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 <td align="left"><a href="../../about/disclaimer.html#bsd-daemon"></a></td>  
 <td align="left"><h1>Table Of Contents</h1>  
 <li>Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Using PCI devices in guest domains</li>  
 <li>Links and further information</li>  
 Introduction  Introduction
 ------------  ============
 [![[Xen  [![[Xen
 screenshot]](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)  screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
 Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class  Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
 CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a  (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
 single machine. Guest OSes (also called “domains”) require a modified  operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
 kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the  the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
 physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen  operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
 hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel  network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
 for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded  an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
 using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for  systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
 this, or alternatively the `grub` boot loader (`grub` has some  fulfilled.
 limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access  
 the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains  Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
 and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that  (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
 lack those privileges. For more details, see [](http://www.xen.org/).  directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
 NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged  operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
 (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains  memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
 accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices  and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
 to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single  
 privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much  The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
 like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console  code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
 (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only  Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
 virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`) and virtual network interfaces  style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
 (`xennet`) provided by a privileged domain (usually *domain0*). xbd  
 devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a partition of a disk,  Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  For
 raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain. xennet devices are  HVM guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT (amd64)
 connected to virtual devices in the privileged domain, named  is needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  Xen 4.2 is the last
 xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g., xvif1.0. Both  version for support for using i386 as a host.  TODO: Clean up and
 xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet devices (they can  check the above features.
 be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be assigned  
 addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...) or be  At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
 added as part of a bridge.  The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   in the dom0 section.)
   NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
   as a domU in a VPS.
   Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
   specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
   of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
   network interface or other peripheral.
   Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
   things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
   path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
   This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
   on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
   See also the [Xen website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
   NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
   Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
   grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
   [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
   Versions of Xen and NetBSD
   Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
   of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
   which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
   versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
   In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
   xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
   but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
   matching versions.
   xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
   receive security patches and should not be used.  Xen 3.1 supports PCI
   xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
   but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
   reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
   xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
   of 2014-12.
   Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
   Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with 3.1 through
   4.2 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
   Xen command program
   Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
   dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
   called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2 and later, "xl" is preferred.  4.4 is
   the last version that has "xm".
   The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
   reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
   non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
   of the most recent release.
   As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
   no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
   need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
   a normal computer.)
 Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)  Architecture
 ---------------------------------------------  ------------
 First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64  Xen is basically amd64 only at this point.  One can either run i386
 [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release  domains or amd64 domains.  If running i386, PAE versions are required,
 (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are  for both dom0 and domU.  These versions are built by default in NetBSD
 available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots  releases.  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is recommended as more
 for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.  normal.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when
 If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk  built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump
 you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as  code.)
 FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,  
 uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load  Recommendation
 some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide  --------------
 virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these  
 virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file  Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
 system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to  xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use amd64 as the dom0.  Either
 other domains.  the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
 Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary  NetBSD as a dom0
 packages. See [the pkgsrc  ================
 documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar  
 with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and  NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do  sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
 not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`  Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
 for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen  without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or  NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
 `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll  NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
 also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If  configuration.
 using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`  
 which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the  Styles of dom0 operation
 *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in  ------------------------
 `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel  
 CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You  There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
 can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl  the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
 command:  number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
   purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
     # cpuctl identify 0  
     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6  The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>  dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>  desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>  deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>  computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>  dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"  things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way  alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way  Xen daemons when not running Xen.
     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way  
     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way  Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0  limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0  
     cpu0: Core ID 0  Installation of NetBSD
     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00  ----------------------
 Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,  First,
 SVM or VMX.  [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
   just as you would if you were not using Xen.
 Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed  However, the partitioning approach is very important.
 them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is  
 `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel  If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
 with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial  for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
 console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial  domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
 console. It is not useful with a VGA console.  over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
   partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
 You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file  
 system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the  There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
 i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to  used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
 customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for  
 recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`  With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
 must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.  each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
   how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
 Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the  Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
 NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot  
 loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)  One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
 manual page for an example using the latter.  for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
   and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
 This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the  be used.
 console to use, etc ...  
   One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
 Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:  /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
   but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run  between dom0 hosts.
     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).  
     #  Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
     # The default entry to load will be the first one  SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
     default=0  HOWTO page.)
     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard  Installation of Xen
     timeout=10  -------------------
     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only  In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1  pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
   See [the pkgsrc
     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default  documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
     # to serial after 10s  
     terminal --timeout=10 serial console  For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
   recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial  package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.  
     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.  Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)  installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
       root(hd0,0)  For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
   in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
     # Same as above, but using VGA console  of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)  using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)  
       root(hd0,0)  In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  
   Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a  with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd  beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)  /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)  "menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M"
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  allocated for domUs.
     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a  As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
     #nonworking /xen.gz  kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
     title NetBSD 5.1  kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
       root (hd0,a)  
       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC  The [HowTo on Installing into
     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.  explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with
     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos  NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native
     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)  boot.)
     title NetBSD chain  
       root        (hd0,0)  Configuring Xen
       chainloader +1  ---------------
   Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, and
   just run the dom0 kernel.  There will be no domUs, and none can be
   started because you still have to configure the dom0 tools.
   For 3.3 (and probably 3.1), add to rc.conf (but note that you should
   have installed 4.2):
   For 4.1 and 4.2, add to rc.conf:
   Note that xend is for supporting "xm", and should only be used if
   you plan on using "xm".  Do NOT enable xend if you plan on using
   "xl" as it will cause problems.
   Updating NetBSD in a dom0
   This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
   version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
   replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
   and adjusts /etc.
   Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
   rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
   To convert from grub to /boot, install an mbr bootblock with fdisk,
   bootxx_ with installboot, /boot and /boot.cfg.  This really should be
   no different than completely reinstalling boot blocks on a non-Xen
   Updating Xen versions
   Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
   issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
   remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
   xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
   Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Enable the
   correct set of daemons.  Ensure that the domU config files are valid
   for the new version.
   Unprivileged domains (domU)
   This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
   address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.
   Provided Resources for PV domains
   TODO: Explain that domUs get cpu, memory, disk and network.
   Explain that randomness can be an issue.
   Virtual disks
   TODO: Explain how to set up files for vnd and that one should write all zeros to preallocate.
   TODO: Explain in what NetBSD versions sparse vnd files do and don't work.
   Virtual Networking
   TODO: explain xvif concept, and that it's general.
   There are two normal styles: bridging and NAT.
   With bridging, the domU perceives itself to be on the same network as
   the dom0.  For server virtualization, this is usually best.
     ## end of grub config file.  With NAT, the domU perceives itself to be behind a NAT running on the
             dom0.  This is often appropriate when running Xen on a workstation.
 Install grub with the following command:  One can construct arbitrary other configurations, but there is no
   script support.
     # grub --no-floppy  Config files
     grub> root (hd0,a)  TODO: give example config files.   Use both lvm and vnd.
      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9  
     grub> setup (hd0)  TODO: explain the mess with 3 arguments for disks and how to cope (0x1).
      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no  
      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes  
      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.  
      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...  
 Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)  Starting domains
   TODO: Explain "xm start" and "xl start".  Explain rc.d/xendomains.
   TODO: Explain why 4.1 rc.d/xendomains has xl, when one should use xm
   on 4.1.
   Creating specific unprivileged domains (domU)
   Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
   first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
   Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
 ---------------------------------------------  ---------------------------------------------
 Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon  Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
Line 237  PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By d Line 386  PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By d
 will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file  will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
 system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should  system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
 install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make  install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
 your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is  your system tools, like savecore(8), work). A suitable kernel is
 provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.  provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
 Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:  Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
Line 347  like this: Line 496  like this:
     !brconfig $int add ex0 up      !brconfig $int add ex0 up
 (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0  (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
 will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.  will be created on boot. See the bridge(4) man page for details.
 So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a  So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
 working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:  working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
     #!/bin/sh      #!/bin/sh
     #============================================================================      #============================================================================
     # $NetBSD: vif-bridge-nbsd,v 1.3 2005/11/08 00:47:35 jlam Exp $      # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.27 2014/12/24 08:32:49 jnemeth Exp $
     #      #
     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge      # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
     #      #
Line 478  in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be Line 627  in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be
 Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.  Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
 Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)  Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
 --------------------------------------------  --------------------------------------------
 Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from  Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
Line 522  To get the linux console right, you need Line 671  To get the linux console right, you need
 to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a  to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
 tty to the xen console.  tty to the xen console.
 Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)  Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
 ----------------------------------------------  ----------------------------------------------
 Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)  Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
Line 659  Restart the guest to verify it works cor Line 808  Restart the guest to verify it works cor
 Using PCI devices in guest domains  Using PCI devices in guest domains
 ==================================  ----------------------------------
 The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This  The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
 can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a  can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
Line 731  to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a k Line 880  to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a k
     sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives      sd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI disk drives
     cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives      cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
 Links and further information  
 -   The HowTo on  NetBSD as a domU in a VPS
     Installing into RAID-1  =========================
     gives some hints on using Xen (grub) with NetBSD's RAIDframe  
 -   Harold Gutch wrote documentation on  The bulk of the HOWTO is about using NetBSD as a dom0 on your own
     setting up a Linux DomU with a NetBSD Dom0  hardware.  This section explains how to deal with Xen in a domU as a
 -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load  virtual private server where you do not control or have access to the
     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 MAN.BOOT.8  dom0.
     and MAN.BOOT.CFG.5 manpages.  
   TODO: Perhaps reference panix, prmgr, amazon as interesting examples.
   TODO: Somewhere, discuss pvgrub and py-grub to load the domU kernel
   from the domU filesystem.

Removed from v.1.5  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.28

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