: Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Specifically,
                    571: they must match the package you just installed and not be left over
                    572: from some previous installation.
                    573: 
                    574: Enable the correct set of daemons; see the configuring section above.
                    575: (Upgrading from 3.x to 4.x without doing this will result in a hang.)
                    576: 
                    577: Ensure that the domU config files are valid for the new version.
1.110     gdt       578: Specifically, for 4.x remove autorestart=True, and ensure that disks
                    579: are specified with numbers as the second argument, as the examples
                    580: above show, and not NetBSD device names.
1.15      gdt       581: 
1.97      gdt       582: Hardware known to work
                    583: ----------------------
                    584: 
                    585: Arguably, this section is misplaced, and there should be a page of
                    586: hardware that runs NetBSD/amd64 well, with the mostly-well-founded
                    587: assumption that NetBSD/xen runs fine on any modern hardware that
                    588: NetBSD/amd64 runs well on.  Until then, we give motherboard/CPU/RAM
                    589: triples to aid those choosing a motherboard.  Note that Xen systems
                    590: usually do not run X, so a listing here does not imply that X works at
                    591: all.
                    592: 
                    593:         Supermicro X9SRL-F, Xeon E5-1650 v2, 96 GiB ECC
                    594:         Supermicro ??, Atom C2758 (8 core), 32 GiB ECC
                    595:         ASUS M5A78L-M/USB3 AM3+ microATX, AMD Piledriver X8 4000MHz, 16 GiB ECC
                    596: 
                    597: Older hardware:
                    598: 
1.98      gdt       599:         Intel D915GEV, Pentium4 CPU 3.40GHz, 4GB 533MHz Synchronous DDR2
1.28      gdt       600: 
1.82      gdt       601: Running Xen under qemu
                    602: ----------------------
                    603: 
                    604: The astute reader will note that this section is somewhat twisted.
                    605: However, it can be useful to run Xen under qemu either because the
                    606: version of NetBSD as a dom0 does not run on the hardware in use, or to
                    607: generate automated test cases involving Xen.
                    608: 
1.84      gdt       609: In 2015-01, the following combination was reported to mostly work:
1.82      gdt       610: 
                    611:         host OS: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.4
                    612:         qemu: 2.2.0 from pkgsrc
                    613:         Xen kernel: xenkernel42-4.2.5nb1 from pkgsrc
                    614:         dom0 kernel: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.5
                    615:         Xen tools: xentools42-4.2.5 from pkgsrc
                    616: 
1.91      gdt       617: See [PR 47720](http://gnats.netbsd.org/47720) for a problem with dom0
                    618: shutdown.
1.84      gdt       619: 
1.28      gdt       620: Unprivileged domains (domU)
                    621: ===========================
                    622: 
                    623: This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
1.33      gdt       624: address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
                    625: config files for domUs are typically in /usr/pkg/etc/xen, and are
1.60      wiki      626: typically named so that the file name, domU name and the domU's host
1.33      gdt       627: name match.
                    628: 
1.111     wiz       629: The domU is provided with CPU and memory by Xen, configured by the
1.33      gdt       630: dom0.  The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
                    631: mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
                    632: 
                    633: Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
                    634: the dom0.  NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
                    635: 
1.48      gdt       636: Config files
                    637: ------------
                    638: 
                    639: There is no good order to present config files and the concepts
                    640: surrounding what is being configured.  We first show an example config
                    641: file, and then in the various sections give details.
                    642: 
                    643: See (at least in xentools41) /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xmexample*,
                    644: for a large number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
                    645: GNU/Linux.
                    646: 
                    647: The following is an example minimal domain configuration file
                    648: "/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo".  It is (with only a name change) an actual
                    649: known working config file on Xen 4.1 (NetBSD 5 amd64 dom0 and NetBSD 5
                    650: i386 domU).  The domU serves as a network file server.
                    651: 
                    652:         # -*- mode: python; -*-
                    653: 
                    654:         kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
                    655:         memory = 1024
                    656:         vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
                    657:         disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
                    658:                  'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
                    659: 
                    660: The domain will have the same name as the file.  The kernel has the
                    661: host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
                    662: domUs independently.  The vif line causes an interface to be provided,
                    663: with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
                    664: mode.  Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
                    665: are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
1.111     wiz       666: dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device
1.48      gdt       667: without needing explicit configuration.
                    668: 
                    669: By default xm looks for domain config files in /usr/pkg/etc/xen.  Note
                    670: that "xm create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
                    671: take the name of a domain.  To create the domain, connect to the
                    672: console, create the domain while attaching the console, shutdown the
                    673: domain, and see if it has finished stopping, do (or xl with Xen >=
                    674: 4.2):
                    675: 
                    676:         xm create foo
                    677:         xm console foo
                    678:         xm create -c foo
                    679:         xm shutdown foo
1.90      gdt       680:         xm list
1.48      gdt       681: 
                    682: Typing ^] will exit the console session.  Shutting down a domain is
                    683: equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
                    684: power-press event and do a clean shutdown.  Shutting down the dom0
                    685: will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
                    686: 
                    687: domU kernels
                    688: ------------
                    689: 
                    690: On a physical computer, the BIOS reads sector 0, and a chain of boot
                    691: loaders finds and loads a kernel.  Normally this comes from the root
1.111     wiz       692: file system.  With Xen domUs, the process is totally different.  The
1.48      gdt       693: normal path is for the domU kernel to be a file in the dom0's
1.111     wiz       694: file system.  At the request of the dom0, Xen loads that kernel into a
1.48      gdt       695: new domU instance and starts execution.  While domU kernels can be
                    696: anyplace, reasonable places to store domU kernels on the dom0 are in /
                    697: (so they are near the dom0 kernel), in /usr/pkg/etc/xen (near the
                    698: config files), or in /u0/xen (where the vdisks are).
                    699: 
1.59      gdt       700: Note that loading the domU kernel from the dom0 implies that boot
                    701: blocks, /boot, /boot.cfg, and so on are all ignored in the domU.
1.48      gdt       702: See the VPS section near the end for discussion of alternate ways to
                    703: obtain domU kernels.
                    704: 
1.33      gdt       705: CPU and memory
                    706: --------------
                    707: 
1.48      gdt       708: A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, less than the number
1.111     wiz       709: of CPUs seen by the hypervisor.  (For a dom0, this is controlled by
1.48      gdt       710: the boot argument "dom0_max_vcpus=1".)  For a domU, it is controlled
                    711: from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
                    712: 
                    713: A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
                    714: file by "memory = N" (in megabytes).  In the straightforward case, the
                    715: sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
1.33      gdt       716: than the available memory.
                    717: 
                    718: Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
                    719: use more memory temporarily.  TODO: Explain better, and explain how
                    720: well it works with NetBSD.
1.28      gdt       721: 
                    722: Virtual disks
                    723: -------------
                    724: 
1.33      gdt       725: With the file/vnd style, typically one creates a directory,
                    726: e.g. /u0/xen, on a disk large enough to hold virtual disks for all
                    727: domUs.  Then, for each domU disk, one writes zeros to a file that then
                    728: serves to hold the virtual disk's bits; a suggested name is foo-xbd0
                    729: for the first virtual disk for the domU called foo.  Writing zeros to
                    730: the file serves two purposes.  One is that preallocating the contents
                    731: improves performance.  The other is that vnd on sparse files has
                    732: failed to work.  TODO: give working/notworking NetBSD versions for
                    733: sparse vnd.  Note that the use of file/vnd for Xen is not really
                    734: different than creating a file-backed virtual disk for some other
1.39      gdt       735: purpose, except that xentools handles the vnconfig commands.  To
                    736: create an empty 4G virtual disk, simply do
                    737: 
                    738:         dd if=/dev/zero of=foo-xbd0 bs=1m count=4096
1.33      gdt       739: 
1.89      gdt       740: Do not use qemu-img-xen, because this will create sparse file.  There
                    741: have been recent (2015) reports of sparse vnd(4) devices causing
                    742: lockups, but there is apparently no PR.
                    743: 
1.33      gdt       744: With the lvm style, one creates logical devices.  They are then used
1.48      gdt       745: similarly to vnds.  TODO: Add an example with lvm.
                    746: 
                    747: In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples.
                    748: The first element is "method:/path/to/disk".  Common methods are
                    749: "file:" for file-backed vnd. and "phy:" for something that is already
                    750: a (TODO: character or block) device.
                    751: 
                    752: The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
                    753: Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage.  Linux domUs
                    754: are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
                    755: "hda1" or "sda1" are common.  In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
                    756: as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on.  However, xm/xl demand a
                    757: second argument.  The name given is converted to a major/minor by
1.49      gdt       758: calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
                    759: In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
1.48      gdt       760: systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
                    761: numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev.  With NetBSD
                    762: as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
1.49      gdt       763: for the second works fine and avoids this issue.  For a GNU/Linux
                    764: guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
                    765: /dev/hda1.
1.48      gdt       766: 
                    767: The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
                    768: disks.
1.28      gdt       769: 
                    770: Virtual Networking
                    771: ------------------
                    772: 
1.111     wiz       773: Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
1.46      gdt       774: domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
                    775: the dom0, and in domU index N, a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD
                    776: name).  The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
1.111     wiz       777: adapters connected.  From this primitive, one can construct various
1.46      gdt       778: configurations.  We focus on two common and useful cases for which
                    779: there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
1.28      gdt       780: 
1.48      gdt       781: With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
                    782: on the same network as the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is
                    783: usually best.  Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
                    784: and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
                    785: interfaces to the bridge.  One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
                    786: config file.  The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
                    787: example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
1.46      gdt       788: 
                    789:         create
                    790:         up
                    791:         !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
1.28      gdt       792: 
                    793: With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
                    794: dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
1.48      gdt       795: TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
1.28      gdt       796: 
1.49      gdt       797: The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
1.53      gdt       798: domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
1.49      gdt       799: 00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
                    800: 
1.33      gdt       801: Sizing domains
                    802: --------------
                    803: 
                    804: Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources.  However, many
                    805: virtual servers can function just fine on far less.  A system with
                    806: 256M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice.  Note that it is
                    807: far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones.  For
                    808: memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot.  For disk, one can
                    809: create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,
                    810: just like updating physical disks, but without having to be there and
                    811: without those pesky connectors.
                    812: 
1.48      gdt       813: Starting domains automatically
                    814: ------------------------------
1.28      gdt       815: 
1.48      gdt       816: To start domains foo at bar at boot and shut them down cleanly on dom0
                    817: shutdown, in rc.conf add:
1.28      gdt       818: 
1.48      gdt       819:         xendomains="foo bar"
1.28      gdt       820: 
1.111     wiz       821: Note that earlier versions of the xentools41 xendomains rc.d script
                    822: used xl, when one should use xm with 4.1.
1.28      gdt       823: 
                    824: Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)
                    825: =============================================
1.14      gdt       826: 
                    827: Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
1.49      gdt       828: have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must
                    829: have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" (or "xm list")
                    830: works.
1.14      gdt       831: 
                    832: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
                    833: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      834: 
1.49      gdt       835: See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
                    836: storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or lvm).
                    837: 
1.111     wiz       838: While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 file system, the same
1.49      gdt       839: file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
                    840: savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
                    841: 
                    842: The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The
                    843: i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
                    844: 
                    845:         i386 XEN3_DOMU
                    846:         i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
1.95      gdt       847:         amd64 XEN3_DOMU
1.5       mspo      848: 
1.49      gdt       849: Unless using Xen 3.1 (and you shouldn't) with i386-mode Xen, you must
                    850: use the PAE version of the i386 kernel.
                    851: 
                    852: This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
                    853: empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
                    854: (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
                    855: system you can't run the installer on).
                    856: 
                    857: A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
                    858: and can load sets from the network.  To do this, copy the INSTALL
                    859: kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
1.5       mspo      860: 
1.49      gdt       861:         kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5       mspo      862: 
1.49      gdt       863: Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configname".
1.1       mspo      864: 
1.49      gdt       865: Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
                    866: line should be used in the config file.
1.1       mspo      867: 
1.3       mspo      868:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      869: 
                    870: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.49      gdt       871: selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      872: 
1.49      gdt       873: Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
                    874: it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
                    875: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
                    876: and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
                    877: xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
1.1       mspo      878: 
1.49      gdt       879: TODO: check if this is still accurate.
1.1       mspo      880: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    881: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5       mspo      882: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
                    883: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      884: 
1.3       mspo      885:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    886:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    887:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    888:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    889:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      890: 
1.5       mspo      891: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      892: 
                    893: It is also desirable to add
                    894: 
1.49      gdt       895:         powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      896: 
1.5       mspo      897: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
1.53      gdt       898: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the dom0.
1.1       mspo      899: 
1.92      gdt       900: It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU
1.111     wiz       901: file system.  However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that
1.92      gdt       902: kernel to look up symbols to read from kernel virtual memory.  If
                    903: /netbsd is not the running kernel, those lookups will fail.  (This is
                    904: not really a Xen-specific issue, but because the domU kernel is
                    905: obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
                    906: missing with Xen.)
                    907: 
1.14      gdt       908: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      909: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      910: 
                    911: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    912: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    913: 
                    914: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    915: the example below)
                    916: 
1.3       mspo      917:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      918: 
                    919: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
1.49      gdt       920: for hda).  Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
                    921: So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
                    922: device number 0x301.  Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
                    923: hdb, ...)  as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
                    924: numbers.  To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
1.1       mspo      925: 
1.49      gdt       926:         disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    927:         root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      928: 
                    929: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    930: partition.
                    931: 
1.49      gdt       932: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
                    933: guest domain, the following method can be used: install
                    934: sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc.  Use mke2fs to format the partition
                    935: that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
                    936: Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
                    937: `/etc` (fstab, network config).  It should also be possible to extract
                    938: binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
                    939: using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
1.111     wiz       940: emulation.  Once the file system has been populated, umount it.  If
                    941: desirable, the file system can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
1.49      gdt       942: It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
                    943: the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      944: 
1.111     wiz       945: To get the Linux console right, you need to add:
1.1       mspo      946: 
1.3       mspo      947:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      948: 
1.111     wiz       949: to your configuration since not all Linux distributions auto-attach a
1.1       mspo      950: tty to the xen console.
                    951: 
1.14      gdt       952: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
1.5       mspo      953: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      954: 
1.50      gdt       955: See possibly outdated
                    956: [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
1.5       mspo      957: 
1.1       mspo      958: 
1.52      gdt       959: PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
                    960: ---------------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      961: 
1.53      gdt       962: The dom0 can give other domains access to selected PCI
1.52      gdt       963: devices. This can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have
                    964: access to a physical network interface or disk controller.  However,
                    965: keep in mind that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely
                    966: will give the domain read/write access to the whole physical memory,
                    967: as PCs don't have an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable
1.53      gdt       968: device.  Also, it's not possible to export ISA devices to non-dom0
1.52      gdt       969: domains, which means that the primary VGA adapter can't be exported.
                    970: A guest domain trying to access the VGA registers will panic.
                    971: 
1.53      gdt       972: If the dom0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as support has
1.52      gdt       973: not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    974: 
                    975: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to
                    976: the "pciback" driver in dom0.  Devices passed to the dom0 via the
                    977: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to "pciback" instead of the
                    978: usual driver.  The list of devices is specified as "(bus:dev.func)",
1.5       mspo      979: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
                    980: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      981: 
1.52      gdt       982:         pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      983: 
1.52      gdt       984: pciback devices should show up in the dom0's boot messages, and the
1.5       mspo      985: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      986: 
1.52      gdt       987: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the "pci" array of
                    988: the domU's config file, with the format "0000:bus:dev.func".
1.1       mspo      989: 
1.52      gdt       990:         pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      991: 
1.52      gdt       992: In the domU an "xpci" device will show up, to which one or more pci
1.111     wiz       993: buses will attach.  Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI buses as
1.52      gdt       994: usual.  Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have "xpci"
                    995: or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own
                    996: kernel to use PCI devices in a domU.  Here's a kernel config example;
                    997: note that only the "xpci" lines are unusual.
                    998: 
                    999:         include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                   1000: 
1.111     wiz      1001:         # Add support for PCI buses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
1.52      gdt      1002:         xpci* at xenbus ?
                   1003:         pci* at xpci ?
                   1004: 
                   1005:         # PCI USB controllers
                   1006:         uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
                   1007: 
                   1008:         # USB bus support
                   1009:         usb*    at uhci?
                   1010: 
                   1011:         # USB Hubs
                   1012:         uhub*   at usb?
                   1013:         uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                   1014: 
                   1015:         # USB Mass Storage
                   1016:         umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                   1017:         wd*     at umass?
                   1018:         # SCSI controllers
                   1019:         ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
                   1020: 
                   1021:         # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                   1022:         scsibus* at scsi?
                   1023: 
                   1024:         # SCSI devices
                   1025:         sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                   1026:         cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo     1027: 
                   1028: 
1.28      gdt      1029: NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
                   1030: =========================
                   1031: 
                   1032: The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
                   1033: hardware.  This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
                   1034: virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
1.70      gdt      1035: dom0.  This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of VPS providers;
                   1036: only a few are mentioned that specifically support NetBSD.
1.28      gdt      1037: 
1.52      gdt      1038: VPS operators provide varying degrees of access and mechanisms for
                   1039: configuration.  The big issue is usually how one controls which kernel
1.111     wiz      1040: is booted, because the kernel is nominally in the dom0 file system (to
                   1041: which VPS users do not normally have access).  A second issue is how
1.70      gdt      1042: to install NetBSD.
1.52      gdt      1043: A VPS user may want to compile a kernel for security updates, to run
                   1044: npf, run IPsec, or any other reason why someone would want to change
                   1045: their kernel.
                   1046: 
1.111     wiz      1047: One approach is to have an administrative interface to upload a kernel,
1.68      gdt      1048: or to select from a prepopulated list.  Other approaches are pygrub
1.59      gdt      1049: (deprecated) and pvgrub, which are ways to have a bootloader obtain a
1.111     wiz      1050: kernel from the domU file system.  This is closer to a regular physical
1.59      gdt      1051: computer, where someone who controls a machine can replace the kernel.
1.52      gdt      1052: 
1.74      gdt      1053: A second issue is multiple CPUs.  With NetBSD 6, domUs support
                   1054: multiple vcpus, and it is typical for VPS providers to enable multiple
                   1055: CPUs for NetBSD domUs.
                   1056: 
1.68      gdt      1057: pygrub
1.59      gdt      1058: -------
1.52      gdt      1059: 
1.111     wiz      1060: pygrub runs in the dom0 and looks into the domU file system.  This
                   1061: implies that the domU must have a kernel in a file system in a format
1.68      gdt      1062: known to pygrub.  As of 2014, pygrub seems to be of mostly historical
                   1063: interest.
1.52      gdt      1064: 
1.59      gdt      1065: pvgrub
                   1066: ------
                   1067: 
                   1068: pvgrub is a version of grub that uses PV operations instead of BIOS
                   1069: calls.  It is booted from the dom0 as the domU kernel, and then reads
1.111     wiz      1070: /grub/menu.lst and loads a kernel from the domU file system.
1.59      gdt      1071: 
1.70      gdt      1072: [Panix](http://www.panix.com/) lets users use pvgrub.  Panix reports
1.71      gdt      1073: that pvgrub works with FFsv2 with 16K/2K and 32K/4K block/frag sizes
                   1074: (and hence with defaults from "newfs -O 2").  See [Panix's pvgrub
1.70      gdt      1075: page](http://www.panix.com/v-colo/grub.html), which describes only
1.74      gdt      1076: Linux but should be updated to cover NetBSD :-).
1.70      gdt      1077: 
                   1078: [prgmr.com](http://prgmr.com/) also lets users with pvgrub to boot
                   1079: their own kernel.  See then [prgmr.com NetBSD
1.74      gdt      1080: HOWTO](http://wiki.prgmr.com/mediawiki/index.php/NetBSD_as_a_DomU)
                   1081: (which is in need of updating).
1.59      gdt      1082: 
1.70      gdt      1083: It appears that [grub's FFS
                   1084: code](http://xenbits.xensource.com/hg/xen-unstable.hg/file/bca284f67702/tools/libfsimage/ufs/fsys_ufs.c)
                   1085: does not support all aspects of modern FFS, but there are also reports
1.72      gdt      1086: that FFSv2 works fine.  At prgmr, typically one has an ext2 or FAT
1.70      gdt      1087: partition for the kernel with the intent that grub can understand it,
                   1088: which leads to /netbsd not being the actual kernel.  One must remember
1.111     wiz      1089: to update the special boot partition.
1.59      gdt      1090: 
                   1091: Amazon
                   1092: ------
                   1093: 
1.95      gdt      1094: See the [Amazon EC2 page](../amazon_ec2/).
1.44      gdt      1095: 
                   1096: Using npf
                   1097: ---------
                   1098: 
1.81      gdt      1099: In standard kernels, npf is a module, and thus cannot be loaded in a
1.44      gdt      1100: DOMU kernel.
                   1101: 
1.95      gdt      1102: TODO: Explain how to compile npf into a custom kernel, answering (but
                   1103: note that the problem was caused by not booting the right kernel)
                   1104: [this email to
                   1105: netbsd-users](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/12/26/msg015576.html).
1.65      gdt      1106: 
                   1107: TODO items for improving NetBSD/xen
                   1108: ===================================
                   1109: 
1.93      gdt      1110: * Make the NetBSD dom0 kernel work with SMP.
                   1111: * Test the Xen 4.5 packages adequately to be able to recommend them as
                   1112:   the standard approach.
                   1113: * Get PCI passthrough working on Xen 4.5
1.65      gdt      1114: * Get pvgrub into pkgsrc, either via xentools or separately.
                   1115: * grub
1.70      gdt      1116:   * Check/add support to pkgsrc grub2 for UFS2 and arbitrary
1.66      gdt      1117:     fragsize/blocksize (UFS2 support may be present; the point is to
1.111     wiz      1118:     make it so that with any UFS1/UFS2 file system setup that works
1.66      gdt      1119:     with NetBSD grub will also work).
1.70      gdt      1120:     See [pkg/40258](http://gnats.netbsd.org/40258).
1.65      gdt      1121:   * Push patches upstream.
                   1122:   * Get UFS2 patches into pvgrub.
                   1123: * Add support for PV ops to a version of /boot, and make it usable as
                   1124:   a kernel in Xen, similar to pvgrub.
1.93      gdt      1125: * Solve somehow the issue with modules for GENERIC not being loadable
                   1126:   in a Xen dom0 or domU kernel.
                   1127: 
                   1128: Random pointers
                   1129: ===============
                   1130: 
1.117     gdt      1131: This section contains links from elsewhere not yet integrated into the
                   1132: HOWTO, and other guides.
1.93      gdt      1133: 
                   1134: * http://www.lumbercartel.ca/library/xen/
                   1135: * http://pbraun.nethence.com/doc/sysutils/xen_netbsd_dom0.html
1.117     gdt      1136: * https://gmplib.org/~tege/xen.html

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