Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.6 and 1.23

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 <tr class="odd">  
 <td align="left"><a href="../../about/disclaimer.html#bsd-daemon"></a></td>  
 <td align="left"><h1>Table Of Contents</h1>  
 <li>Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Using PCI devices in guest domains</li>  
 <li>Links and further information</li>  
 Introduction  Introduction
 ------------  ============
 [![[Xen  [![[Xen
 screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)  screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
 Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class  
 CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a  
 single machine. Guest OSes (also called "domains") require a modified  
 kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the  
 physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen  
 hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel  
 for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded  
 using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for  
 this, or alternatively the `grub` boot loader (`grub` has some  
 limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access  
 the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains  
 and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that  
 lack those privileges. For more details, see [](http://www.xen.org/).  
 NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged  
 (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains  
 accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices  
 to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single  
 privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much  
 like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console  
 (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only  
 virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`) and virtual network interfaces  
 (`xennet`) provided by a privileged domain (usually *domain0*). xbd  
 devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a partition of a disk,  
 raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain. xennet devices are  
 connected to virtual devices in the privileged domain, named  
 xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g., xvif1.0. Both  
 xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet devices (they can  
 be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be assigned  
 addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...) or be  
 added as part of a bridge.  
 Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)  
 First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64  Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
 [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release  (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
 (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are  operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
 available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots  the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
 for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.  operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
 If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk  network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
 you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as  an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
 FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,  systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
 uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load  fulfilled.
 some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide  
 virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these  Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
 virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file  (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
 system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to  directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
 other domains.  analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
 Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary  memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
 packages. See [the pkgsrc  and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
 documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar  
 with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and  The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do  code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
 not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`  Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
 for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen  style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or  
 `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll  Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  For HVM
 also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If  guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT (amd64) is
 using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`  needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  TODO: Clean up and check
 which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the  the above features.  TODO: Explain if i386 (non-amd64) machines can
 *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in  still be used --- I think that the requirement to use PAE kernels is
 `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel  about the hypervisor being amd64 only.
 CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You  
 can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl  At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
 command:  The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   in the dom0 section.)
     # cpuctl identify 0  
     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6  NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>  and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>  attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>  and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>  
     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>  Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"  specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way  of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way  network interface or other peripheral.
     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way  
     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way  Prerequisites
     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0  -------------
     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0  
     cpu0: Core ID 0  Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00  complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how
 Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,  things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established
 SVM or VMX.  path when there are no known good reasons to stray.
 Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed  This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
 them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is  architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
 `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel  on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
 with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial  See also the [Xen website](http://www.xen.org/).
 console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial  
 console. It is not useful with a VGA console.  History
 You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file  
 system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the  NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
 i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to  
 customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for  Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
 recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`  grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
 must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.  [old grub information](/xen/howto-grub/).
 Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the  Versions of Xen and NetBSD
 NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot  ==========================
 loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)  
 manual page for an example using the latter.  Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent of
   Xen version.  This section gives advice on which version to choose.
 This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported versions of NetBSD are
 console to use, etc ...  inentionally ignored.
 Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:  Xen
     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run  
     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).  In NetBSD, xen is provided in pkgsrc, via matching pairs of packages
     #  xenkernel and xentools.  We will refer only to the kernel versions,
     # The default entry to load will be the first one  but note that both packages must be installed together and must have
     default=0  matching versions.
     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard  xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
     timeout=10  receive security patches and should not be used.  Xen 3.1 supports PCI
     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only  
     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1  xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
   but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default  reasonable although trailing-edge choice.
     # to serial after 10s  
     terminal --timeout=10 serial console  xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  This is maintained by Xen, but old as
   of 2014-12.
     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial  
     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.  Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)  Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3; it works with 3.1 through
       root(hd0,0)  4.2, because the hypercall interface has been stable.
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  Xen command program
     # Same as above, but using VGA console  
     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)  Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)  dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
       root(hd0,0)  called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2, "xm" is no longer available.
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  NetBSD
     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a  
     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd  The netbsd-5, netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)  reasonable choices, with more or less the same considerations for
       root(hd0,0)  non-Xen use.  Therefore, netbsd-6 is recommended as the stable version
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  of the most recent release.
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)  As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
       root(hd0,0)  no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  a normal computer.)
     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a  
     #nonworking /xen.gz  
     title NetBSD 5.1  
       root (hd0,a)  
       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC  
     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.  
     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos  
     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)  
     title NetBSD chain  
       root        (hd0,0)  
       chainloader +1  
     ## end of grub config file.  Architecture
 Install grub with the following command:  Xen is basically amd64 only at this point.  One can either run i386
   domains or amd64 domains.  If running i386, PAE versions are required,
   for both dom0 and domU.  These versions are built by default in NetBSD
   releases.  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is recommended as more
   normal.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when
   built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump
   Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
   xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use amd64 as the dom0.  Either
   the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
   NetBSD as a dom0
   NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
   sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
   Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
   without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
   NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
   NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
   Styles of dom0 operation
   There are two basic ways to use Xen.  The traditional method is for
   the dom0 to do absolutely nothing other than providing support to some
   number of domUs.  Such a system was probably installed for the sole
   purpose of hosting domUs, and sits in a server room on a UPS.
   The other way is to put Xen under a normal-usage computer, so that the
   dom0 is what the computer would have been without Xen, perhaps a
   desktop or laptop.  Then, one can run domUs at will.  Purists will
   deride this as less secure than the previous approach, and for a
   computer whose purpose is to run domUs, they are right.  But Xen and a
   dom0 (without domUs) is not meaingfully less secure than the same
   things running without Xen.  One can boot Xen or boot regular NetBSD
   alternately with little problems, simply refraining from starting the
   Xen daemons when not running Xen.
   Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
   limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
   Installation of NetBSD
   [install NetBSD/amd64](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html)
   just as you would if you were not using Xen.
   However, the partitioning approach is very important.
   If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
   for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
   domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
   over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
   partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
   There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
   used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
   With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
   each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
   how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
   Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
   One can use lvm(8) to create logical devices to use for domU disks.
   This is almost as efficient sa raw disk partitions and more flexible.
   Hence raw disk partitions should typically not be used.
   One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
   /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
   but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
   between dom0 hosts.
   Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
   SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
   HOWTO page.)
   Installation of Xen
   In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
   pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
   See [the pkgsrc
   documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
   For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
   recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
   package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
   Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
   installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
   For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
   to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
   useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
   in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
   of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
   using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
   In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
   kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.
   Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
   with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
   beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
   /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
   See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
   "menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M"
   which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
   allocated for domUs.
   As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
   kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
   kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
   Configuring Xen
   Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, and
   just run the dom0 kernel.  There will be no domUs, and none can be
   started because you still have to configure the dom0 tools.
   For 3.3 (and probably 3.1), add to rc.conf (but note that you should
   have installed 4.2):
   For 4.1 and 4.2, add to rc.conf:
   Updating NetBSD in a dom0
   This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
   version supports the version of Xen you are running.  Generally, one
   replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
   and adjusts /etc.
   Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
   rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
   To convert from grub to /boot, install an mbr bootblock with fdisk,
   bootxx_ with installboot, /boot and /boot.cfg.  This really should be
   no different than completely reinstalling boot blocks on a non-Xen
   Updating Xen versions
   Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
   issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
   remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
   xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
   Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Enable the
   correct set of daemons.  Ensure that the domU config files are valid
   for the new version.
     # grub --no-floppy  Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
     grub> root (hd0,a)  Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9  first explain NetBSD, and then differences for Linux and Solaris.
     grub> setup (hd0)  Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (domU)
      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no  
      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes  
      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.  
      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...  
 Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)  
 ---------------------------------------------  ---------------------------------------------
 Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon  Once you have *domain0* running, you need to start the xen tool daemon
Line 354  working vif-bridge is also provided with Line 441  working vif-bridge is also provided with
     #!/bin/sh      #!/bin/sh
     #============================================================================      #============================================================================
     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.5 2013/11/01 12:27:37 mspo Exp $      # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.22 2014/12/24 01:27:36 gdt Exp $
     #      #
     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge      # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
     #      #
Line 478  in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be Line 565  in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be
 Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.  Your domain should be now ready to work, enjoy.
 Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)  Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (domU)
 --------------------------------------------  --------------------------------------------
 Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from  Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
Line 522  To get the linux console right, you need Line 609  To get the linux console right, you need
 to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a  to your configuration since not all linux distributions auto-attach a
 tty to the xen console.  tty to the xen console.
 Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)  Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (domU)
 ----------------------------------------------  ----------------------------------------------
 Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)  Download an Opensolaris [release](http://opensolaris.org/os/downloads/)
Line 659  Restart the guest to verify it works cor Line 746  Restart the guest to verify it works cor
 Using PCI devices in guest domains  Using PCI devices in guest domains
 ==================================  ----------------------------------
 The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This  The domain0 can give other domains access to selected PCI devices. This
 can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a  can allow, for example, a non-privileged domain to have access to a
Line 734  to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a k Line 821  to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a k
 Links and further information  Links and further information
 =============================  =============================
 -   The HowTo on  -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
     Installing into RAID-1      explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
     gives some hints on using Xen (grub) with NetBSD's RAIDframe      with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
 -   Harold Gutch wrote documentation on      NetBSD's native boot.)
     setting up a Linux DomU with a NetBSD Dom0  
 -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load  -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 MAN.BOOT.8      NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
     and MAN.BOOT.CFG.5 manpages.      and boot.cfg(5) manpages.

Removed from v.1.6  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.23

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