Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.185 and 1.188

version 1.185, 2020/11/15 14:59:54 version 1.188, 2020/11/15 15:36:35
Line 27  xen itself).  It also addresses how to r Line 27  xen itself).  It also addresses how to r
 and how to deal with having a domU in a Xen environment run by someone  and how to deal with having a domU in a Xen environment run by someone
 else and/or not running NetBSD.  else and/or not running NetBSD.
   
   There are many choices one can make; the HOWTO recommends the standard
   approach and limits discussion of alternatives in many cases.
   
 ## Guest Styles  ## Guest Styles
   
 Xen supports different styles of guests.  Xen supports different styles of guests.
Line 112  NetBSD, when run as a domU, can and does Line 115  NetBSD, when run as a domU, can and does
 Note: NetBSD support is called XEN3.  However, it does support Xen 4,  Note: NetBSD support is called XEN3.  However, it does support Xen 4,
 because the hypercall interface has remained identical.  because the hypercall interface has remained identical.
   
 # Creating a dom0  # Creating a NetBSD dom0
   
 In order to install a NetBSD as a dom0, one must first install a normal  In order to install a NetBSD as a dom0, one must first install a normal
 NetBSD system, and then pivot the install to a dom0 install by changing  NetBSD system, and then pivot the install to a dom0 install by changing
Line 126  In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was r Line 129  In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was r
   
 [Install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)  [Install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
 just as you would if you were not using Xen.  just as you would if you were not using Xen.
   Therefore, use the most recent release, or a build from the most recent stable branch.
   
 ## Installation of Xen  ## Installation of Xen
   
 We will consider that you chose to use Xen 4.13, with NetBSD/amd64 as  Use the most recent version of Xen in pkgsrc, unless the DESCR says that it is not suitable.
 dom0. In the dom0, install xenkernel48 and xentools48 from pkgsrc.  Therefore, choose 4.13.
   In the dom0, install xenkernel413 and xentools413 from pkgsrc.
   
 Once this is done, install the Xen kernel itself:  Once this is done, copy the Xen kernel from where pkgsrc puts it to
   where the boot process will be able to find it:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 # cp /usr/pkg/xen48-kernel/xen.gz /  # cp -p /usr/pkg/xen413-kernel/xen.gz /
 """]]  """]]
   
 Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel in the `/` directory. Such kernel  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel in the `/` directory. Such kernel
Line 143  can either be compiled manually, or down Line 149  can either be compiled manually, or down
 example at:  example at:
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
 ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-8.0/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz  ftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-9.1/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
 """]]  """]]
   
 Add a line to /boot.cfg to boot Xen:  Add a line to /boot.cfg to boot Xen:
Line 153  menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz conso Line 159  menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz conso
 """]]  """]]
   
 This specifies that the dom0 should have 512MB of ram, leaving the rest  This specifies that the dom0 should have 512MB of ram, leaving the rest
 to be allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use:  to be allocated for domUs.
   
   NB: This says add, not replace, so that you will be able to boot a
   NetBSD kernel without Xen.  Once Xen boots ok, you may want to set it
   as default.
   
   To use a serial console, add settings as follows:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name="/boot.cfg" text="""
 menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1  menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
Line 173  more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical Line 185  more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical
 and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not  and other than dom0 memory and max_vcpus, they are generally not
 necessary.  necessary.
   
 Copy the boot scripts into `/etc/rc.d`:  Ensure that the boot scripts installed in
   `/usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d` are in `/etc/rc.d`, either because you
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  have `PKG_RCD_SCRIPTS=yes`, or manually.  (This is not special to Xen,
 # cp /usr/pkg/share/examples/rc.d/xen* /etc/rc.d/  but a normal part of pkgsrc usage.)
 """]]  
   
 Enable `xencommons`:  Set `xencommons=YES` in rc.conf:
   
 [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""  [[!template id=filecontent name="/etc/rc.conf" text="""
 xencommons=YES  xencommons=YES
 """]]  """]]
   
   \todo Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
   
 Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather  Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
 than GENERIC without Xen.  than GENERIC without Xen.
   
 TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.  
   
 Once the reboot is done, use `xl` to inspect Xen's boot messages,  Once the reboot is done, use `xl` to inspect Xen's boot messages,
 available resources, and running domains.  For example:  available resources, and running domains.  For example:
   
Line 216  the state when the new xenstored starts. Line 227  the state when the new xenstored starts.
 make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored  make this work, one should not expect to be able to restart xenstored
 (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that  (and thus xencommons).  There is currently no reason to expect that
 this will get fixed any time soon.  this will get fixed any time soon.
   \todo Confirm if this is still true in 2020.
 ## anita (for testing NetBSD)  
   
 With the setup so far, one should be able to run  
 anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as  
 root, because anita must create a domU):  
   
 [[!template id=programlisting text="""  
 anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/  
 """]]  
   
 ## Xen-specific NetBSD issues  ## Xen-specific NetBSD issues
   
Line 241  options as GENERIC.  While it is debatab Line 243  options as GENERIC.  While it is debatab
 bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config  bug, users should be aware of this and can simply add missing config
 items if desired.  items if desired.
   
   Finally, there have been occasional reports of trouble with X11
   servers in NetBSD as a dom0.
   
   ## Updating Xen in a dom0
   
   Basically, update the xenkernel and xentools packages and copy the new
   Xen kernel into place, and reboot.  This procedure should be usable to
   update to a new Xen release, but the reader is reminded that having a
   non-Xen boot methods was recommended earlier.
   
 ## Updating NetBSD in a dom0  ## Updating NetBSD in a dom0
   
 This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new  This is just like updating NetBSD on bare hardware, assuming the new
Line 251  and adjusts `/etc`. Line 263  and adjusts `/etc`.
 Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for  Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
 rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.  rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
   
 ## Converting from grub to /boot  ## anita (for testing NetBSD)
   
   With a NetBSD dom0, even without any domUs, one should be able to run
   anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
   root, because anita must create a domU):
   
   [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
   """]]
   
   ## Converting from grub to /boot (historical note)
   
   These instructions are provided only to help people using grub, which
   used to be the normal approach.
   
 These instructions were used to convert a system from  These instructions were used to convert a system from
 grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of  grub to /boot.  The system was originally installed in February of
Line 281  default=1 Line 306  default=1
 timeout=30  timeout=30
 """]]  """]]
   
 ## Upgrading Xen versions  # Unprivileged domains (domU)
   
 Minor version upgrades are trivial.  Just rebuild/replace the  
 xenkernel version and copy the new xen.gz to `/` (where `/boot.cfg`  
 references it), and reboot.  
   
 #Unprivileged domains (domU)  
   
 This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not  This section describes general concepts about domUs.  It does not
 address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The  address specific domU operating systems or how to install them.  The
Line 329  are stored in files and Xen attaches the Line 348  are stored in files and Xen attaches the
 dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device  dom0 on domain creation.  The system treats xbd0 as the boot device
 without needing explicit configuration.  without needing explicit configuration.
   
   There is not type line; that implicitly defines a pv domU.
   
 By convention, domain config files are kept in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`.  Note  By convention, domain config files are kept in `/usr/pkg/etc/xen`.  Note
 that "xl create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands  that "xl create" takes the name of a config file, while other commands
 take the name of a domain.  take the name of a domain.
Line 397  Note that NetBSD by default creates only Line 418  Note that NetBSD by default creates only
 than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the  than 4 total virtual disks at a time, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV vnd4" in the
 dom0.  dom0.
   
 Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd[0123].  If you need more  ## Virtual Networking
 virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.  
   
 Virtual Networking  
 ------------------  
   
 Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a  Xen provides virtual Ethernets, each of which connects the dom0 and a
 domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in  domU.  For each virtual network, there is an interface "xvifN.M" in
Line 433  The MAC address specified is the one use Line 450  The MAC address specified is the one use
 domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with  domain.  The interface in dom0 will use this address XOR'd with
 00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.  00:00:00:01:00:00.  Random MAC addresses are assigned if not given.
   
 Starting domains automatically  ## Starting domains automatically
 ------------------------------  
   
 To start domains `domU-netbsd` and `domU-linux` at boot and shut them  To start domains `domU-netbsd` and `domU-linux` at boot and shut them
 down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the following in rc.conf:  down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the following in rc.conf:
Line 443  down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the f Line 459  down cleanly on dom0 shutdown, add the f
 xendomains="domU-netbsd domU-linux"  xendomains="domU-netbsd domU-linux"
 """]]  """]]
   
 # Creating a domU  # domU setup for specific systems
   
 Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We  Creating domUs is almost entirely independent of operating system.  We
 have already presented the basics of config files.  Note that you must  have already presented the basics of config files in the previous system.
 have already completed the dom0 setup so that "xl list" works.  
   Of course, this section presumes that you have a working dom0.
   
 Creating a NetBSD PV domU  ## Creating a NetBSD PV domU
 --------------------------  
   
 See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much  See the earlier config file, and adjust memory.  Decide on how much
 storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or LVM).  storage you will provide, and prepare it (file or LVM).
Line 459  While the kernel will be obtained from t Line 475  While the kernel will be obtained from t
 file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like  file should be present in the domU as /netbsd so that tools like
 savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)  savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful but not necessary.)
   
 The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The  The kernel must be specifically built for Xen, to use PV interfacesas
 i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:  a domU.  NetBSD release builds provide the following kernels:
   
         i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU          i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
         amd64 XEN3_DOMU          amd64 XEN3_DOMU
   
 This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is  This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
 empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen  empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of Xen
 (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a  (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a
 system you can't run the installer on).  system you can't run the installer on).
   
Line 486  line should be used in the config file. Line 502  line should be used in the config file.
 After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be  After booting the domain, the option to install via CDROM may be
 selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.  selected.  The CDROM device should be changed to `xbd1d`.
   
 Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt,  Once done installing, "halt -p" the new domain (don't reboot or halt:
 it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the  it would reload the INSTALL_XEN3_DOMU kernel even if you changed the
 config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,  config file), switch the config file back to the XEN3_DOMU kernel,
 and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on  and start the new domain again. Now it should be able to use "root on
 xbd0a" and you should have a, functional NetBSD domU.  xbd0a" and you should have a functional NetBSD domU.
   
 TODO: check if this is still accurate.  TODO: check if this is still accurate.
 When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*  When the new domain is booting you'll see some warnings about *wscons*
Line 522  not really a Xen-specific issue, but bec Line 538  not really a Xen-specific issue, but bec
 obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or  obtained from the dom0, it is far more likely to be out of sync or
 missing with Xen.)  missing with Xen.)
   
 Creating a Linux domU  Note that NetBSD by default creates only xbd[0123].  If you need more
 ---------------------  virtual disks in a domU, run e.g. "./MAKEDEV xbd4" in the domU.
   
   ## Creating a Linux domU
   
 Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from  Creating unprivileged Linux domains isn't much different from
 unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.  unprivileged NetBSD domains, but there are some details to know.
Line 577  Use type='pvh'. Line 595  Use type='pvh'.
 \todo Explain where the kernel comes from.  \todo Explain where the kernel comes from.
   
   
 Creating a Solaris domU  ## Creating a Solaris domU
 -----------------------  
   
 See possibly outdated  See possibly outdated
 [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).  [Solaris domU instructions](/ports/xen/howto-solaris/).
   
   
 PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains  ## PCI passthrough: Using PCI devices in guest domains
 ---------------------------------------------------  
   
 NB: PCI passthrough only works on some Xen versions and as of 2020 it  NB: PCI passthrough only works on some Xen versions and as of 2020 it
 is not clear that it works on any version in pkgsrc.  Reports  is not clear that it works on any version in pkgsrc.  Reports

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