Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.183 and 1.192

version 1.183, 2020/11/15 14:52:16 version 1.192, 2021/03/03 13:19:06
Line 27  xen itself).  It also addresses how to r Line 27  xen itself).  It also addresses how to r
 and how to deal with having a domU in a Xen environment run by someone  and how to deal with having a domU in a Xen environment run by someone
 else and/or not running NetBSD.  else and/or not running NetBSD.
   
   There are many choices one can make; the HOWTO recommends the standard
   approach and limits discussion of alternatives in many cases.
   
 ## Guest Styles  ## Guest Styles
   
 Xen supports different styles of guests.  Xen supports different styles of guests.
Line 85  matching versions. Line 88  matching versions.
 Versions available in pkgsrc:  Versions available in pkgsrc:
   
 [[!table data="""  [[!table data="""
 Xen Version     |Package Name   |Xen CPU Support        |xm?    |EOL'ed By Upstream  Xen Version     |Package Name   |Xen CPU Support        |EOL'ed By Upstream
 4.11            |xenkernel411   |x86_64                 |       |No  4.11            |xenkernel411   |x86_64                 |No
 4.13            |xenkernel413   |x86_64                 |       |No  4.13            |xenkernel413   |x86_64                 |No
 """]]  """]]
   
 See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).  See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).
   
 Multiprocessor (SMP) support in NetBSD differs depending on the domain:  
   
 [[!table data="""  
 Domain          |Supports SMP  
 dom0            |No  
 domU            |Yes  
 """]]  
   
 Note: NetBSD support is called XEN3.  However, it does support Xen 4,  
 because the hypercall interface has remained identical.  
   
 Older Xen had a python-based management tool called xm, now replaced  Older Xen had a python-based management tool called xm, now replaced
 by xl.  by xl.
   
Line 115  NetBSD 8 and up support PV and HVM modes Line 107  NetBSD 8 and up support PV and HVM modes
   
 Support for PVHVM and PVH is available only in NetBSD-current.  Support for PVHVM and PVH is available only in NetBSD-current.
   
 # Creating a dom0  NetBSD up to and including NetBSD 9 as a dom0 does not run SMP,
   because some drivers are not yet safe for this.  NetBSD-current
   supports SMP in dom0.
   
   NetBSD, when run as a domU, can and does typically run SMP.
   
   Note that while Xen 4.13 is current, the kernel support is still
   called XEN3, because the hypercall interface has not changed
   significantly.
   
 In order to install a NetBSD as a dom0, one must first install a normal  # Creating a NetBSD dom0
 NetBSD system, and then pivot the install to a dom0 install by changing  
 the kernel and boot configuration.  In order to install a NetBSD as a dom0, one first installs a normal
   NetBSD system, and then pivot the install to a dom0 install by
   changing the kernel and boot configuration.
   
 In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was reported with 256M of RAM: with  In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was reported with 256M of RAM: with
 512M it worked reliably.  This does not make sense, but if you see  512M it worked reliably.  This does not make sense, but if you see
Line 127  In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was r Line 129  In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was r
   
 ## Installation of NetBSD  ## Installation of NetBSD
   
 [Install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)  [Install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/) just as you would if you were not
 just as you would if you were not using Xen.  using Xen.  Therefore, use the most recent release, or a build from
   the most recent stable branch.  Alternatively, use -current, being
   mindful of all the usual caveats of lower stability of current, and
   likely a bit more so.
   
 ## Installation of Xen  ## Installation of Xen
   
 We will consider that you chose to use Xen 4.13, with NetBSD/amd64 as  ### Building Xen
 dom0. In the dom0, install xenkernel48 and xentools48 from pkgsrc.  
   Use the most recent version of Xen in pkgsrc, unless the DESCR says that it is not suitable.
   Therefore, choose 4.13.
   In the dom0, install xenkernel413 and xentools413 from pkgsrc.
   
 Once this is done, install the Xen kernel itself:  Once this is done, copy the Xen kernel from where pkgsrc puts it to
   where the boot process will be able to find it:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 # cp /usr/pkg/xen48-kernel/xen.gz /  # cp -p /usr/pkg/xen413-kernel/xen.gz /
 """]]  """]]
   
 Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel in the `/` directory. Such kernel  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel in the `/` directory. Such
 can either be compiled manually, or downloaded from the NetBSD FTP, for  kernel can either be taken from a local release build.sh run, compiled
 example at:  manually, or downloaded from the NetBSD FTP, for example at:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-8.0/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz  ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-9.1/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
 """]]  """]]
   
 Add a line to /boot.cfg to boot Xen:  ### Configuring booting
   
   Read boot.cfg(8) carefully.  Add lines to /boot.cfg to boot Xen:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
 menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M  menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
   menu=Xen single user:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc -s;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
 """]]  """]]
   
   \todo Explain why console=pc is given.  Perhaps there is some notion
   of a separate console instead of xencons.
   
   \todo Check the single user line.
   
 This specifies that the dom0 should have 512MB of ram, leaving the rest  This specifies that the dom0 should have 512MB of ram, leaving the rest
 to be allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use:  to be allocated for domUs.
   
   NB: This says add, not replace, so that you will be able to more
   easily boot a NetBSD kernel without Xen.  Once Xen boots ok, you may
   want to set it as default.  It is highly likely that you will have
   trouble at some point, and keeping an up-to-date GENERIC for use in
   fixing problems is the standard prudent approach.
   
   ### Console selection
   
   See boot_console(8).  Understand that you should start from a place of
   having console setup correct for booting GENERIC before trying to
   configure Xen.
   
   By default, the hypervisor (Xen itself) will use \todo as the console
   
   By default, the NetBSD dom0 kernel will use xencons(4) (the man page
   does not exist) as console.
   
   To use a serial console for the Xen hypervisor, add settings as follows:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
 menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1  menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
Line 169  speed/parity.  Because the NetBSD comman Line 205  speed/parity.  Because the NetBSD comman
 which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen  which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen
 itself uses (in this case, the serial port).  itself uses (in this case, the serial port).
   
   \todo Explain why boot.cfg shows forcing the dom0 console also,
   separately from the hypervisor console.
   
   ### Tuning
   
 In an attempt to add performance, one can also add `dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin`,  In an attempt to add performance, one can also add `dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin`,
 to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use  to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
 more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU. Xen has  more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU. Xen has
 [many boot options](http://xenbits.xenproject.org/docs/4.13-testing/misc/xen-command-line.html),  [many boot options](http://xenbits.xenproject.org/docs/4.13-testing/misc/xen-command-line.html),
 and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not  and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
 necessary.  necessary.
   \todo Revisit this advice with current.
   \todo Explain if anyone has ever actually measured that this helps.
   
 Copy the boot scripts into `/etc/rc.d`:  ### rc.conf
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  Ensure that the boot scripts installed in
 # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xen* /etc/rc.d/  `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d` are in `/etc/rc.d`, either because you
 """]]  have `PKG_RCD_SCRIPTS=yes`, or manually.  (This is not special to Xen,
   but a normal part of pkgsrc usage.)
   
 Enable `xencommons`:  Set `xencommons=YES` in rc.conf:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
 xencommons=YES  xencommons=YES
 """]]  """]]
   
   \todo Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
   
   ### Testing
   
 Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather  Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
 than GENERIC without Xen.  than GENERIC without Xen.
   
 TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.  
   
 Once the reboot is done, use `xl` to inspect Xen's boot messages,  Once the reboot is done, use `xl` to inspect Xen's boot messages,
 available resources, and running domains.  For example:  available resources, and running domains.  For example:
   
Line 219  the state when the new xenstored starts. Line 265  the state when the new xenstored starts.
 make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored  make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
 (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that  (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that
 this will get fixed any time soon.  this will get fixed any time soon.
   \todo Confirm if this is still true in 2020.
 ## anita (for testing NetBSD)  
   
 With the setup so far, one should be able to run  
 anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as  
 root, because anita must create a domU):  
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  
 anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/  
 """]]  
   
 ## Xen-specific NetBSD issues  ## Xen-specific NetBSD issues
   
 There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a  There are (at least) two additional things different about NetBSD as a
 dom0 kernel compared to hardware.  dom0 kernel compared to hardware.
   
 One is that the module ABI is different because some of the #defines  One is that through NetBSD 9 the module ABI is different because some
 change, so one must build modules for Xen.  As of netbsd-7, the build  of the #defines change, so there are separate sets of modules in
 system does this automatically.  /stand.  In NetBSD-current, there is only one set of modules.
   
 The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same  The other difference is that XEN3_DOM0 does not have exactly the same
 options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a  options as GENERIC.  While it is debatable whether or not this is a
 bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config  bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
 items if desired.  items if desired.
   
   Finally, there have been occasional reports of trouble with X11
   servers in NetBSD as a dom0.
   
   ## Updating Xen in a dom0
   
   Basically, update the xenkernel and xentools packages and copy the new
   Xen kernel into place, and reboot.  This procedure should be usable to
   update to a new Xen release, but the reader is reminded that having a
   non-Xen boot methods was recommended earlier.
   
 ## Updating NetBSD in a dom0  ## Updating NetBSD in a dom0
   
 This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new  This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
Line 251  version supports the version of Xen you  Line 298  version supports the version of Xen you 
 replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries  replaces the kernel and reboots, and then overlays userland binaries
 and adjusts `/etc`.  and adjusts `/etc`.
   
 Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for  Note that one should update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
 rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.  rescue purposes, as well as the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
   
 ## Converting from grub to /boot  ## anita (for testing NetBSD)
   
 These instructions were used to convert a system from  With a NetBSD dom0, even without any domUs, one should be able to run
 grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of  anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
 2006 with a RAID1 setup and grub to boot Xen 2, and has been updated  root, because anita must create a domU):
 over time.  Before these commands, it was running NetBSD 6 i386, Xen  
 4.1 and grub, much like the message linked earlier in the grub  
 section.  
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 # Install MBR bootblocks on both disks.  anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
 fdisk -i /dev/rwd0d  """]]
 fdisk -i /dev/rwd1d  
 # Install NetBSD primary boot loader (/ is FFSv1) into RAID1 components.  
 installboot -v /dev/rwd0d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1  
 installboot -v /dev/rwd1d /usr/mdec/bootxx_ffsv1  
 # Install secondary boot loader  
 cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /  
 # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:  
 menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M  
 menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=512M  
 menu=GENERIC:boot  
 menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s  
 menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok  
 menu=GENERIC.ok single-user:boot netbsd.ok -s  
 menu=Drop to boot prompt:prompt  
 default=1  
 timeout=30  
 """]]  
   
 ## Upgrading Xen versions  
   
 Minor version upgrades are trivial.  Just rebuild/replace the  
 xenkernel version and copy the new xen.gz to `/` (where `/boot.cfg`  
 references it), and reboot.  
   
 #Unprivileged domains (domU)  # Unprivileged domains (domU)
   
 This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not  This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
 address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The  address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
Line 332  are stored in files and Xen attaches the Line 353  are stored in files and Xen attaches the
 dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device  dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device
 without needing explicit configuration.  without needing explicit configuration.
   
   There is not type line; that implicitly defines a pv domU.
   
 By convention, domain config files are kept in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`.  Note  By convention, domain config files are kept in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`.  Note
 that "xl create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands  that "xl create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
 take the name of a domain.  take the name of a domain.
Line 400  Note that NetBSD by default creates only Line 423  Note that NetBSD by default creates only
 than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the  than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the
 dom0.  dom0.
   
 Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd[0123].  If you need more  ## Virtual Networking
 virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.  
   
 Virtual Networking  
 ------------------  
   
 Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a  Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
 domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in  domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
Line 436  The MAC address specified is the one use Line 455  The MAC address specified is the one use
 domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with  domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
 00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.  00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
   
 Starting domains automatically  ## Starting domains automatically
 ------------------------------  
   
 To start domains `domU-netbsd` and `domU-linux` at boot and shut them  To start domains `domU-netbsd` and `domU-linux` at boot and shut them
 down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the following in rc.conf:  down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the following in rc.conf:
Line 446  down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the f Line 464  down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the f
 xendomains="domU-netbsd domU-linux"  xendomains="domU-netbsd domU-linux"
 """]]  """]]
   
 # Creating a domU  # domU setup for specific systems
   
 Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We  Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
 have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must  have already presented the basics of config files in the previous system.
 have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" works.  
   
 Creating a NetBSD PV domU  Of course, this section presumes that you have a working dom0.
 --------------------------  
   ## Creating a NetBSD PV domU
   
 See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much  See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
 storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or LVM).  storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or LVM).
Line 462  While the kernel will be obtained from t Line 480  While the kernel will be obtained from t
 file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like  file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
 savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)  savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
   
 The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The  The kernel must be specifically built for Xen, to use PV interfacesas
 i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:  a domU.  NetBSD release builds provide the following kernels:
   
         i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU          i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
         amd64 XEN3_DOMU          amd64 XEN3_DOMU
   
 This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is  This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
 empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen  empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of Xen
 (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a  (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
 system you can't run the installer on).  system you can't run the installer on).
   
Line 489  line should be used in the config file. Line 507  line should be used in the config file.
 After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be  After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
 selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.  selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
   
 Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,  Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt:
 it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the  it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
 config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,  config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
 and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on  and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
 xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.  xbd0a" and you should have a functional NetBSD domU.
   
 TODO: check if this is still accurate.  TODO: check if this is still accurate.
 When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*  When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
Line 509  and the pseudo-terminals. These can be f Line 527  and the pseudo-terminals. These can be f
   
 Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.  Finally, all screens must be commented out from `/etc/wscons.conf`.
   
 It is also desirable to add  One should also run `powerd` in a domU, but this should not need
   configuring.  With powerd, the domain will run a controlled shutdown
         powerd=YES  if `xl shutdown -R` or `xl shutdown -H` is used on the dom0, via
   receiving a synthetic `power button pressed` signal.  In 9 and
 in rc.conf. This way, the domain will be properly shut down if  current, `powerd` is run by default under Xen kernels (or if ACPI is
 `xm shutdown -R` or `xm shutdown -H` is used on the dom0.  present), and it can be added to rc.conf if not.
   
 It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU  It is not strictly necessary to have a kernel (as /netbsd) in the domU
 file system.  However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that  file system.  However, various programs (e.g. netstat) will use that
Line 524  not really a Xen-specific issue, but bec Line 542  not really a Xen-specific issue, but bec
 obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or  obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
 missing with Xen.)  missing with Xen.)
   
 Creating a Linux domU  Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd[0123].  If you need more
 ---------------------  virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.
   
   ## Creating a Linux domU
   
 Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from  Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
 unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.  unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
Line 578  Use type='pvh'. Line 598  Use type='pvh'.
   
 \todo Explain where the kernel comes from.  \todo Explain where the kernel comes from.
   
   ## Creating a Solaris domU
 Creating a Solaris domU  
 -----------------------  
   
 See possibly outdated  See possibly outdated
 [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).  [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
   
   ## PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
 PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains  
 ---------------------------------------------------  
   
 NB: PCI passthrough only works on some Xen versions and as of 2020 it  NB: PCI passthrough only works on some Xen versions and as of 2020 it
 is not clear that it works on any version in pkgsrc.  Reports  is not clear that it works on any version in pkgsrc.  Reports
Line 660  note that only the "xpci" lines are unus Line 676  note that only the "xpci" lines are unus
         cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives          cd*     at scsibus? target ? lun ?      # SCSI CD-ROM drives
   
   
 # Specific Issues  # Miscellaneous Information
   
   ## Nesting under Linux KVM
   
   It is possible to run a Xen and a NetBSD dom0 under Linux KVM.  One
   can enable virtio in the dom0 for greater speed.
   
   ## Other nesting
   
   In theory, any full emulation should be able to run Xen and a NetBSD
   dom0.  The HOWTO does not currently have information about Xen XVM
   mode, nvmm, qemu, Virtualbox, etc.
   
 ## domU  ## NetBSD 5 as domU
   
 [NetBSD 5 is known to panic.](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/port-xen/2018/04/17/msg009181.html)  [NetBSD 5 is known to panic.](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/port-xen/2018/04/17/msg009181.html)
 (However, NetBSD 5 systems should be updated to a supported version.)  (However, NetBSD 5 systems should be updated to a supported version.)

Removed from v.1.183  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.192


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