Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.32 and 1.49

version 1.32, 2014/12/24 15:31:36 version 1.49, 2014/12/26 20:25:19
Line 152  Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running Line 152  Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running
 xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the  xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the
 dom0.  Either the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.  dom0.  Either the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
   
   Build problems
   --------------
   
   Ideally, all versions of Xen in pkgsrc would build on all versions of
   NetBSD on both i386 and amd64.  However, that isn't the case.  Besides
   aging code and aging compilers, qemu (included in xentools for HVM
   support) is difficult to build.  The following are known to fail:
   
           xenkernel3 netbsd-6 i386
           xentools42 netbsd-6 i386 
   
   The following are known to work:
   
           xenkernel41 netbsd-5 amd64
           xentools41 netbsd-5 amd64
           xenkernel41 netbsd-6 i386
           xentools41 netbsd-6 i386
   
 NetBSD as a dom0  NetBSD as a dom0
 ================  ================
   
Line 163  NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and the Line 181  NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and the
 NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot  NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
 configuration.  configuration.
   
   For experimenting with Xen, a machine with as little as 1G of RAM and
   100G of disk can work.  For running many domUs in productions, far
   more will be needed.
   
 Styles of dom0 operation  Styles of dom0 operation
 ------------------------  ------------------------
   
Line 241  in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binar Line 263  in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binar
 of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If  of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
 using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)  using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
   
 In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the  With Xen as the kernel, you must provide a dom0 NetBSD kernel to be
 kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.  used as a module; place this in /.  Suitable kernels are provided in
   releasedir/binary/kernel:
   
           i386 XEN3_DOM0
           i386 XEN3PAE_DOM0
           amd64 XEN3_DOM0
   
   The first one is only for use with Xen 3.1 and i386-mode Xen (and you
   should not do this).  Current Xen always uses PAE on i386, but you
   should generally use amd64 for the dom0.  In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is
   mandatory for xend to comunicate with the kernel, so ensure that /kern
   is in fstab.  TODO: Say this is default, or file a PR and give a
   reference.
   
 Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup  Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
 with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the  with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
Line 251  beginning of your root filesystem, /boot Line 285  beginning of your root filesystem, /boot
   
 See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is  See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
   
 "menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M"          menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M
   
 which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be  which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
 allocated for domUs.  allocated for domUs.  In an attempt to add performance, one can also
   add
   
           dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
   
   to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
   more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical cpu.  TODO: benchmark this.
   
 As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a  As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
 kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen  kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
Line 277  is using xm or xl.  Note that xend is fo Line 317  is using xm or xl.  Note that xend is fo
 only be used if you plan on using "xm".  Do NOT enable xend if you  only be used if you plan on using "xm".  Do NOT enable xend if you
 plan on using "xl" as it will cause problems.  plan on using "xl" as it will cause problems.
   
   The installation of NetBSD should already have created devices for xen
   (xencons, xenevt), but if they are not present, create them:
   
           cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
   
 TODO: Give 3.1 advice (or remove it from pkgsrc).  TODO: Give 3.1 advice (or remove it from pkgsrc).
   
 For 3.3 (and thus xm), add to rc.conf (but note that you should have  For 3.3 (and thus xm), add to rc.conf (but note that you should have
Line 285  installed 4.1 or 4.2): Line 330  installed 4.1 or 4.2):
         xend=YES          xend=YES
         xenbackendd=YES          xenbackendd=YES
   
 For 4.1 (and thus xm), add to rc.conf:  For 4.1 (and thus xm; xl is believed not to work well), add to rc.conf:
   
         xend=YES          xend=YES
         xencommons=YES          xencommons=YES
   
 TODO: Explain why if xm is preferred on 4.1, rc.d/xendomains has xl.  TODO: Explain why if xm is preferred on 4.1, rc.d/xendomains has xl.
   Or fix the package.
   
 For 4.2 with xl, add to rc.conf:  For 4.2 with xm, add to rc.conf
   
           xend=YES
           xencommons=YES
   
   For 4.2 with xl (preferred), add to rc.conf:
   
         TODO: explain if there is a xend replacement          TODO: explain if there is a xend replacement
         xencommons=YES          xencommons=YES
   
 TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.  TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
   
   After you have configured the daemons and either started them or
   rebooted, run the following (or use xl) to inspect Xen's boot
   messages, available resources, and running domains:
   
           # xm dmesg
           [xen's boot info]
           # xm info
           [available memory, etc.]
           # xm list
           Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
           Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
   
   anita (for testing NetBSD)
   --------------------------
   
   With the setup so far, one should be able to run anita (see
   pkgsrc/sysutils/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as root,
   because anita must create a domU):
   
           anita --vmm=xm test file:///usr/obj/i386/
   
   Alternatively, one can use --vmm=xl to use xl-based domU creation instead.
   TODO: check this.
   
   Xen-specific NetBSD issues
   --------------------------
   
   There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
   dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
   
   One is that modules are not usable in DOM0 kernels, so one must
   compile in what's needed.  It's not really that modules cannot work,
   but that modules must be built for XEN3_DOM0 because some of the
   defines change and the normal module builds don't do this.  Basically,
   enabling Xen changes the kernel ABI, and the module build system
   doesn't cope with this.
   
   The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
   options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a
   bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
   items if desired.
   
 Updating NetBSD in a dom0  Updating NetBSD in a dom0
 -------------------------  -------------------------
   
Line 332  Unprivileged domains (domU) Line 425  Unprivileged domains (domU)
 ===========================  ===========================
   
 This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not  This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
 address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
   config files for domUs are typically in /usr/pkg/etc/xen, and are
   typically named so that the file anme, domU name and the domU's host
   name match.
   
   The domU is provided with cpu and memory by Xen, configured by the
   dom0.  The domU is provided with disk and network by the dom0,
   mediated by Xen, and configured in the dom0.
   
   Entropy in domUs can be an issue; physical disks and network are on
   the dom0.  NetBSD's /dev/random system works, but is often challenged.
   
   Config files
   ------------
   
   There is no good order to present config files and the concepts
   surrounding what is being configured.  We first show an example config
   file, and then in the various sections give details.
   
   See (at least in xentools41) /usr/pkg/share/examples/xen/xmexample*,
   for a large number of well-commented examples, mostly for running
   GNU/Linux.
   
   The following is an example minimal domain configuration file
   "/usr/pkg/etc/xen/foo".  It is (with only a name change) an actual
   known working config file on Xen 4.1 (NetBSD 5 amd64 dom0 and NetBSD 5
   i386 domU).  The domU serves as a network file server.
   
           # -*- mode: python; -*-
   
           kernel = "/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOMU-i386-foo.gz"
           memory = 1024
           vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:d1:00:09,bridge=bridge0' ]
           disk = [ 'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd0,0x0,w',
                    'file:/n0/xen/foo-wd1,0x1,w' ]
   
   The domain will have the same name as the file.  The kernel has the
   host/domU name in it, so that on the dom0 one can update the various
   domUs independently.  The vif line causes an interface to be provided,
   with a specific mac address (do not reuse MAC addresses!), in bridge
   mode.  Two disks are provided, and they are both writable; the bits
   are stored in files and Xen attaches them to a vnd(4) device in the
   dom0 on domain creation.  The system treates xbd0 as the boot device
   without needing explicit configuration.
   
   By default xm looks for domain config files in /usr/pkg/etc/xen.  Note
   that "xm create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
   take the name of a domain.  To create the domain, connect to the
   console, create the domain while attaching the console, shutdown the
   domain, and see if it has finished stopping, do (or xl with Xen >=
   4.2):
   
           xm create foo
           xm console foo
           xm create -c foo
           xm shutdown foo
           xm list
   
   Typing ^] will exit the console session.  Shutting down a domain is
   equivalent to pushing the power button; a NetBSD domU will receive a
   power-press event and do a clean shutdown.  Shutting down the dom0
   will trigger controlled shutdowns of all configured domUs.
   
 Provided Resources for PV domains  domU kernels
 ---------------------------------  ------------
   
 TODO: Explain that domUs get cpu, memory, disk and network.  On a physical computer, the BIOS reads sector 0, and a chain of boot
 Explain that randomness can be an issue.  loaders finds and loads a kernel.  Normally this comes from the root
   filesystem.  With Xen domUs, the process is totally different.  The
   normal path is for the domU kernel to be a file in the dom0's
   filesystem.  At the request of the dom0, Xen loads that kernel into a
   new domU instance and starts execution.  While domU kernels can be
   anyplace, reasonable places to store domU kernels on the dom0 are in /
   (so they are near the dom0 kernel), in /usr/pkg/etc/xen (near the
   config files), or in /u0/xen (where the vdisks are).
   
   See the VPS section near the end for discussion of alternate ways to
   obtain domU kernels.
   
   CPU and memory
   --------------
   
   A domain is provided with some number of vcpus, less than the number
   of cpus seen by the hypervisor.  (For a dom0, this is controlled by
   the boot argument "dom0_max_vcpus=1".)  For a domU, it is controlled
   from the config file by the "vcpus = N" directive.
   
   A domain is provided with memory; this is controlled in the config
   file by "memory = N" (in megabytes).  In the straightforward case, the
   sum of the the memory allocated to the dom0 and all domUs must be less
   than the available memory.
   
   Xen also provides a "balloon" driver, which can be used to let domains
   use more memory temporarily.  TODO: Explain better, and explain how
   well it works with NetBSD.
   
 Virtual disks  Virtual disks
 -------------  -------------
   
 TODO: Explain how to set up files for vnd and that one should write all zeros to preallocate.  With the file/vnd style, typically one creates a directory,
 TODO: Explain in what NetBSD versions sparse vnd files do and don't work.  e.g. /u0/xen, on a disk large enough to hold virtual disks for all
   domUs.  Then, for each domU disk, one writes zeros to a file that then
   serves to hold the virtual disk's bits; a suggested name is foo-xbd0
   for the first virtual disk for the domU called foo.  Writing zeros to
   the file serves two purposes.  One is that preallocating the contents
   improves performance.  The other is that vnd on sparse files has
   failed to work.  TODO: give working/notworking NetBSD versions for
   sparse vnd.  Note that the use of file/vnd for Xen is not really
   different than creating a file-backed virtual disk for some other
   purpose, except that xentools handles the vnconfig commands.  To
   create an empty 4G virtual disk, simply do
   
           dd if=/dev/zero of=foo-xbd0 bs=1m count=4096
   
   With the lvm style, one creates logical devices.  They are then used
   similarly to vnds.  TODO: Add an example with lvm.
   
   In domU config files, the disks are defined as a sequence of 3-tuples.
   The first element is "method:/path/to/disk".  Common methods are
   "file:" for file-backed vnd. and "phy:" for something that is already
   a (TODO: character or block) device.
   
   The second element is an artifact of how virtual disks are passed to
   Linux, and a source of confusion with NetBSD Xen usage.  Linux domUs
   are given a device name to associate with the disk, and values like
   "hda1" or "sda1" are common.  In a NetBSD domU, the first disk appears
   as xbd0, the second as xbd1, and so on.  However, xm/xl demand a
   second argument.  The name given is converted to a major/minor by
   calling stat(2) on the name in /dev and this is passed to the domU.
   In the general case, the dom0 and domU can be different operating
   systems, and it is an unwarranted assumption that they have consistent
   numbering in /dev, or even that the dom0 OS has a /dev.  With NetBSD
   as both dom0 and domU, using values of 0x0 for the first disk and 0x1
   for the second works fine and avoids this issue.  For a GNU/Linux
   guest, one can create /dev/hda1 in /dev, or to pass 0x301 for
   /dev/hda1.
   
   The third element is "w" for writable disks, and "r" for read-only
   disks.
   
 Virtual Networking  Virtual Networking
 ------------------  ------------------
   
 TODO: explain xvif concept, and that it's general.  Xen provides virtual ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
   domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
 There are two normal styles: bridging and NAT.  the dom0, and in domU index N, a matching interface xennetM (NetBSD
   name).  The interfaces behave as if there is an Ethernet with two
 With bridging, the domU perceives itself to be on the same network as  adaptors connected.  From this primitive, one can construct various
 the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is usually best.  configurations.  We focus on two common and useful cases for which
   there are existing scripts: bridging and NAT.
   
   With bridging (in the example above), the domU perceives itself to be
   on the same network as the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is
   usually best.  Bridging is accomplished by creating a bridge(4) device
   and adding the dom0's physical interface and the various xvifN.0
   interfaces to the bridge.  One specifies "bridge=bridge0" in the domU
   config file.  The bridge must be set up already in the dom0; an
   example /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 is:
   
           create
           up
           !brconfig bridge0 add wm0
   
 With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the  With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
 dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.  dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
   TODO: NAT appears to be configured by "vif = [ '' ]".
   
 One can construct arbitrary other configurations, but there is no  The MAC address specified is the one used for the interface in the new
 script support.  domain.  The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd with
   00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
   
   Sizing domains
   --------------
   
   Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources.  However, many
   virtual servers can function just fine on far less.  A system with
   256M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice.  Note that it is
   far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones.  For
   memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot.  For disk, one can
   create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,
   just like updating physical disks, but without having to be there and
   without those pesky connectors.
   
 Config files  Starting domains automatically
 ------------  ------------------------------
   
 TODO: give example config files.   Use both lvm and vnd.  
   
 TODO: explain the mess with 3 arguments for disks and how to cope (0x1).  To start domains foo at bar at boot and shut them down cleanly on dom0
   shutdown, in rc.conf add:
   
 Starting domains          xendomains="foo bar"
 ----------------  
   
 TODO: Explain "xm start" and "xl start".  Explain rc.d/xendomains.  
   
 TODO: Explain why 4.1 rc.d/xendomains has xl, when one should use xm  TODO: Explain why 4.1 rc.d/xendomains has xl, when one should use xm
 on 4.1.  on 4.1.  Or fix the xentools41 package to have xm
   
 Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)  Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)
 =============================================  =============================================
   
 Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We  Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
 first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.  have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must
   have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" (or "xm list")
   works.
   
 Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)  Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
 ---------------------------------------------  ---------------------------------------------
   
 Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon  See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
 (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xend start`) and the xen backend daemon  storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or lvm).
 (`/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xenbackendd start` for Xen3\*,  
 `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xencommons start` for Xen4.\*). Make sure  
 that `/dev/xencons` and `/dev/xenevt` exist before starting `xend`. You  
 can create them with this command:  
   
     # cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen  
   
 xend will write logs to `/var/log/xend.log` and  
 `/var/log/xend-debug.log`. You can then control xen with the xm tool.  
 'xm list' will show something like:  
   
     # xm list  
     Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console  
     Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1  
   
 'xm create' allows you to create a new domain. It uses a config file in  
 PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By default, this file will be in  
 `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/`. On creation, a kernel has to be specified, which  
 will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file  
 system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should  
 install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make  
 your system tools, like savecore(8), work). A suitable kernel is  
 provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.  
   
 Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:  
   
     #  -*- mode: python; -*-  
     #============================================================================  
     # Python defaults setup for 'xm create'.  
     # Edit this file to reflect the configuration of your system.  
     #============================================================================  
   
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Kernel image file. This kernel will be loaded in the new domain.  
     kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-XEN3_DOMU"  
     #kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"  
   
     # Memory allocation (in megabytes) for the new domain.  
     memory = 128  
   
     # A handy name for your new domain. This will appear in 'xm list',  
     # and you can use this as parameters for xm in place of the domain  
     # number. All domains must have different names.  
     #  
     name = "nbsd"  
   
     # The number of virtual CPUs this domain has.  
     #  
     vcpus = 1  
   
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Define network interfaces for the new domain.  
   
     # Number of network interfaces (must be at least 1). Default is 1.  
     nics = 1  
   
     # Define MAC and/or bridge for the network interfaces.  
     #  
     # The MAC address specified in ``mac'' is the one used for the interface  
     # in the new domain. The interface in domain0 will use this address XOR'd  
     # with 00:00:00:01:00:00 (i.e. aa:00:00:51:02:f0 in our example). Random  
     # MACs are assigned if not given.  
     #  
     # ``bridge'' is a required parameter, which will be passed to the  
     # vif-script called by xend(8) when a new domain is created to configure  
     # the new xvif interface in domain0.  
     #  
     # In this example, the xvif is added to bridge0, which should have been  
     # set up prior to the new domain being created -- either in the  
     # ``network'' script or using a /etc/ifconfig.bridge0 file.  
     #  
     vif = [ 'mac=aa:00:00:50:02:f0, bridge=bridge0' ]  
   
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Define the disk devices you want the domain to have access to, and  
     # what you want them accessible as.  
     #  
     # Each disk entry is of the form:  
     #  
     #   phy:DEV,VDEV,MODE  
     #  
     # where DEV is the device, VDEV is the device name the domain will see,  
     # and MODE is r for read-only, w for read-write.  You can also create  
     # file-backed domains using disk entries of the form:  
     #  
     #   file:PATH,VDEV,MODE  
     #  
     # where PATH is the path to the file used as the virtual disk, and VDEV  
     # and MODE have the same meaning as for ``phy'' devices.  
     #  
     # VDEV doesn't really matter for a NetBSD guest OS (it's just used as an index),  
     # but it does for Linux.  
     # Worse, the device has to exist in /dev/ of domain0, because xm will  
     # try to stat() it. This means that in order to load a Linux guest OS  
     # from a NetBSD domain0, you'll have to create /dev/hda1, /dev/hda2, ...  
     # on domain0, with the major/minor from Linux :(  
     # Alternatively it's possible to specify the device number in hex,  
     # e.g. 0x301 for /dev/hda1, 0x302 for /dev/hda2, etc ...  
   
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]  While the kernel will be obtained from the dom0 filesystem, the same
     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x01,w' ]  file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
     #disk = [ 'file:/var/xen/nbsd-disk,0x301,w' ]  savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
   
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The
     # Set the kernel command line for the new domain.  i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
   
     # Set root device. This one does matter for NetBSD          i386 XEN3_DOMU
     root = "xbd0"          i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
     # extra parameters passed to the kernel          amd64 XEN3_DOMU
     # this is where you can set boot flags like -s, -a, etc ...  
     #extra = ""  
   
     #----------------------------------------------------------------------------  
     # Set according to whether you want the domain restarted when it exits.  
     # The default is False.  
     #autorestart = True  
   
     # end of nbsd config file ====================================================  
   
 When a new domain is created, xen calls the  
 `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` script for each virtual network interface  
 created in *domain0*. This can be used to automatically configure the  
 xvif?.? interfaces in *domain0*. In our example, these will be bridged  
 with the bridge0 device in *domain0*, but the bridge has to exist first.  
 To do this, create the file `/etc/ifconfig.bridge0` and make it look  
 like this:  
   
     create  
     !brconfig $int add ex0 up  
   
 (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0  
 will be created on boot. See the bridge(4) man page for details.  
   
 So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a  
 working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:  
   
     #!/bin/sh  
     #============================================================================  
     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.31 2014/12/24 15:30:45 gdt Exp $  
     #  
     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge  
     #  
     # Script for configuring a vif in bridged mode with a dom0 interface.  
     # The xend(8) daemon calls a vif script when bringing a vif up or down.  
     # The script name to use is defined in /usr/pkg/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp  
     # in the ``vif-script'' field.  
     #  
     # Usage: vif-bridge up|down [var=value ...]  
     #  
     # Actions:  
     #    up     Adds the vif interface to the bridge.  
     #    down   Removes the vif interface from the bridge.  
     #  
     # Variables:  
     #    domain name of the domain the interface is on (required).  
     #    vifq   vif interface name (required).  
     #    mac    vif MAC address (required).  
     #    bridge bridge to add the vif to (required).  
     #  
     # Example invocation:  
     #  
     # vif-bridge up domain=VM1 vif=xvif1.0 mac="ee:14:01:d0:ec:af" bridge=bridge0  
     #  
     #============================================================================  
   
     # Exit if anything goes wrong  
     set -e  
   
     echo "vif-bridge $*"  
   
     # Operation name.  
     OP=$1; shift  
   
     # Pull variables in args into environment  
     for arg ; do export "${arg}" ; done  
   
     # Required parameters. Fail if not set.  
     domain=${domain:?}  
     vif=${vif:?}  
     mac=${mac:?}  
     bridge=${bridge:?}  
   
     # Optional parameters. Set defaults.  
     ip=${ip:-''}   # default to null (do nothing)  
   
     # Are we going up or down?  
     case $OP in  
     up) brcmd='add' ;;  
     down)   brcmd='delete' ;;  
     *)  
         echo 'Invalid command: ' $OP  
         echo 'Valid commands are: up, down'  
         exit 1  
         ;;  
     esac  
   
     # Don't do anything if the bridge is "null".  
     if [ "${bridge}" = "null" ] ; then  
         exit  
     fi  
   
     # Don't do anything if the bridge doesn't exist.  
     if ! ifconfig -l | grep "${bridge}" >/dev/null; then  
         exit  
     fi  
   
     # Add/remove vif to/from bridge.  
     ifconfig x${vif} $OP  
     brconfig ${bridge} ${brcmd} x${vif}  
   
 Now, running  
   
     xm create -c /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd  
   
 should create a domain and load a NetBSD kernel in it. (Note: `-c`  
 causes xm to connect to the domain's console once created.) The kernel  
 will try to find its root file system on xbd0 (i.e., wd0e) which hasn't  
 been created yet. wd0e will be seen as a disk device in the new domain,  
 so it will be 'sub-partitioned'. We could attach a ccd to wd0e in  
 *domain0* and partition it, newfs and extract the NetBSD/i386 or amd64  
 tarballs there, but there's an easier way: load the  
 `netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU` kernel provided in the NetBSD binary sets.  
 Like other install kernels, it contains a ramdisk with sysinst, so you  
 can install NetBSD using sysinst on your new domain.  
   
 If you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following line  Unless using Xen 3.1 (and you shouldn't) with i386-mode Xen, you must
 should be used in the `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd` file:  use the PAE version of the i386 kernel.
   
   This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
   empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
   (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
   system you can't run the installer on).
   
   A second approach is to run an INSTALL kernel, which has a miniroot
   and can load sets from the network.  To do this, copy the INSTALL
   kernel to / and change the kernel line in the config file to:
   
           kernel = "/home/bouyer/netbsd-INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU"
   
   Then, start the domain as "xl create -c configname".
   
   Alternatively, if you want to install NetBSD/Xen with a CDROM image, the following
   line should be used in the config file.
   
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]      disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w', 'phy:/dev/cd0a,0x2,r' ]
   
 After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be  After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
 selected. The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.  selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
   
 Once done installing, `halt -p` the new domain (don't reboot or halt, it  Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,
 would reload the INSTALL\_XEN3\_DOMU kernel even if you changed the  it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
 config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3\_DOMU kernel, and  config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
 start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use `root on xbd0a`  and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
 and you should have a second, functional NetBSD system on your xen  xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.
 installation.  
   
   TODO: check if this is still accurate.
 When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*  When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
 and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files  and the pseudo-terminals. These can be fixed by editing the files
 `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in  `/etc/ttys` and `/etc/wscons.conf`. You must disable all terminals in
Line 643  Finally, all screens must be commented o Line 690  Finally, all screens must be commented o
   
 It is also desirable to add  It is also desirable to add
   
     powerd=YES          powerd=YES
   
 in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if  in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if
 `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.  `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the domain0.
Line 662  the example below) Line 709  the example below)
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]      disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x1,w' ]
   
 does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300  does matter to Linux. It wants a Linux device number here (e.g. 0x300
 for hda). Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor). So,  for hda).  Linux builds device numbers as: (major \<\< 8 + minor).
 hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have device  So, hda1 which has major 3 and minor 1 on a Linux system will have
 number 0x301. Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda, hdb, ...)  device number 0x301.  Alternatively, devices names can be used (hda,
 as xentools has a table to map these names to devices numbers. To export  hdb, ...)  as xentools has a table to map these names to devices
 a partition to a Linux guest we can use:  numbers.  To export a partition to a Linux guest we can use:
   
     disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]          disk = [ 'phy:/dev/wd0e,0x300,w' ]
     root = "/dev/hda1 ro"          root = "/dev/hda1 ro"
   
 and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root  and it will appear as /dev/hda on the Linux system, and be used as root
 partition.  partition.
   
 To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the guest  To install the Linux system on the partition to be exported to the
 domain, the following method can be used: install sysutils/e2fsprogs  guest domain, the following method can be used: install
 from pkgsrc. Use mke2fs to format the partition that will be the root  sysutils/e2fsprogs from pkgsrc.  Use mke2fs to format the partition
 partition of your Linux domain, and mount it. Then copy the files from a  that will be the root partition of your Linux domain, and mount it.
 working Linux system, make adjustments in `/etc` (fstab, network  Then copy the files from a working Linux system, make adjustments in
 config). It should also be possible to extract binary packages such as  `/etc` (fstab, network config).  It should also be possible to extract
 .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition using the appropriate  binary packages such as .rpm or .deb directly to the mounted partition
 tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux emulation. Once the  using the appropriate tool, possibly running under NetBSD's Linux
 filesystem has been populated, umount it. If desirable, the filesystem  emulation.  Once the filesystem has been populated, umount it.  If
 can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j. It should now be possible to  desirable, the filesystem can be converted to ext3 using tune2fs -j.
 boot the Linux guest domain, using one of the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels  It should now be possible to boot the Linux guest domain, using one of
 available in the Xen binary distribution.  the vmlinuz-\*-xenU kernels available in the Xen binary distribution.
   
 To get the linux console right, you need to add:  To get the linux console right, you need to add:
   
Line 916  TODO: Perhaps reference panix, prmgr, am Line 963  TODO: Perhaps reference panix, prmgr, am
   
 TODO: Somewhere, discuss pvgrub and py-grub to load the domU kernel  TODO: Somewhere, discuss pvgrub and py-grub to load the domU kernel
 from the domU filesystem.  from the domU filesystem.
   
   Using npf
   ---------
   
   In standard kernels, npf is a module, and thus cannot be loadeed in a
   DOMU kernel.
   
   TODO: explain how to compile npf into a custom kernel, answering:
   http://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/12/26/msg015576.html

Removed from v.1.32  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.49


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