Annotation of wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn, revision 1.1

1.1     ! mspo        1: NetBSD/xen Howto
        !             2: ================
        !             3: 
        !             4: [![BSD
        !             5: daemon](../../images/BSD-daemon.jpg)](../../about/disclaimer.html#bsd-daemon)
        !             6: 
        !             7: Table Of Contents
        !             8: -----------------
        !             9: 
        !            10: -   [Introduction](#introduction)
        !            11: -   [Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)](#netbsd-dom0)
        !            12: -   [Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)](#netbsd-domU)
        !            13: -   [Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)](#linux-domU)
        !            14: -   [Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)](#solaris-domU)
        !            15: -   [Using PCI devices in guest domains](#pci-pass-through)
        !            16: -   [Links and further information](#links-and-more)
        !            17: 
        !            18: * * * * *
        !            19: 
        !            20: ### Introduction
        !            21: 
        !            22: [![[Xen
        !            23: screenshot]](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
        !            24: 
        !            25: Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class
        !            26: CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a
        !            27: single machine. Guest OSes (also called <E2><80><9C>domains<E2><80><9D>) require a modified
        !            28: kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the
        !            29: physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen
        !            30: hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel
        !            31: for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded
        !            32: using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for
        !            33: this, or alternatively the **grub** boot loader (**grub** has some
        !            34: limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access
        !            35: the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains
        !            36: and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that
        !            37: lack those privileges. For more details, see
        !            38: [http://www.xen.org/](http://www.xen.org/).
        !            39: 
        !            40: NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged
        !            41: (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains
        !            42: accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices
        !            43: to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single
        !            44: privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much
        !            45: like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console
        !            46: (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only
        !            47: virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`{.code}) and virtual network
        !            48: interfaces (`xennet`{.code}) provided by a privileged domain (usually
        !            49: *domain0*). xbd devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a
        !            50: partition of a disk, raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain.
        !            51: xennet devices are connected to virtual devices in the privileged
        !            52: domain, named xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g.,
        !            53: xvif1.0. Both xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet
        !            54: devices (they can be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be
        !            55: assigned addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...)
        !            56: or be added as part of a bridge.
        !            57: 
        !            58: * * * * *
        !            59: ### Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)
        !            60: 
        !            61: First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64
        !            62: [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release
        !            63: (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are
        !            64: available from
        !            65: [ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/).
        !            66: Binary snapshots for current and the stable branches are available on
        !            67: [daily autobuilds](http://nyftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/). If you
        !            68: plan to use the **grub** boot loader, when partitioning the disk you
        !            69: have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as
        !            70: FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,
        !            71: uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load
        !            72: some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide
        !            73: virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these
        !            74: virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file
        !            75: system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to
        !            76: other domains.
        !            77: 
        !            78: Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary
        !            79: packages. See [the pkgsrc
        !            80: documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar
        !            81: with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and
        !            82: 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do
        !            83: not. You'll need either
        !            84: [`sysutils/xentools3`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools3/README.html)
        !            85: and
        !            86: [`sysutils/xenkernel3`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel3/README.html)
        !            87: for Xen 3.1,
        !            88: [`sysutils/xentools33`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools33/README.html)
        !            89: and
        !            90: [`sysutils/xenkernel33`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel33/README.html)
        !            91: for Xen 3.3,
        !            92: [`sysutils/xentools41`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools41/README.html)
        !            93: and
        !            94: [`sysutils/xenkernel41`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel41/README.html)
        !            95: for Xen 4.1. or
        !            96: [`sysutils/xentools42`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools42/README.html)
        !            97: and
        !            98: [`sysutils/xenkernel42`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel42/README.html)
        !            99: for Xen 4.2. You'll also need
        !           100: [`sysutils/grub`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/grub/README.html)
        !           101: if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If using Xen 3.1, you may also
        !           102: want to install
        !           103: [`sysutils/xentools3-hvm`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools3-hvm/README.html)
        !           104: which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the
        !           105: *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in
        !           106: [`sysutils/xentools`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools/README.html)).
        !           107: Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel CPUs must have the 'VT'
        !           108: instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You can easily find out if
        !           109: your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl command:
        !           110: 
        !           111: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           112: # cpuctl identify 0
        !           113: cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6
        !           114: cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>
        !           115: cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>
        !           116: cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>
        !           117: cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,VMX,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>
        !           118: cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>
        !           119: cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"
        !           120: cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way
        !           121: cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way
        !           122: cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way
        !           123: cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way
        !           124: cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0
        !           125: cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0
        !           126: cpu0: Core ID 0
        !           127: cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00
        !           128: ~~~
        !           129: 
        !           130: Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,
        !           131: SVM or VMX.
        !           132: 
        !           133: Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed
        !           134: them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`{.filename}. The file you're looking
        !           135: for is `xen.gz`{.filename}. Copy it to your root file system.
        !           136: `xen-debug.gz`{.filename} is a kernel with more consistency checks and
        !           137: more details printed on the serial console. It is useful for debugging
        !           138: crashing guests if you use a serial console. It is not useful with a VGA
        !           139: console.
        !           140: 
        !           141: You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file
        !           142: system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the
        !           143: i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to
        !           144: customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for
        !           145: recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and
        !           146: `/kern`{.filename} must be mounted because *xend* needs access to
        !           147: `/kern/xen/privcmd`{.filename}.
        !           148: 
        !           149: Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz`{.filename}
        !           150: kernel, and the NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be
        !           151: **grub** or NetBSD's boot loader. Below is a detailled example for grub,
        !           152: see the boot.cfg(5) manual page for an example using the latter.
        !           153: 
        !           154: This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the
        !           155: console to use, etc ...
        !           156: 
        !           157: Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst`{.filename} file:
        !           158: 
        !           159: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           160: #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run
        !           161: # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).
        !           162: #
        !           163: # The default entry to load will be the first one
        !           164: default=0
        !           165: 
        !           166: # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard
        !           167: timeout=10
        !           168: 
        !           169: # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only
        !           170: serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1
        !           171: 
        !           172: # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default
        !           173: # to serial after 10s
        !           174: terminal --timeout=10 serial console
        !           175: 
        !           176: # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial
        !           177: # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.
        !           178: # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.
        !           179: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)
        !           180:   root(hd0,0)
        !           181:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
        !           182:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
        !           183: 
        !           184: # Same as above, but using VGA console
        !           185: # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)
        !           186: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)
        !           187:   root(hd0,0)
        !           188:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
        !           189:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
        !           190: 
        !           191: # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a
        !           192: # nonworking kernel as /netbsd
        !           193: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)
        !           194:   root(hd0,0)
        !           195:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1
        !           196:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0
        !           197: title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)
        !           198:   root(hd0,0)
        !           199:   kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536
        !           200:   module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0
        !           201: 
        !           202: #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a
        !           203: #nonworking /xen.gz
        !           204: title NetBSD 5.1
        !           205:   root (hd0,a)
        !           206:   kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC
        !           207: 
        !           208: #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.
        !           209: #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos
        !           210: #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)
        !           211: title NetBSD chain
        !           212:   root        (hd0,0)
        !           213:   chainloader +1
        !           214: 
        !           215: ## end of grub config file.
        !           216:       
        !           217: ~~~
        !           218: 
        !           219: Install grub with the following command:
        !           220: 
        !           221: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           222: # grub --no-floppy
        !           223: 
        !           224: grub> root (hd0,a)
        !           225:  Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9
        !           226: 
        !           227: grub> setup (hd0)
        !           228:  Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no
        !           229:  Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes
        !           230:  Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes
        !           231:  Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes
        !           232:  Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.
        !           233: succeeded
        !           234:  Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...
        !           235:  succeeded
        !           236: Done.
        !           237:       
        !           238: ~~~
        !           239: 
        !           240: * * * * *
        !           241: 
        !           242: ### Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)
        !           243: 
        !           244: Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
        !           245: (**/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start**) and the xen backend daemon
        !           246: (**/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start** for Xen3\*,
        !           247: **/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start** for Xen4.\*). Make
        !           248: sure that `/dev/xencons`{.filename} and `/dev/xenevt`{.filename} exist
        !           249: before starting **xend**. You can create them with this command:
        !           250: 
        !           251: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           252: # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
        !           253: ~~~
        !           254: 
        !           255: xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log`{.filename} and
        !           256: `/var/log/xend-debug.log`{.filename}. You can then control xen with the
        !           257: xm tool. 'xm list' will show something like:
        !           258: 
        !           259: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           260: # xm list
        !           261: Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
        !           262: Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
        !           263: ~~~
        !           264: 
        !           265: 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in
        !           266: PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in
        !           267: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`{.filename}. On creation, a kernel has to be
        !           268: specified, which will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in
        !           269: the *domain0* file system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but
        !           270: please note, you should install the same kernel into *domainU* as
        !           271: `/netbsd`{.filename} in order to make your system tools, like
        !           272: [savecore(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?savecore+8+NetBSD-6.0+i386),
        !           273: work). A suitable kernel is provided as part of the i386 and amd64
        !           274: binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
        !           275: 
        !           276: Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
        !           277: 
        !           278: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           279: #  -*- mode: python; -*-
        !           280: #============================================================================
        !           281: # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.
        !           282: # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.
        !           283: #============================================================================
        !           284: 
        !           285: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        !           286: # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.
        !           287: kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"
        !           288: #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
        !           289: 
        !           290: # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.
        !           291: memory = 128
        !           292: 
        !           293: # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',
        !           294: # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain
        !           295: # number. All domains must have different names.
        !           296: #
        !           297: name = "nbsd"
        !           298: 
        !           299: # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.
        !           300: #
        !           301: vcpus = 1
        !           302: 
        !           303: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        !           304: # Define network interfaces for the new domain.
        !           305: 
        !           306: # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.
        !           307: nics = 1
        !           308: 
        !           309: # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.
        !           310: #
        !           311: # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface
        !           312: # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd
        !           313: # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random
        !           314: # MACs are assigned if not given.
        !           315: #
        !           316: # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the
        !           317: # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure
        !           318: # the new xvif interface in domain0.
        !           319: #
        !           320: # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been
        !           321: # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the
        !           322: # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.
        !           323: #
        !           324: vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]
        !           325: 
        !           326: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        !           327: # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and
        !           328: # what you want them accessible as.
        !           329: #
        !           330: # Each disk entry is of the form:
        !           331: #
        !           332: #       phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE
        !           333: #
        !           334: # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,
        !           335: # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create
        !           336: # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:
        !           337: #
        !           338: #       file:PATH,VDEV,MODE
        !           339: #
        !           340: # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV
        !           341: # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.
        !           342: #
        !           343: # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),
        !           344: # but it does for Linux.
        !           345: # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will
        !           346: # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS
        !           347: # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...
        !           348: # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(
        !           349: # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,
        !           350: # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...
        !           351: 
        !           352: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
        !           353: #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]
        !           354: #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]
        !           355: 
        !           356: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        !           357: # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.
        !           358: 
        !           359: # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD
        !           360: root = "xbd0"
        !           361: # extra parameters passed to the kernel
        !           362: # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...
        !           363: #extra = ""
        !           364: 
        !           365: #----------------------------------------------------------------------------
        !           366: # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.
        !           367: # The default is False.
        !           368: #autorestart = True
        !           369: 
        !           370: # end of nbsd config file ====================================================
        !           371: ~~~
        !           372: 
        !           373: When a new domain is created, xen calls the
        !           374: `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge`{.filename} script for each virtual network
        !           375: interface created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically
        !           376: configure the xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these
        !           377: will be bridged with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has
        !           378: to exist first. To do this, create the file
        !           379: `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0`{.filename} and make it look like this:
        !           380: 
        !           381: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           382: create
        !           383: !brconfig $int add ex0 up
        !           384: ~~~
        !           385: 
        !           386: (replace `ex0`{.literal} with the name of your physical interface). Then
        !           387: bridge0 will be created on boot. See the
        !           388: [bridge(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?bridge+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
        !           389: man page for details.
        !           390: 
        !           391: So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge`{.filename} for
        !           392: xvif?.? (a working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20)
        !           393: configuring:
        !           394: 
        !           395: 
        !           396: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           397: #!/bin/sh
        !           398: #============================================================================
        !           399: # $NetBSD: vif-bridge-nbsd,v 1.3 2005/11/08 00:47:35 jlam Exp $
        !           400: #
        !           401: # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
        !           402: #
        !           403: # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.
        !           404: # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.
        !           405: # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp
        !           406: # in the ``vif-script'' field.
        !           407: #
        !           408: # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]
        !           409: #
        !           410: # Actions:
        !           411: #    up         Adds the vif interface to the bridge.
        !           412: #    down       Removes the vif interface from the bridge.
        !           413: #
        !           414: # Variables:
        !           415: #    domain     name of the domain the interface is on (required).
        !           416: #    vifq       vif interface name (required).
        !           417: #    mac        vif MAC address (required).
        !           418: #    bridge     bridge to add the vif to (required).
        !           419: #
        !           420: # Example invocation:
        !           421: #
        !           422: # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0
        !           423: #
        !           424: #============================================================================
        !           425: 
        !           426: # Exit if anything goes wrong
        !           427: set -e
        !           428: 
        !           429: echo "vif-bridge $*"
        !           430: 
        !           431: # Operation name.
        !           432: OP=$1; shift
        !           433: 
        !           434: # Pull variables in args into environment
        !           435: for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done
        !           436: 
        !           437: # Required parameters. Fail if not set.
        !           438: domain=${domain:?}
        !           439: vif=${vif:?}
        !           440: mac=${mac:?}
        !           441: bridge=${bridge:?}
        !           442: 
        !           443: # Optional parameters. Set defaults.
        !           444: ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)
        !           445: 
        !           446: # Are we going up or down?
        !           447: case $OP in
        !           448: up)     brcmd='add' ;;
        !           449: down)   brcmd='delete' ;;
        !           450: *)
        !           451:         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP
        !           452:         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'
        !           453:         exit 1
        !           454:         ;;
        !           455: esac
        !           456: 
        !           457: # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".
        !           458: if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then
        !           459:         exit
        !           460: fi
        !           461: 
        !           462: # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.
        !           463: if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then
        !           464:         exit
        !           465: fi
        !           466: 
        !           467: # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.
        !           468: ifconfig x${vif} $OP
        !           469: brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}
        !           470: ~~~
        !           471: 
        !           472: Now, running
        !           473: 
        !           474: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           475: xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd
        !           476: ~~~
        !           477: 
        !           478: should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note:
        !           479: `-c`{.code} causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.)
        !           480: The kernel will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e)
        !           481: which hasn't been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the
        !           482: new domain, so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to
        !           483: wd0e in *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or
        !           484: amd64 tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the
        !           485: `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU`{.filename} kernel provided in the NetBSD
        !           486: binary sets. Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with
        !           487: sysinst, so you can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.
        !           488: 
        !           489: If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line
        !           490: should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd`{.filename} file:
        !           491: 
        !           492: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           493: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
        !           494: ~~~
        !           495: 
        !           496: After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
        !           497: selected. The CDROM device should be changed to **xbd1d**.
        !           498: 
        !           499: Once done installing, **halt -p** the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
        !           500: it would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
        !           501: config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and
        !           502: start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use **root on
        !           503: xbd0a** and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your
        !           504: xen installation.
        !           505: 
        !           506: When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
        !           507: and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
        !           508: `/etc/ttys`{.filename} and `/etc/wscons.conf`{.filename}. You must
        !           509: disable all terminals in `/etc/ttys`{.filename}, except *console*, like
        !           510: this:
        !           511: 
        !           512: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           513: console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
        !           514: ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
        !           515: ttyE1   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
        !           516: ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
        !           517: ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
        !           518: ~~~
        !           519: 
        !           520: Finally, all screens must be commented out from
        !           521: `/etc/wscons.conf`{.filename}.
        !           522: 
        !           523: It is also desirable to add
        !           524: 
        !           525: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           526: powerd=YES
        !           527: ~~~
        !           528: 
        !           529: in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if **xm
        !           530: shutdown -R** or **xm shutdown -H** is used on the domain0.
        !           531: 
        !           532: Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
        !           533: 
        !           534: * * * * *
        !           535: 
        !           536: ### Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)
        !           537: 
        !           538: Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
        !           539: unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
        !           540: 
        !           541: First, the second parameter passed to the disk declaration (the '0x1' in
        !           542: the example below)
        !           543: 
        !           544: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           545: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
        !           546: ~~~
        !           547: 
        !           548: does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
        !           549: for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,
        !           550: hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device
        !           551: number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)
        !           552: as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export
        !           553: a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
        !           554: 
        !           555: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           556: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
        !           557: root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
        !           558: ~~~
        !           559: 
        !           560: and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
        !           561: partition.
        !           562: 
        !           563: To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest
        !           564: domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs
        !           565: from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root
        !           566: partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a
        !           567: working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc`{.filename} (fstab,
        !           568: network config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages
        !           569: such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the
        !           570: appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once
        !           571: the filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the
        !           572: filesystem can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be
        !           573: possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the
        !           574: vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
        !           575: 
        !           576: To get the linux console right, you need to add:
        !           577: 
        !           578: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           579: extra = "xencons=tty1"
        !           580: ~~~
        !           581: 
        !           582: to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
        !           583: tty to the xen console.
        !           584: 
        !           585: * * * * *
        !           586: 
        !           587: ### Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)
        !           588: 
        !           589: Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
        !           590: or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD
        !           591: image to a
        !           592: [vnd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vnd+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
        !           593: device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem image to your dom0
        !           594: filesystem.
        !           595: 
        !           596: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           597: dom0# mkdir /root/solaris
        !           598: dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso
        !           599: dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt
        !           600: 
        !           601: ## for a 64-bit guest
        !           602: dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris
        !           603: dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris
        !           604: 
        !           605: ## for a 32-bit guest
        !           606: dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris
        !           607: dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris
        !           608: 
        !           609: dom0# umount /mnt
        !           610:       
        !           611: ~~~
        !           612: 
        !           613: Keep the
        !           614: [vnd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vnd+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
        !           615: configured. For some reason the boot process stalls unless the DVD image
        !           616: is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create an initial
        !           617: configuration file with the following contents. Substitute */dev/wd0k*
        !           618: with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.
        !           619: 
        !           620: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           621: memory = 640
        !           622: name = 'solaris'
        !           623: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
        !           624: disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]
        !           625: vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
        !           626: kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
        !           627: ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
        !           628: # for a 64-bit guest
        !           629: extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
        !           630: # for a 32-bit guest
        !           631: #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'
        !           632:       
        !           633: ~~~
        !           634: 
        !           635: Start the guest.
        !           636: 
        !           637: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           638: dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
        !           639: Started domain solaris
        !           640:                       v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
        !           641: SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
        !           642: Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
        !           643: Use is subject to license terms.
        !           644: Hostname: opensolaris
        !           645: Remounting root read/write
        !           646: Probing for device nodes ...
        !           647: WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
        !           648: Preparing live image for use
        !           649: Done mounting Live image
        !           650:       
        !           651: ~~~
        !           652: 
        !           653: Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for
        !           654: the xnf0 interface to appear.
        !           655: 
        !           656: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           657: opensolaris console login: jack
        !           658: Password: jack
        !           659: Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008
        !           660: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh
        !           661: sh-3.2# ifconfig -a
        !           662: sh-3.2# exit
        !           663:       
        !           664: ~~~
        !           665: 
        !           666: Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11
        !           667: display where the installation program runs.
        !           668: 
        !           669: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           670: jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd
        !           671: Password: solaris
        !           672: Verify: solaris
        !           673: jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup
        !           674: jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1
        !           675:       
        !           676: ~~~
        !           677: 
        !           678: From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use **ifconfig xnf0**
        !           679: on the guest to find the correct IP address to use.
        !           680: 
        !           681: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           682: remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1
        !           683:       
        !           684: ~~~
        !           685: 
        !           686: It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.
        !           687: 
        !           688: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           689: jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0
        !           690: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install
        !           691:        
        !           692: ~~~
        !           693: 
        !           694: After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.
        !           695: Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem
        !           696: and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest
        !           697: console.
        !           698: 
        !           699: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           700: jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs
        !           701:                 bootfs = 43
        !           702: ^C
        !           703: jack@opensolaris:~$
        !           704:        
        !           705: ~~~
        !           706: 
        !           707: The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular
        !           708: the last line.
        !           709: 
        !           710: 
        !           711: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           712: memory = 640
        !           713: name = 'solaris'
        !           714: disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]
        !           715: vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]
        !           716: kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'
        !           717: ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'
        !           718: extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'
        !           719:        
        !           720: ~~~
        !           721: 
        !           722: Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.
        !           723: 
        !           724: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           725: dom0# xm destroy solaris
        !           726: dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg
        !           727: Using config file "./solaris.cfg".
        !           728: v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'
        !           729: Started domain solaris
        !           730: SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit
        !           731: Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
        !           732: Use is subject to license terms.
        !           733: WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2
        !           734: Hostname: osol
        !           735: Configuring devices.
        !           736: Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160
        !           737: svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .
        !           738: Reading ZFS config: done.
        !           739: Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)
        !           740: Creating new rsa public/private host key pair
        !           741: Creating new dsa public/private host key pair
        !           742: 
        !           743: osol console login:
        !           744:        
        !           745: ~~~
        !           746: 
        !           747: Using PCI devices in guest domains
        !           748: ----------------------------------
        !           749: 
        !           750: The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
        !           751: can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
        !           752: physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind
        !           753: that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the
        !           754: domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have
        !           755: an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not
        !           756: possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that
        !           757: the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to
        !           758: access the VGA registers will panic).
        !           759: 
        !           760: This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0
        !           761: and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as
        !           762: support has not been ported to later versions at this time.
        !           763: 
        !           764: For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the
        !           765: `pciback`{.literal} driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via
        !           766: the pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback`{.literal}
        !           767: instead of the usual driver. The list of devices is specified as
        !           768: `(bus:dev.func)`{.literal}, where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal
        !           769: numbers, and func a single-digit number:
        !           770: 
        !           771: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           772: pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
        !           773: ~~~
        !           774: 
        !           775: pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the
        !           776: devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci`{.filename} directory.
        !           777: 
        !           778: PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci`{.literal}
        !           779: array of the domU's config file, with the format
        !           780: `'0000:bus:dev.func'`{.literal}
        !           781: 
        !           782: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           783: pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
        !           784: ~~~
        !           785: 
        !           786: In the domU an `xpci`{.literal} device will show up, to which one or
        !           787: more pci busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI
        !           788: busses as usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have
        !           789: `xpci`{.literal} or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to
        !           790: build your own kernel to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel
        !           791: config example:
        !           792: 
        !           793: ~~~ {.programlisting}
        !           794: include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
        !           795: #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0
        !           796: 
        !           797: # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
        !           798: xpci* at xenbus ?
        !           799: pci* at xpci ?
        !           800: 
        !           801: # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain
        !           802: # USB Controller and Devices
        !           803: 
        !           804: # PCI USB controllers
        !           805: uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
        !           806: 
        !           807: # USB bus support
        !           808: usb*    at uhci?
        !           809: 
        !           810: # USB Hubs
        !           811: uhub*   at usb?
        !           812: uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
        !           813: 
        !           814: # USB Mass Storage
        !           815: umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
        !           816: wd*     at umass?
        !           817: # SCSI controllers
        !           818: ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
        !           819: 
        !           820: # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
        !           821: scsibus* at scsi?
        !           822: 
        !           823: # SCSI devices
        !           824: sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
        !           825: cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
        !           826: ~~~
        !           827: 
        !           828: Links and further information
        !           829: -----------------------------
        !           830: 
        !           831: -   The HowTo on [Installing into
        !           832:     RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
        !           833:     gives some hints on using Xen (grub) with NetBSD's RAIDframe
        !           834: -   Harold Gutch wrote documentation on [setting up a Linux DomU with a
        !           835:     NetBSD Dom0](http://www.gutch.de/NetBSD/docs/xen.html)
        !           836: -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
        !           837:     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64
        !           838:     [boot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?boot+8+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
        !           839:     and
        !           840:     [boot.cfg(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?boot.cfg+5+NetBSD-6.0+i386)
        !           841:     manpages.
        !           842: 
        !           843: 

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