Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.11

1.5       mspo        1: Introduction
                      2: ------------
1.1       mspo        3: 
                      4: [![[Xen
1.7       mspo        5: screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
1.1       mspo        6: 
                      7: Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class
                      8: CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a
1.7       mspo        9: single machine. Guest OSes (also called “domains”) require a modified
1.1       mspo       10: kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the
                     11: physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen
                     12: hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel
                     13: for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded
                     14: using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for
1.5       mspo       15: this, or alternatively the `grub` boot loader (`grub` has some
1.1       mspo       16: limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access
                     17: the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains
                     18: and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that
1.5       mspo       19: lack those privileges. For more details, see [](http://www.xen.org/).
1.1       mspo       20: 
                     21: NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged
                     22: (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains
                     23: accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices
                     24: to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single
                     25: privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much
                     26: like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console
                     27: (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only
1.5       mspo       28: virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`) and virtual network interfaces
                     29: (`xennet`) provided by a privileged domain (usually *domain0*). xbd
                     30: devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a partition of a disk,
                     31: raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain. xennet devices are
                     32: connected to virtual devices in the privileged domain, named
                     33: xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g., xvif1.0. Both
                     34: xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet devices (they can
                     35: be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be assigned
                     36: addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...) or be
                     37: added as part of a bridge.
1.1       mspo       38: 
1.5       mspo       39: Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)
                     40: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo       41: 
                     42: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
                     43: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
                     44: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
1.5       mspo       45: available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots
                     46: for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.
                     47: If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk
                     48: you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
1.1       mspo       49: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
                     50: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
                     51: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
                     52: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
                     53: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
                     54: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
                     55: other domains.
                     56: 
                     57: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
                     58: packages. See [the pkgsrc
                     59: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
                     60: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
                     61: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
1.5       mspo       62: not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`
                     63: for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen
                     64: 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or
                     65: `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll
                     66: also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If
                     67: using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`
1.1       mspo       68: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
                     69: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
1.5       mspo       70: `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel
                     71: CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You
                     72: can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl
                     73: command:
1.1       mspo       74: 
1.3       mspo       75:     # cpuctl identify 0
                     76:     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
                     77:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
                     78:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
                     79:     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
1.5       mspo       80:     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
1.3       mspo       81:     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
                     82:     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
                     83:     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
                     84:     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
                     85:     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
                     86:     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
                     87:     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
                     88:     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
                     89:     cpu0: Core ID 0
                     90:     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
1.1       mspo       91: 
                     92: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
                     93: SVM or VMX.
                     94: 
                     95: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
1.5       mspo       96: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is
                     97: `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel
                     98: with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial
                     99: console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial
                    100: console. It is not useful with a VGA console.
1.1       mspo      101: 
                    102: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
                    103: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
                    104: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
                    105: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
1.5       mspo      106: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`
                    107: must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.
                    108: 
                    109: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the
                    110: NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot
                    111: loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)
                    112: manual page for an example using the latter.
1.1       mspo      113: 
                    114: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
                    115: console to use, etc ...
                    116: 
1.5       mspo      117: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:
1.1       mspo      118: 
1.5       mspo      119:     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
1.3       mspo      120:     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
                    121:     #
                    122:     # The default entry to load will be the first one
                    123:     default=0
1.5       mspo      124: 
1.3       mspo      125:     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
                    126:     timeout=10
1.5       mspo      127: 
1.3       mspo      128:     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
                    129:     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
1.5       mspo      130: 
1.3       mspo      131:     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
                    132:     # to serial after 10s
                    133:     terminal --timeout=10 serial console
1.5       mspo      134: 
1.3       mspo      135:     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
                    136:     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
                    137:     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
                    138:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
                    139:       root(hd0,0)
                    140:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    141:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
1.5       mspo      142: 
1.3       mspo      143:     # Same as above, but using VGA console
                    144:     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
                    145:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
                    146:       root(hd0,0)
                    147:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    148:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      149: 
1.3       mspo      150:     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
                    151:     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
                    152:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
                    153:       root(hd0,0)
                    154:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
                    155:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
                    156:     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
                    157:       root(hd0,0)
                    158:       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
                    159:       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
1.5       mspo      160: 
1.3       mspo      161:     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
                    162:     #nonworking /xen.gz
                    163:     title NetBSD 5.1
                    164:       root (hd0,a)
                    165:       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
1.5       mspo      166: 
1.3       mspo      167:     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
                    168:     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
                    169:     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
                    170:     title NetBSD chain
                    171:       root        (hd0,0)
                    172:       chainloader +1
1.5       mspo      173: 
1.3       mspo      174:     ## end of grub config file.
1.5       mspo      175:           
                    176: 
1.1       mspo      177: Install grub with the following command:
                    178: 
1.3       mspo      179:     # grub --no-floppy
1.5       mspo      180: 
1.3       mspo      181:     grub> root (hd0,a)
                    182:      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
1.5       mspo      183: 
1.3       mspo      184:     grub> setup (hd0)
                    185:      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
                    186:      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
                    187:      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
                    188:      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
                    189:      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
                    190:     succeeded
                    191:      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
                    192:      succeeded
                    193:     Done.
1.5       mspo      194:           
1.1       mspo      195: 
1.5       mspo      196: Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)
                    197: ---------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      198: 
                    199: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
1.5       mspo      200: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon
                    201: (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,
                    202: `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure
                    203: that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You
                    204: can create them with this command:
1.1       mspo      205: 
1.3       mspo      206:     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
1.1       mspo      207: 
1.5       mspo      208: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and
                    209: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.
                    210: 'xm list' will show something like:
1.1       mspo      211: 
1.3       mspo      212:     # xm list
                    213:     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
                    214:     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
1.1       mspo      215: 
                    216: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
                    217: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
1.5       mspo      218: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which
                    219: will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
                    220: system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
                    221: install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
                    222: your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is
                    223: provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
1.1       mspo      224: 
                    225: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
                    226: 
1.3       mspo      227:     #  -*- mode: python; -*-
                    228:     #============================================================================
                    229:     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
                    230:     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
                    231:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      232: 
1.3       mspo      233:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    234:     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
                    235:     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
                    236:     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
1.5       mspo      237: 
1.3       mspo      238:     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
                    239:     memory = 128
1.5       mspo      240: 
1.3       mspo      241:     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
                    242:     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
                    243:     # number. All domains must have different names.
                    244:     #
                    245:     name = "nbsd"
1.5       mspo      246: 
1.3       mspo      247:     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
                    248:     #
                    249:     vcpus = 1
1.5       mspo      250: 
1.3       mspo      251:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    252:     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      253: 
1.3       mspo      254:     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
                    255:     nics = 1
1.5       mspo      256: 
1.3       mspo      257:     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
                    258:     #
                    259:     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
                    260:     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
                    261:     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
                    262:     # MACs are assigned if not given.
                    263:     #
                    264:     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
                    265:     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
                    266:     # the new xvif interface in domain0.
                    267:     #
                    268:     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
                    269:     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
                    270:     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
                    271:     #
                    272:     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
1.5       mspo      273: 
1.3       mspo      274:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    275:     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
                    276:     # what you want them accessible as.
                    277:     #
                    278:     # Each disk entry is of the form:
                    279:     #
1.5       mspo      280:     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      281:     #
                    282:     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
                    283:     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
                    284:     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
                    285:     #
1.5       mspo      286:     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
1.3       mspo      287:     #
                    288:     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
                    289:     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
                    290:     #
                    291:     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
                    292:     # but it does for Linux.
                    293:     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
                    294:     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
                    295:     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
                    296:     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
                    297:     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
                    298:     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
1.5       mspo      299: 
1.3       mspo      300:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
                    301:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
                    302:     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
1.5       mspo      303: 
1.3       mspo      304:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    305:     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
1.5       mspo      306: 
1.3       mspo      307:     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
                    308:     root = "xbd0"
                    309:     # extra parameters passed to the kernel
                    310:     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
                    311:     #extra = ""
1.5       mspo      312: 
1.3       mspo      313:     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
                    314:     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
                    315:     # The default is False.
                    316:     #autorestart = True
1.5       mspo      317: 
1.3       mspo      318:     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
1.1       mspo      319: 
                    320: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
1.5       mspo      321: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface
                    322: created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the
                    323: xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged
                    324: with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.
                    325: To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look
                    326: like this:
1.1       mspo      327: 
1.3       mspo      328:     create
                    329:     !brconfig $int add ex0 up
1.1       mspo      330: 
1.5       mspo      331: (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
                    332: will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.
1.1       mspo      333: 
1.5       mspo      334: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
                    335: working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
1.1       mspo      336: 
1.5       mspo      337:     #!/bin/sh
1.3       mspo      338:     #============================================================================
1.11    ! gdt       339:     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.10 2014/12/23 23:08:37 gdt Exp $
1.3       mspo      340:     #
                    341:     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
                    342:     #
                    343:     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
                    344:     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
                    345:     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
                    346:     # in the ``vif-script'' field.
                    347:     #
                    348:     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
                    349:     #
                    350:     # Actions:
1.5       mspo      351:     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
                    352:     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
1.3       mspo      353:     #
                    354:     # Variables:
1.5       mspo      355:     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).
                    356:     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).
                    357:     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).
                    358:     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).
1.3       mspo      359:     #
                    360:     # Example invocation:
                    361:     #
                    362:     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
                    363:     #
                    364:     #============================================================================
1.5       mspo      365: 
1.3       mspo      366:     # Exit if anything goes wrong
                    367:     set -e
1.5       mspo      368: 
1.3       mspo      369:     echo "vif-bridge $*"
1.5       mspo      370: 
1.3       mspo      371:     # Operation name.
                    372:     OP=$1; shift
1.5       mspo      373: 
1.3       mspo      374:     # Pull variables in args into environment
                    375:     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
1.5       mspo      376: 
1.3       mspo      377:     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
                    378:     domain=${domain:?}
                    379:     vif=${vif:?}
                    380:     mac=${mac:?}
                    381:     bridge=${bridge:?}
1.5       mspo      382: 
1.3       mspo      383:     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
                    384:     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
1.5       mspo      385: 
1.3       mspo      386:     # Are we going up or down?
                    387:     case $OP in
1.5       mspo      388:     up) brcmd='add' ;;
1.3       mspo      389:     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
                    390:     *)
1.5       mspo      391:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
                    392:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
                    393:         exit 1
                    394:         ;;
1.3       mspo      395:     esac
1.5       mspo      396: 
1.3       mspo      397:     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
                    398:     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
1.5       mspo      399:         exit
1.3       mspo      400:     fi
1.5       mspo      401: 
1.3       mspo      402:     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
                    403:     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
1.5       mspo      404:         exit
1.3       mspo      405:     fi
1.5       mspo      406: 
1.3       mspo      407:     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
                    408:     ifconfig x${vif} $OP
                    409:     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
1.1       mspo      410: 
                    411: Now, running
                    412: 
1.3       mspo      413:     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
1.1       mspo      414: 
1.5       mspo      415: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`
                    416: causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel
                    417: will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't
                    418: been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,
                    419: so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in
                    420: *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64
                    421: tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
                    422: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.
                    423: Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you
                    424: can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
1.1       mspo      425: 
                    426: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
1.5       mspo      427: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:
1.1       mspo      428: 
1.3       mspo      429:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
1.1       mspo      430: 
                    431: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
1.5       mspo      432: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
1.1       mspo      433: 
1.5       mspo      434: Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it
                    435: would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
1.1       mspo      436: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
1.5       mspo      437: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`
                    438: and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen
                    439: installation.
1.1       mspo      440: 
                    441: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
                    442: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
1.5       mspo      443: `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
                    444: `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
1.1       mspo      445: 
1.3       mspo      446:     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
                    447:     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    448:     ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    449:     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
                    450:     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
1.1       mspo      451: 
1.5       mspo      452: Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
1.1       mspo      453: 
                    454: It is also desirable to add
                    455: 
1.3       mspo      456:     powerd=YES
1.1       mspo      457: 
1.5       mspo      458: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
                    459: `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
1.1       mspo      460: 
                    461: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
                    462: 
1.5       mspo      463: Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)
                    464: --------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      465: 
                    466: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
                    467: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
                    468: 
                    469: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
                    470: the example below)
                    471: 
1.3       mspo      472:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
1.1       mspo      473: 
                    474: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
                    475: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
                    476: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
                    477: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
                    478: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
                    479: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
                    480: 
1.3       mspo      481:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
                    482:     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
1.1       mspo      483: 
                    484: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
                    485: partition.
                    486: 
                    487: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
                    488: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
                    489: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
                    490: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
1.5       mspo      491: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network
                    492: config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as
                    493: .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate
                    494: tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the
                    495: filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem
                    496: can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to
                    497: boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels
                    498: available in the Xen binary distribution.
1.1       mspo      499: 
                    500: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
                    501: 
1.3       mspo      502:     extra = "xencons=tty1"
1.1       mspo      503: 
                    504: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
                    505: tty to the xen console.
                    506: 
1.5       mspo      507: Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)
                    508: ----------------------------------------------
1.1       mspo      509: 
                    510: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
                    511: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
1.5       mspo      512: image to a MAN.VND.4 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem
                    513: image to your dom0 filesystem.
1.1       mspo      514: 
1.3       mspo      515:     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
                    516:     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
                    517:     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
1.5       mspo      518: 
1.3       mspo      519:     ## for a 64-bit guest
                    520:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    521:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      522: 
1.3       mspo      523:     ## for a 32-bit guest
                    524:     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
                    525:     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
1.5       mspo      526: 
1.3       mspo      527:     dom0# umount /mnt
1.5       mspo      528:           
                    529: 
                    530: Keep the MAN.VND.4 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls
                    531: unless the DVD image is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create
                    532: an initial configuration file with the following contents. Substitute
                    533: */dev/wd0k* with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
1.1       mspo      534: 
1.4       mspo      535:     memory = 640
                    536:     name = 'solaris'
                    537:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    538:     disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
                    539:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    540:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    541:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    542:     # for a 64-bit guest
                    543:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
                    544:     # for a 32-bit guest
                    545:     #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
1.5       mspo      546:           
                    547: 
1.1       mspo      548: Start the guest.
                    549: 
1.4       mspo      550:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    551:     Started domain solaris
                    552:                           v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    553:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    554:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    555:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    556:     Hostname: opensolaris
                    557:     Remounting root read/write
                    558:     Probing for device nodes ...
                    559:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    560:     Preparing live image for use
                    561:     Done mounting Live image
1.5       mspo      562:           
1.1       mspo      563: 
                    564: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
                    565: the xnf0 interface to appear.
                    566: 
1.4       mspo      567:     opensolaris console login: jack
                    568:     Password: jack
                    569:     Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
                    570:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
                    571:     sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
                    572:     sh-3.2# exit
1.5       mspo      573:           
1.1       mspo      574: 
                    575: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
                    576: display where the installation program runs.
                    577: 
1.4       mspo      578:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
                    579:     Password: solaris
                    580:     Verify: solaris
                    581:     jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
                    582:     jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
1.5       mspo      583:           
1.1       mspo      584: 
1.5       mspo      585: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use `ifconfig xnf0` on
                    586: the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
1.1       mspo      587: 
1.4       mspo      588:     remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
1.5       mspo      589:           
1.1       mspo      590: 
                    591: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
                    592: 
1.4       mspo      593:     jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
                    594:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
1.5       mspo      595:            
1.1       mspo      596: 
                    597: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
                    598: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
                    599: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
                    600: console.
                    601: 
1.4       mspo      602:     jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
                    603:                     bootfs = 43
                    604:     ^C
                    605:     jack@opensolaris:~$
1.5       mspo      606:            
1.1       mspo      607: 
                    608: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
                    609: the last line.
                    610: 
1.4       mspo      611:     memory = 640
                    612:     name = 'solaris'
                    613:     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
                    614:     vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
                    615:     kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
                    616:     ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
                    617:     extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
1.5       mspo      618:            
1.1       mspo      619: 
                    620: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
                    621: 
1.4       mspo      622:     dom0# xm destroy solaris
                    623:     dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
                    624:     Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
                    625:     v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
                    626:     Started domain solaris
                    627:     SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
                    628:     Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    629:     Use is subject to license terms.
                    630:     WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
                    631:     Hostname: osol
                    632:     Configuring devices.
                    633:     Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
                    634:     svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
                    635:     Reading ZFS config: done.
                    636:     Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
                    637:     Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
                    638:     Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
1.5       mspo      639: 
1.4       mspo      640:     osol console login:
1.5       mspo      641:            
1.1       mspo      642: 
                    643: Using PCI devices in guest domains
1.5       mspo      644: ==================================
1.1       mspo      645: 
                    646: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
                    647: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
                    648: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
                    649: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
                    650: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
                    651: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
                    652: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
                    653: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
                    654: access the VGA registers will panic).
                    655: 
                    656: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
                    657: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
                    658: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
                    659: 
                    660: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
1.5       mspo      661: `pciback` driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via the
                    662: pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback` instead of the
                    663: usual driver. The list of devices is specified as `(bus:dev.func)`,
                    664: where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
                    665: single-digit number:
1.1       mspo      666: 
1.4       mspo      667:     pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
1.1       mspo      668: 
                    669: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
1.5       mspo      670: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
1.1       mspo      671: 
1.5       mspo      672: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci` array of
                    673: the domU's config file, with the format `'0000:bus:dev.func'`
1.1       mspo      674: 
1.4       mspo      675:     pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
1.1       mspo      676: 
1.5       mspo      677: In the domU an `xpci` device will show up, to which one or more pci
                    678: busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI busses as
                    679: usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have `xpci` or
                    680: any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own kernel
                    681: to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel config example:
1.1       mspo      682: 
1.4       mspo      683:     include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
                    684:     #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
1.5       mspo      685: 
1.4       mspo      686:     # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
                    687:     xpci* at xenbus ?
                    688:     pci* at xpci ?
1.5       mspo      689: 
1.4       mspo      690:     # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
                    691:     # USB Controller and Devices
1.5       mspo      692: 
1.4       mspo      693:     # PCI USB controllers
                    694:     uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
1.5       mspo      695: 
1.4       mspo      696:     # USB bus support
                    697:     usb*    at uhci?
1.5       mspo      698: 
1.4       mspo      699:     # USB Hubs
                    700:     uhub*   at usb?
                    701:     uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
1.5       mspo      702: 
1.4       mspo      703:     # USB Mass Storage
                    704:     umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
                    705:     wd*     at umass?
                    706:     # SCSI controllers
                    707:     ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
1.5       mspo      708: 
1.4       mspo      709:     # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
                    710:     scsibus* at scsi?
1.5       mspo      711: 
1.4       mspo      712:     # SCSI devices
                    713:     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
                    714:     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
1.1       mspo      715: 
                    716: Links and further information
1.5       mspo      717: =============================
1.1       mspo      718: 
1.9       gdt       719: -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
1.8       gdt       720:     explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
                    721:     with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
                    722:     NetBSD's native boot.)
1.1       mspo      723: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
1.9       gdt       724:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
                    725:     and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

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