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 NetBSD/xen Howto  [[!meta title="Xen HowTo"]]
 ================  
   
 [![BSD  Xen is a Type 1 hypervisor which supports running multiple guest operating
 daemon](../../images/BSD-daemon.jpg)](../../about/disclaimer.html#bsd-daemon)  systems on a single physical machine. One uses the Xen kernel to control the
   CPU, memory and console, a dom0 operating system which mediates access to
   other hardware (e.g., disks, network, USB), and one or more domU operating
   systems which operate in an unprivileged virtualized environment. IO requests
   from the domU systems are forwarded by the Xen hypervisor to the dom0 to be
   fulfilled.
   
 Table Of Contents  Xen supports different styles of guest:
 -----------------  
   
 -   [Introduction](#introduction)  [[!table data="""
 -   [Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)](#netbsd-dom0)  Style of guest  |Supported by NetBSD
 -   [Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)](#netbsd-domU)  PV              |Yes (dom0, domU)
 -   [Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)](#linux-domU)  HVM             |Yes (domU)
 -   [Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)](#solaris-domU)  PVHVM           |No
 -   [Using PCI devices in guest domains](#pci-pass-through)  PVH             |No
 -   [Links and further information](#links-and-more)  """]]
   
 * * * * *  In Para-Virtualized (PV) mode, the guest OS does not attempt to access
   hardware directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor; PV
 ### Introduction  guests must be specifically coded for Xen. In HVM mode, no guest
   modification is required; however, hardware support is required, such
 [![[Xen  as VT-x on Intel CPUs and SVM on AMD CPUs.
 screenshot]](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)  
   At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
 Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class  The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
 CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a  in the dom0 section.)
 single machine. Guest OSes (also called <E2><80><9C>domains<E2><80><9D>) require a modified  
 kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the  This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
 physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen  architecture, with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64 hardware, and with
 hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel  installing software from pkgsrc.  See also the [Xen
 for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded  website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
 using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for  
 this, or alternatively the **grub** boot loader (**grub** has some  [[!toc]]
 limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access  
 the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains  #Versions and Support
 and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that  
 lack those privileges. For more details, see  In NetBSD, Xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
 [http://www.xen.org/](http://www.xen.org/).  xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
 NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged  matching versions.
 (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains  
 accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices  Versions available in pkgsrc:
 to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single  
 privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much  [[!table data="""
 like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console  Xen Version     |Package Name   |Xen CPU Support        |EOL'ed By Upstream
 (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only  4.2             |xenkernel42    |32bit, 64bit           |Yes
 virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`{.code}) and virtual network  4.5             |xenkernel45    |64bit                  |Yes
 interfaces (`xennet`{.code}) provided by a privileged domain (usually  4.6             |xenkernel46    |64bit                  |Partially
 *domain0*). xbd devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a  4.8             |xenkernel48    |64bit                  |No
 partition of a disk, raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain.  4.11            |xenkernel411   |64bit                  |No
 xennet devices are connected to virtual devices in the privileged  """]]
 domain, named xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g.,  
 xvif1.0. Both xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet  See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).
 devices (they can be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be  
 assigned addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...)  Multiprocessor (SMP) support in NetBSD differs depending on the domain:
 or be added as part of a bridge.  
   [[!table data="""
 * * * * *  Domain          |Supports SMP
 ### Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)  dom0            |No
   domU            |Yes
 First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64  """]]
 [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release  
 (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are  Note: NetBSD support is called XEN3. However, it does support Xen 4,
 available from  because the hypercall interface has remained identical.
 [ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/).  
 Binary snapshots for current and the stable branches are available on  Architecture
 [daily autobuilds](http://nyftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/). If you  ------------
 plan to use the **grub** boot loader, when partitioning the disk you  
 have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as  Xen itself runs on x86_64 hardware.
 FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,  
 uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load  The dom0 system, plus each domU, can be either i386PAE or amd64.
 some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide  i386 without PAE is not supported.
 virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these  
 virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file  The standard approach is to use NetBSD/amd64 for the dom0.
 system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to  
 other domains.  To use an i386PAE dom0, one must build or obtain a 64bit Xen kernel and
   install it on the system.
 Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary  
 packages. See [the pkgsrc  For domUs, i386PAE is considered as
 documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar  [faster](https://lists.xen.org/archives/html/xen-devel/2012-07/msg00085.html)
 with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and  than amd64.
 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do  
 not. You'll need either  #Creating a dom0
 [`sysutils/xentools3`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools3/README.html)  
 and  In order to install a NetBSD as a dom0, one must first install a normal
 [`sysutils/xenkernel3`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel3/README.html)  NetBSD system, and then pivot the install to a dom0 install by changing
 for Xen 3.1,  the kernel and boot configuration.
 [`sysutils/xentools33`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools33/README.html)  
 and  In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was reported with 256M of RAM: with
 [`sysutils/xenkernel33`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel33/README.html)  512M it worked reliably.  This does not make sense, but if you see
 for Xen 3.3,  "not ELF" after Xen boots, try increasing dom0 RAM.
 [`sysutils/xentools41`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools41/README.html)  
 and  Installation of NetBSD
 [`sysutils/xenkernel41`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel41/README.html)  ----------------------
 for Xen 4.1. or  
 [`sysutils/xentools42`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools42/README.html)  [Install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
 and  just as you would if you were not using Xen.
 [`sysutils/xenkernel42`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xenkernel42/README.html)  
 for Xen 4.2. You'll also need  Installation of Xen
 [`sysutils/grub`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/grub/README.html)  -------------------
 if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If using Xen 3.1, you may also  
 want to install  We will consider that you chose to use Xen 4.8, with NetBSD/amd64 as
 [`sysutils/xentools3-hvm`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools3-hvm/README.html)  dom0. In the dom0, install xenkernel48 and xentools48 from pkgsrc.
 which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the  
 *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in  Once this is done, install the Xen kernel itself:
 [`sysutils/xentools`{.filename}](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/pkgsrc/current/pkgsrc/sysutils/xentools/README.html)).  
 Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel CPUs must have the 'VT'  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You can easily find out if  # cp /usr/pkg/xen48-kernel/xen.gz /
 your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl command:  """]]
   
     # cpuctl identify 0  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel in the `/` directory. Such kernel
     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6  can either be compiled manually, or downloaded from the NetBSD FTP, for
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>  example at:
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>  
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,VMX,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>  ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-8.0/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>  """]]
     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"  
     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way  Add a line to /boot.cfg to boot Xen:
     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way  
     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way  [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way  menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0  """]]
     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0  
     cpu0: Core ID 0  This specifies that the dom0 should have 512MB of ram, leaving the rest
     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00  to be allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use:
   
 Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,  
 SVM or VMX.  
   
 Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed  
 them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`{.filename}. The file you're looking  
 for is `xen.gz`{.filename}. Copy it to your root file system.  
 `xen-debug.gz`{.filename} is a kernel with more consistency checks and  
 more details printed on the serial console. It is useful for debugging  
 crashing guests if you use a serial console. It is not useful with a VGA  
 console.  
   
 You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file  
 system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the  
 i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to  
 customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for  
 recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and  
 `/kern`{.filename} must be mounted because *xend* needs access to  
 `/kern/xen/privcmd`{.filename}.  
   
 Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz`{.filename}  
 kernel, and the NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be  
 **grub** or NetBSD's boot loader. Below is a detailled example for grub,  
 see the boot.cfg(5) manual page for an example using the latter.  
   
 This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the  
 console to use, etc ...  
   
 Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst`{.filename} file:  
   
 #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run  
     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).  
     #  
     # The default entry to load will be the first one  
     default=0  
       
     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard  
     timeout=10  
       
     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only  
     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1  
       
     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default  
     # to serial after 10s  
     terminal --timeout=10 serial console  
       
     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial  
     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.  
     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  
       
     # Same as above, but using VGA console  
     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  
       
     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a  
     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  
       
     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a  
     #nonworking /xen.gz  
     title NetBSD 5.1  
       root (hd0,a)  
       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC  
       
     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.  
     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos  
     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)  
     title NetBSD chain  
       root        (hd0,0)  
       chainloader +1  
       
     ## end of grub config file.  
         
 Install grub with the following command:  
   
     # grub --no-floppy  
       
     grub> root (hd0,a)  
      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9  
       
     grub> setup (hd0)  
      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no  
      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes  
      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.  
     succeeded  
      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...  
      succeeded  
     Done.  
   
 * * * * *  
   
 ### Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)  
   
 Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon  
 (**/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start**) and the xen backend daemon  
 (**/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start** for Xen3\*,  
 **/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start** for Xen4.\*). Make  
 sure that `/dev/xencons`{.filename} and `/dev/xenevt`{.filename} exist  
 before starting **xend**. You can create them with this command:  
   
     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen  
   
 xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log`{.filename} and  
 `/var/log/xend-debug.log`{.filename}. You can then control xen with the  
 xm tool. 'xm list' will show something like:  
   
     # xm list  
     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console  
     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1  
   
 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in  
 PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in  
 `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`{.filename}. On creation, a kernel has to be  
 specified, which will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in  
 the *domain0* file system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but  
 please note, you should install the same kernel into *domainU* as  
 `/netbsd`{.filename} in order to make your system tools, like  
 [savecore(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?savecore+8+NetBSD-6.0+i386),  
 work). A suitable kernel is provided as part of the i386 and amd64  
 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.  
   
 Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:  
   
     #  -*- mode: python; -*-  
     #============================================================================  
     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.  
     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.  
     #============================================================================  
       
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.  
     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"  
     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"  
       
     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.  
     memory = 128  
       
     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',  
     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain  
     # number. All domains must have different names.  
     #  
     name = "nbsd"  
       
     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.  
     #  
     vcpus = 1  
       
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.  
       
     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.  
     nics = 1  
       
     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.  
     #  
     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface  
     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd  
     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random  
     # MACs are assigned if not given.  
     #  
     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the  
     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure  
     # the new xvif interface in domain0.  
     #  
     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been  
     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the  
     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.  
     #  
     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]  
       
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and  
     # what you want them accessible as.  
     #  
     # Each disk entry is of the form:  
     #  
     #       phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE  
     #  
     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,  
     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create  
     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:  
     #  
     #       file:PATH,VDEV,MODE  
     #  
     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV  
     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.  
     #  
     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),  
     # but it does for Linux.  
     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will  
     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS  
     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...  
     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(  
     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,  
     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...  
       
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]  
     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]  
     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]  
       
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.  
       
     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD  
     root = "xbd0"  
     # extra parameters passed to the kernel  
     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...  
     #extra = ""  
       
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.  
     # The default is False.  
     #autorestart = True  
       
     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================  
   
 When a new domain is created, xen calls the  
 `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge`{.filename} script for each virtual network  
 interface created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically  
 configure the xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these  
 will be bridged with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has  
 to exist first. To do this, create the file  
 `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0`{.filename} and make it look like this:  
   
     create  
     !brconfig $int add ex0 up  
   
 (replace `ex0`{.literal} with the name of your physical interface). Then  
 bridge0 will be created on boot. See the  
 [bridge(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?bridge+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)  
 man page for details.  
   
 So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge`{.filename} for  
 xvif?.? (a working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20)  
 configuring:  
   
   
 #!/bin/sh  
     #============================================================================  
     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.2 2013/10/31 12:34:39 mspo Exp $  
     #  
     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge  
     #  
     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.  
     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.  
     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp  
     # in the ``vif-script'' field.  
     #  
     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]  
     #  
     # Actions:  
     #    up         Adds the vif interface to the bridge.  
     #    down       Removes the vif interface from the bridge.  
     #  
     # Variables:  
     #    domain     name of the domain the interface is on (required).  
     #    vifq       vif interface name (required).  
     #    mac        vif MAC address (required).  
     #    bridge     bridge to add the vif to (required).  
     #  
     # Example invocation:  
     #  
     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0  
     #  
     #============================================================================  
       
     # Exit if anything goes wrong  
     set -e  
       
     echo "vif-bridge $*"  
       
     # Operation name.  
     OP=$1; shift  
       
     # Pull variables in args into environment  
     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done  
       
     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.  
     domain=${domain:?}  
     vif=${vif:?}  
     mac=${mac:?}  
     bridge=${bridge:?}  
       
     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.  
     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)  
       
     # Are we going up or down?  
     case $OP in  
     up)     brcmd='add' ;;  
     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;  
     *)  
             echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP  
             echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'  
             exit 1  
             ;;  
     esac  
       
     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".  
     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then  
             exit  
     fi  
       
     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.  
     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then  
             exit  
     fi  
       
     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.  
     ifconfig x${vif} $OP  
     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}  
   
 Now, running  
   
     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd  
   
 should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note:  
 `-c`{.code} causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.)  
 The kernel will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e)  
 which hasn't been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the  
 new domain, so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to  
 wd0e in *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or  
 amd64 tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the  
 `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU`{.filename} kernel provided in the NetBSD  
 binary sets. Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with  
 sysinst, so you can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.  
   
 If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line  [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
 should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd`{.filename} file:  menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
   """]]
   
   which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
   from 1, unlike NetBSD which counts starting from 0), forcing
   speed/parity.  Because the NetBSD command line lacks a
   "console=pc" argument, it will use the default "xencons" console device,
   which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen
   itself uses (in this case, the serial port).
   
   In an attempt to add performance, one can also add `dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin`,
   to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
   more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU. Xen has
   [many boot options](http://xenbits.xenproject.org/docs/4.8-testing/misc/xen-command-line.html),
   and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
   necessary.
   
   Copy the boot scripts into `/etc/rc.d`:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xen* /etc/rc.d/
   """]]
   
   Enable `xencommons`:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
   xencommons=YES
   """]]
   
   Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
   than GENERIC without Xen.
   
   TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
   
   Once the reboot is done, use `xl` to inspect Xen's boot messages,
   available resources, and running domains.  For example:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # xl dmesg
   ... xen's boot info ...
   # xl info
   ... available memory, etc ...
   # xl list
   Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
   Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
   """]]
   
   Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.
   
   ### Issues with xencommons
   
   `xencommons` starts `xenstored`, which stores data on behalf of dom0 and
   domUs.  It does not currently work to stop and start xenstored.
   Certainly all domUs should be shutdown first, following the sort order
   of the rc.d scripts.  However, the dom0 sets up state with xenstored,
   and is not notified when xenstored exits, leading to not recreating
   the state when the new xenstored starts.  Until there's a mechanism to
   make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
   (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that
   this will get fixed any time soon.
   
   anita (for testing NetBSD)
   --------------------------
   
   With the setup so far (assuming 4.8/xl), one should be able to run
   anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
   root, because anita must create a domU):
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
   """]]
   
   Xen-specific NetBSD issues
   --------------------------
   
   There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
   dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
   
   One is that the module ABI is different because some of the #defines
   change, so one must build modules for Xen.  As of netbsd-7, the build
   system does this automatically.
   
   The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
   options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a
   bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
   items if desired.
   
   Updating NetBSD in a dom0
   -------------------------
   
   This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
   version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
   replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
   and adjusts `/etc`.
   
   Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
   rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
   
   Converting from grub to /boot
   -----------------------------
   
   These instructions were used to convert a system from
   grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of
   2006 with a RAID1 setup and grub to boot Xen 2, and has been updated
   over time.  Before these commands, it was running NetBSD 6 i386, Xen
   4.1 and grub, much like the message linked earlier in the grub
   section.
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   # Install MBR bootblocks on both disks.
   fdisk -i /dev/rwd0d
   fdisk -i /dev/rwd1d
   # Install NetBSD primary boot loader (/ is FFSv1) into RAID1 components.
   installboot -v /dev/rwd0d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
   installboot -v /dev/rwd1d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1
   # Install secondary boot loader
   cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /
   # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:
   menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
   menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=512M
   menu=GENERIC:boot
   menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s
   menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok
   menu=GENERIC.ok single-user:boot netbsd.ok -s
   menu=Drop to boot prompt:prompt
   default=1
   timeout=30
   """]]
   
   Upgrading Xen versions
   ---------------------
   
   Minor version upgrades are trivial.  Just rebuild/replace the
   xenkernel version and copy the new xen.gz to `/` (where `/boot.cfg`
   references it), and reboot.
   
   #Unprivileged domains (domU)
   
   This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
   address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
   config files for domUs are typically in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`, and are
   typically named so that the file name, domU name and the domU's host
   name match.
   
   The domU is provided with CPU and memory by Xen, configured by the
   dom0.  The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
   mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
   
   Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
   the dom0.  NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
   
   Config files
   ------------
   
   See /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xlexample*,
   for a large number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
   GNU/Linux.
   
   The following is an example minimal domain configuration file. The domU
   serves as a network file server.
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name="/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo" text="""
   name = "domU-id"
   kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
   memory = 1024
   vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
   disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
            'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
   """]]
   
   The domain will have name given in the `name` setting.  The kernel has the
   host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
   domUs independently.  The `vif` line causes an interface to be provided,
   with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
   mode.  Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
   are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
   dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device
   without needing explicit configuration.
   
   By default, `xl` looks for domain config files in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`.  Note
   that "xl create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
   take the name of a domain.
   
   Examples of commands:
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   xl create foo
   xl console foo
   xl create -c foo
   xl shutdown foo
   xl list
   """]]
   
   Typing `^]` will exit the console session.  Shutting down a domain is
   equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
   power-press event and do a clean shutdown.  Shutting down the dom0
   will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
   
   CPU and memory
   --------------
   
   A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, less than the number
   of CPUs seen by the hypervisor. For a domU, it is controlled
   from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
   
   A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
   file by "memory = N" (in megabytes).  In the straightforward case, the
   sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
   than the available memory.
   
   Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
   use more memory temporarily.
   
   Virtual disks
   -------------
   
   In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples:
   
    * The first element is "method:/path/to/disk". Common methods are
      "file:" for file-backed vnd, and "phy:" for something that is already
      a device.
   
    * The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
      Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage.  Linux domUs
      are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
      "hda1" or "sda1" are common.  In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
      as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on.  However, xl demands a
      second argument.  The name given is converted to a major/minor by
      calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
      In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
      systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
      numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev.  With NetBSD
      as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
      for the second works fine and avoids this issue.  For a GNU/Linux
      guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
      /dev/hda1.
   
    * The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
      disks.
   
   Example:
   [[!template id=filecontent name="/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo" text="""
   disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w' ]
   """]]
   
   Note that NetBSD by default creates only vnd[0123].  If you need more
   than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the
   dom0.
   
   Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd[0123].  If you need more
   virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.
   
   Virtual Networking
   ------------------
   
   Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
   domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
   the dom0, and a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD name) in domU index N.
   The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
   adapters connected.  From this primitive, one can construct various
   configurations.  We focus on two common and useful cases for which
   there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
   
   With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
   on the same network as the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is
   usually best.  Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
   and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
   interfaces to the bridge.  One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
   config file.  The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
   example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/ifconfig.bridge0" text="""
   create
   up
   !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
   """]]
   
   With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
   dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
   TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
   
   The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
   domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
   00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
   
   Starting domains automatically
   ------------------------------
   
   To start domains `domU-netbsd` and `domU-linux` at boot and shut them
   down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the following in rc.conf:
   
   [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
   xendomains="domU-netbsd domU-linux"
   """]]
   
   #Creating a domU
   
   Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
   have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must
   have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" works.
   
   Creating a NetBSD domU
   ----------------------
   
   See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
   storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or lvm).
   
   While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 file system, the same
   file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
   savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
   
   The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The
   i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
   
           i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
           amd64 XEN3_DOMU
   
   This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
   empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
   (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
   system you can't run the installer on).
   
   A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
   and can load sets from the network.  To do this, copy the INSTALL
   kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
   
           kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
   
   Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configname".
   
   Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
   line should be used in the config file.
   
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]      disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
   
 After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be  After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
 selected. The CDROM device should be changed to **xbd1d**.  selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
   
 Once done installing, **halt -p** the new domain (don't reboot or halt,  Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
 it would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the  it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
 config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and  config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
 start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use **root on  and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
 xbd0a** and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your  xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
 xen installation.  
   
   TODO: check if this is still accurate.
 When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*  When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
 and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files  and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
 `/etc/ttys`{.filename} and `/etc/wscons.conf`{.filename}. You must  `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
 disable all terminals in `/etc/ttys`{.filename}, except *console*, like  `/etc/ttys`, except *console*, like this:
 this:  
   
     console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure      console "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt100   on secure
     ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure      ttyE0   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
Line 493  this: Line 485  this:
     ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure      ttyE2   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
     ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure      ttyE3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         vt220   off secure
   
 Finally, all screens must be commented out from  Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
 `/etc/wscons.conf`{.filename}.  
   
 It is also desirable to add  It is also desirable to add
   
     powerd=YES          powerd=YES
   
 in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if **xm  
 shutdown -R** or **xm shutdown -H** is used on the domain0.  
   
 Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.  in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
   `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the dom0.
   
 * * * * *  It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU
   file system.  However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that
   kernel to look up symbols to read from kernel virtual memory.  If
   /netbsd is not the running kernel, those lookups will fail.  (This is
   not really a Xen-specific issue, but because the domU kernel is
   obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
   missing with Xen.)
   
 ### Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)  Creating a Linux domU
   ---------------------
   
 Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from  Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
 unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.  unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
Line 518  the example below) Line 514  the example below)
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]      disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
   
 does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300  does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
 for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,  for hda).  Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
 hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device  So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
 number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)  device number 0x301.  Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
 as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export  hdb, ...)  as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
 a partition to a Linux guest we can use:  numbers.  To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
   
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]          disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"          root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
   
 and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root  and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
 partition.  partition.
   
 To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest  To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
 domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs  guest domain, the following method can be used: install
 from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root  sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc.  Use mke2fs to format the partition
 partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a  that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
 working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc`{.filename} (fstab,  Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
 network config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages  `/etc` (fstab, network config).  It should also be possible to extract
 such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the  binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
 appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once  using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
 the filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the  emulation.  Once the file system has been populated, umount it.  If
 filesystem can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be  desirable, the file system can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
 possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the  It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
 vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.  the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
   
 To get the linux console right, you need to add:  To get the Linux console right, you need to add:
   
     extra = "xencons=tty1"      extra = "xencons=tty1"
   
 to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a  to your configuration since not all Linux distributions auto-attach a
 tty to the xen console.  tty to the xen console.
   
 * * * * *  Creating a Solaris domU
   -----------------------
   
 ### Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)  See possibly outdated
   [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
   
 Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)  
 or [development snapshot](http://genunix.org/) DVD image. Attach the DVD  
 image to a  
 [vnd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vnd+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)  
 device. Copy the kernel and ramdisk filesystem image to your dom0  
 filesystem.  
   
     dom0# mkdir /root/solaris  
     dom0# vnconfig vnd0 osol-1002-124-x86.iso  
     dom0# mount /dev/vnd0a /mnt  
       
     ## for a 64-bit guest  
     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/amd64/x86.microroot /root/solaris  
     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix /root/solaris  
       
     ## for a 32-bit guest  
     dom0# cp /mnt/boot/x86.microroot /root/solaris  
     dom0# cp /mnt/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix /root/solaris  
       
     dom0# umount /mnt  
         
 Keep the  
 [vnd(4)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?vnd+4+NetBSD-6.0+i386)  
 configured. For some reason the boot process stalls unless the DVD image  
 is attached to the guest as a "phy" device. Create an initial  
 configuration file with the following contents. Substitute */dev/wd0k*  
 with an empty partition at least 8 GB large.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 memory = 640  
 name = 'solaris'  
 disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]  
 disk += [ 'phy:/dev/vnd0d,6:cdrom,r' ]  
 vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]  
 kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'  
 ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'  
 # for a 64-bit guest  
 extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'  
 # for a 32-bit guest  
 #extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/unix - nowin -B install_media=cdrom'  
         
 ~~~  
   
 Start the guest.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg  
 Started domain solaris  
                       v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'  
 SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit  
 Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.  
 Use is subject to license terms.  
 Hostname: opensolaris  
 Remounting root read/write  
 Probing for device nodes ...  
 WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2  
 Preparing live image for use  
 Done mounting Live image  
         
 ~~~  
   
 Make sure the network is configured. Note that it can take a minute for  
 the xnf0 interface to appear.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 opensolaris console login: jack  
 Password: jack  
 Sun Microsystems Inc.   SunOS 5.11      snv_124 November 2008  
 jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec sh  
 sh-3.2# ifconfig -a  
 sh-3.2# exit  
         
 ~~~  
   
 Set a password for VNC and start the VNC server which provides the X11  
 display where the installation program runs.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 jack@opensolaris:~$ vncpasswd  
 Password: solaris  
 Verify: solaris  
 jack@opensolaris:~$ cp .Xclients .vnc/xstartup  
 jack@opensolaris:~$ vncserver :1  
         
 ~~~  
   
 From a remote machine connect to the VNC server. Use **ifconfig xnf0**  
 on the guest to find the correct IP address to use.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 remote$ vncviewer 172.18.2.99:1  
         
 ~~~  
   
 It is also possible to launch the installation on a remote X11 display.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 jack@opensolaris:~$ export DISPLAY=172.18.1.1:0  
 jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec gui-install  
          
 ~~~  
   
 After the GUI installation is complete you will be asked to reboot.  
 Before that you need to determine the ZFS ID for the new boot filesystem  
 and update the configuration file accordingly. Return to the guest  
 console.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 jack@opensolaris:~$ pfexec zdb -vvv rpool | grep bootfs  
                 bootfs = 43  
 ^C  
 jack@opensolaris:~$  
          
 ~~~  
   
 The final configuration file should look like this. Note in particular  
 the last line.  
   
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 memory = 640  
 name = 'solaris'  
 disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0k,0,w' ]  
 vif = [ 'bridge=bridge0' ]  
 kernel = '/root/solaris/unix'  
 ramdisk = '/root/solaris/x86.microroot'  
 extra = '/platform/i86xpv/kernel/amd64/unix -B zfs-bootfs=rpool/43,bootpath="/xpvd/xdf@0:a"'  
          
 ~~~  
   
 Restart the guest to verify it works correctly.  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 dom0# xm destroy solaris  
 dom0# xm create -c solaris.cfg  
 Using config file "./solaris.cfg".  
 v3.3.2 chgset 'unavailable'  
 Started domain solaris  
 SunOS Release 5.11 Version snv_124 64-bit  
 Copyright 1983-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.  
 Use is subject to license terms.  
 WARNING: emlxs: ddi_modopen drv/fct failed: err 2  
 Hostname: osol  
 Configuring devices.  
 Loading smf(5) service descriptions: 160/160  
 svccfg import warnings. See /var/svc/log/system-manifest-import:default.log .  
 Reading ZFS config: done.  
 Mounting ZFS filesystems: (6/6)  
 Creating new rsa public/private host key pair  
 Creating new dsa public/private host key pair  
   
 osol console login:  
          
 ~~~  
   
 Using PCI devices in guest domains  
 ----------------------------------  
   
 The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This  
 can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a  
 physical network interface or disk controller. However, keep in mind  
 that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely will give the  
 domain read/write access to the whole physical memory, as PCs don't have  
 an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable device. Also, it's not  
 possible to export ISA devices to non-domain0 domains (which means that  
 the primary VGA adapter can't be exported. A guest domain trying to  
 access the VGA registers will panic).  
   
 This functionality is only available in NetBSD-5.1 (and later) domain0  
 and domU. If the domain0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as  
 support has not been ported to later versions at this time.  
   
 For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to the  
 `pciback`{.literal} driver in domain0. Devices passed to the domain0 via  
 the pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to `pciback`{.literal}  
 instead of the usual driver. The list of devices is specified as  
 `(bus:dev.func)`{.literal}, where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal  
 numbers, and func a single-digit number:  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)  
 ~~~  
   
 pciback devices should show up in the domain0's boot messages, and the  
 devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci`{.filename} directory.  
   
 PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the `pci`{.literal}  
 array of the domU's config file, with the format  
 `'0000:bus:dev.func'`{.literal}  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]  
 ~~~  
   
 In the domU an `xpci`{.literal} device will show up, to which one or  
 more pci busses will attach. Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI  
 busses as usual. Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have  
 `xpci`{.literal} or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to  
 build your own kernel to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a kernel  
 config example:  
   
 ~~~ {.programlisting}  
 include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"  
 #include         "arch/i386/conf/XENU"           # in NetBSD 3.0  
   
 # Add support for PCI busses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel  
 xpci* at xenbus ?  
 pci* at xpci ?  
   
 # Now add PCI and related devices to be used by this domain  
 # USB Controller and Devices  
   
 # PCI USB controllers  
 uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)  
   
 # USB bus support  
 usb*    at uhci?  
   
 # USB Hubs  
 uhub*   at usb?  
 uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?  
   
 # USB Mass Storage  
 umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?  
 wd*     at umass?  
 # SCSI controllers  
 ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI  
   
 # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)  
 scsibus* at scsi?  
   
 # SCSI devices  
 sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives  
 cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives  
 ~~~  
   
 Links and further information  
 -----------------------------  
   
 -   The HowTo on [Installing into  PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
     RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)  ---------------------------------------------------
     gives some hints on using Xen (grub) with NetBSD's RAIDframe  
 -   Harold Gutch wrote documentation on [setting up a Linux DomU with a  The dom0 can give other domains access to selected PCI
     NetBSD Dom0](http://www.gutch.de/NetBSD/docs/xen.html)  devices. This can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have
 -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load  access to a physical network interface or disk controller.  However,
     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64  keep in mind that giving a domain access to a PCI device most likely
     [boot(8)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?boot+8+NetBSD-6.0+i386)  will give the domain read/write access to the whole physical memory,
     and  as PCs don't have an IOMMU to restrict memory access to DMA-capable
     [boot.cfg(5)](http://netbsd.gw.com/cgi-bin/man-cgi?boot.cfg+5+NetBSD-6.0+i386)  device.  Also, it's not possible to export ISA devices to non-dom0
     manpages.  domains, which means that the primary VGA adapter can't be exported.
   A guest domain trying to access the VGA registers will panic.
   
   If the dom0 is NetBSD, it has to be running Xen 3.1, as support has
   not been ported to later versions at this time.
   
   For a PCI device to be exported to a domU, is has to be attached to
   the "pciback" driver in dom0.  Devices passed to the dom0 via the
   pciback.hide boot parameter will attach to "pciback" instead of the
   usual driver.  The list of devices is specified as "(bus:dev.func)",
   where bus and dev are 2-digit hexadecimal numbers, and func a
   single-digit number:
   
           pciback.hide=(00:0a.0)(00:06.0)
   
   pciback devices should show up in the dom0's boot messages, and the
   devices should be listed in the `/kern/xen/pci` directory.
   
   PCI devices to be exported to a domU are listed in the "pci" array of
   the domU's config file, with the format "0000:bus:dev.func".
   
           pci = [ '0000:00:06.0', '0000:00:0a.0' ]
   
   In the domU an "xpci" device will show up, to which one or more pci
   buses will attach.  Then the PCI drivers will attach to PCI buses as
   usual.  Note that the default NetBSD DOMU kernels do not have "xpci"
   or any PCI drivers built in by default; you have to build your own
   kernel to use PCI devices in a domU.  Here's a kernel config example;
   note that only the "xpci" lines are unusual.
   
           include         "arch/i386/conf/XEN3_DOMU"
   
           # Add support for PCI buses to the XEN3_DOMU kernel
           xpci* at xenbus ?
           pci* at xpci ?
   
           # PCI USB controllers
           uhci*   at pci? dev ? function ?        # Universal Host Controller (Intel)
   
           # USB bus support
           usb*    at uhci?
   
           # USB Hubs
           uhub*   at usb?
           uhub*   at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
   
           # USB Mass Storage
           umass*  at uhub? port ? configuration ? interface ?
           wd*     at umass?
           # SCSI controllers
           ahc*    at pci? dev ? function ?        # Adaptec [23]94x, aic78x0 SCSI
   
           # SCSI bus support (for both ahc and umass)
           scsibus* at scsi?
   
           # SCSI devices
           sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
           cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
   
   
   #NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
   
   The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
   hardware.  This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
   virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
   dom0.  This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of VPS providers;
   only a few are mentioned that specifically support NetBSD.
   
   VPS operators provide varying degrees of access and mechanisms for
   configuration.  The big issue is usually how one controls which kernel
   is booted, because the kernel is nominally in the dom0 file system (to
   which VPS users do not normally have access).  A second issue is how
   to install NetBSD.
   A VPS user may want to compile a kernel for security updates, to run
   npf, run IPsec, or any other reason why someone would want to change
   their kernel.
   
   One approach is to have an administrative interface to upload a kernel,
   or to select from a prepopulated list.  Other approaches are pygrub
   (deprecated) and pvgrub, which are ways to have a bootloader obtain a
   kernel from the domU file system.  This is closer to a regular physical
   computer, where someone who controls a machine can replace the kernel.
   
   A second issue is multiple CPUs.  With NetBSD 6, domUs support
   multiple vcpus, and it is typical for VPS providers to enable multiple
   CPUs for NetBSD domUs.
   
   pygrub
   -------
   
   pygrub runs in the dom0 and looks into the domU file system.  This
   implies that the domU must have a kernel in a file system in a format
   known to pygrub.  As of 2014, pygrub seems to be of mostly historical
   interest.
   
   pvgrub
   ------
   
   pvgrub is a version of grub that uses PV operations instead of BIOS
   calls.  It is booted from the dom0 as the domU kernel, and then reads
   /grub/menu.lst and loads a kernel from the domU file system.
   
   [Panix](http://www.panix.com/) lets users use pvgrub.  Panix reports
   that pvgrub works with FFsv2 with 16K/2K and 32K/4K block/frag sizes
   (and hence with defaults from "newfs -O 2").  See [Panix's pvgrub
   page](http://www.panix.com/v-colo/grub.html), which describes only
   Linux but should be updated to cover NetBSD :-).
   
   [prgmr.com](http://prgmr.com/) also lets users with pvgrub to boot
   their own kernel.  See then [prgmr.com NetBSD
   HOWTO](http://wiki.prgmr.com/mediawiki/index.php/NetBSD_as_a_DomU)
   (which is in need of updating).
   
   It appears that [grub's FFS
   code](http://xenbits.xensource.com/hg/xen-unstable.hg/file/bca284f67702/tools/libfsimage/ufs/fsys_ufs.c)
   does not support all aspects of modern FFS, but there are also reports
   that FFSv2 works fine.  At prgmr, typically one has an ext2 or FAT
   partition for the kernel with the intent that grub can understand it,
   which leads to /netbsd not being the actual kernel.  One must remember
   to update the special boot partition.
   
   Amazon
   ------
   
   See the [Amazon EC2 page](/amazon_ec2/).

Removed from v.1.3  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.161


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