Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.16 and 1.27

version 1.16, 2014/12/24 00:06:01 version 1.27, 2014/12/24 08:32:49
Line 27  code for Xen and need not be aware that  Line 27  code for Xen and need not be aware that 
 Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This  Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
 style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.  style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   
 At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.  Generally any amd64 machine will work with Xen and PV guests.  For
   HVM guests, the VT or VMX cpu feature (Intel) or SVM/HVM/VT (amd64)
   is needed; "cpuctl identify 0" will show this.  Xen 4.2 is the last
   version for support for using i386 as a host.  TODO: Clean up and
   check the above features.
   
   At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
 The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail  The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
 in the dom0 section.)  in the dom0 section.)
   
 NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,  NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
 and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO  and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
 attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware  attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
 and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.  and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
   as a domU in a VPS.
   
   Some versions of Xen support "PCI passthrough", which means that
   specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
   of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
   network interface or other peripheral.
   
 Prerequisites  Prerequisites
 -------------  -------------
Line 48  path when there are no known good reason Line 60  path when there are no known good reason
 This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system  This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
 architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD  architecture.  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD
 on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.  on i386/amd64 hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
   See also the [Xen website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
   
   History
   -------
   
 See also the [Xen website](http://www.xen.org/).  NetBSD used to support Xen2; this has been removed.
   
   Before NetBSD's native bootloader could support Xen, the use of
   grub was recommended.  If necessary, see the
   [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub/).
   
 Versions of Xen and NetBSD  Versions of Xen and NetBSD
 ==========================  ==========================
   
 Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent of  Most of the installation concepts and instructions are independent
 Xen version.  This section gives advice on which version to choose.  of Xen version and NetBSD version.  This section gives advice on
 Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported versions of NetBSD are  which version to choose.  Versions not in pkgsrc and older unsupported
 inentionally ignored.  versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
   
 Xen  Xen
 ---  ---
Line 68  but note that both packages must be inst Line 88  but note that both packages must be inst
 matching versions.  matching versions.
   
 xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer  xenkernel3 and xenkernel33 provide Xen 3.1 and 3.3.  These no longer
 receive security patches and should not be used.  receive security patches and should not be used.  Xen 3.1 supports PCI
   passthrough.
   
 xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,  xenkernel41 provides Xen 4.1.  This is no longer maintained by Xen,
 but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a  but as of 2014-12 receives backported security patches.  It is a
Line 79  of 2014-12. Line 100  of 2014-12.
   
 Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.  Ideally newer versions of Xen will be added to pkgsrc.
   
   Note that NetBSD support is called XEN3.  It works with 3.1 through
   4.2 because the hypercall interface has been stable.
   
   Xen command program
   -------------------
   
   Early Xen used a program called "xm" to manipulate the system from the
   dom0.  Starting in 4.1, a replacement program with similar behavior
   called "xl" is provided.  In 4.2 and later, "xl" is preferred.  4.4 is
   the last version that has "xm".
   
 NetBSD  NetBSD
 ------  ------
   
Line 92  no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The Line 124  no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The
 need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as  need SMP; the lack of support is really a problem when using a dom0 as
 a normal computer.)  a normal computer.)
   
   Architecture
   ------------
   
   Xen is basically amd64 only at this point.  One can either run i386
   domains or amd64 domains.  If running i386, PAE versions are required,
   for both dom0 and domU.  These versions are built by default in NetBSD
   releases.  While i386 dom0 works fine, amd64 is recommended as more
   normal.  (Note that emacs (at least) fails if run on i386 with PAE when
   built without, and vice versa, presumably due to bugs in the undump
   code.)
   
 Recommendation  Recommendation
 --------------  --------------
   
 Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42)  Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel42 (and xentools42),
 and NetBSD 6 stable branch.  xl, the NetBSD 6 stable branch, and to use amd64 as the dom0.  Either
   the i386 or amd64 of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
   
 NetBSD as a dom0  NetBSD as a dom0
 ================  ================
   
 NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following  NetBSD can be used as a dom0 and works very well.  The following
 sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.  sections address installation, updating NetBSD, and updating Xen.
   Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS
   without also installing Xen itself.  We first address installing
   NetBSD, which is not yet a dom0, and then adding Xen, pivoting the
   NetBSD install to a dom0 install by just changing the kernel and boot
   configuration.
   
 Styles of dom0 operation  Styles of dom0 operation
 ------------------------  ------------------------
Line 125  Xen daemons when not running Xen. Line 174  Xen daemons when not running Xen.
 Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will  Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
 limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.  limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.
   
 Installation of NetBSD and Xen  Installation of NetBSD
 ------------------------------  ----------------------
   
 Note that it doesn't make sense to talk about installing a dom0 OS  First,
 without also installing Xen itself.  [install NetBSD/amd64](/guide/inst/)
   just as you would if you were not using Xen.
 First do a NetBSD/i386 or NetBSD/amd64  However, the partitioning approach is very important.
 [installation](../../docs/guide/en/chap-inst.html) of the 5.1 release  
 (or newer) as you usually do on x86 hardware. The binary releases are  If you want to use RAIDframe for the dom0, there are no special issues
 available from [](ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/). Binary snapshots  for Xen.  Typically one provides RAID storage for the dom0, and the
 for current and the stable branches are available on daily autobuilds.  domU systems are unaware of RAID.  The 2nd-stage loader bootxx_* skips
 If you plan to use the `grub` boot loader, when partitioning the disk  over a RAID1 header to find /boot from a filesystem within a RAID
 you have to make the root partition smaller than 512Mb, and formatted as  partition; this is no different when booting Xen.
 FFSv1 with 8k block/1k fragments. If the partition is larger than this,  
 uses FFSv2 or has different block/fragment sizes, grub may fail to load  There are 4 styles of providing backing storage for the virtual disks
 some files. Also keep in mind that you'll probably want to provide  used by domUs: raw partitions, LVM, file-backed vnd(4), and SAN,
 virtual disks to other domains, so reserve some partitions for these  
 virtual disks. Alternatively, you can create large files in the file  With raw partitions, one has a disklabel (or gpt) partition sized for
 system, map them to vnd(4) devices and export theses vnd devices to  each virtual disk to be used by the domU.  (If you are able to predict
 other domains.  how domU usage will evolve, please add an explanation to the HOWTO.
   Seriously, needs tend to change over time.)
 Next step is to install the Xen packages via pkgsrc or from binary  
 packages. See [the pkgsrc  One can use [lvm(8)](/guide/lvm/) to create logical devices to use
 documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) if you are unfamiliar  for domU disks.  This is almost as efficient as raw disk partitions
 with pkgsrc and/or handling of binary packages. Xen 3.1, 3.3, 4.1 and  and more flexible.  Hence raw disk partitions should typically not
 4.2 are available. 3.1 supports PCI pass-through while other versions do  be used.
 not. You'll need either `sysutils/xentools3` and `sysutils/xenkernel3`  
 for Xen 3.1, `sysutils/xentools33` and `sysutils/xenkernel33` for Xen  One can use files in the dom0 filesystem, typically created by dd'ing
 3.3, `sysutils/xentools41` and `sysutils/xenkernel41` for Xen 4.1. or  /dev/zero to create a specific size.  This is somewhat less efficient,
 `sysutils/xentools42` and `sysutils/xenkernel42` for Xen 4.2. You'll  but very convenient, as one can cp the files for backup, or move them
 also need `sysutils/grub` if you plan do use the grub boot loader. If  between dom0 hosts.
 using Xen 3.1, you may also want to install `sysutils/xentools3-hvm`  
 which contains the utilities to run unmodified guests OSes using the  Finally, in theory one can place the files backing the domU disks in a
 *HVM* support (for later versions this is included in  SAN.  (This is an invitation for someone who has done this to add a
 `sysutils/xentools`). Note that your CPU needs to support this. Intel  HOWTO page.)
 CPUs must have the 'VT' instruction, AMD CPUs the 'SVM' instruction. You  
 can easily find out if your CPU support HVM by using NetBSD's cpuctl  Installation of Xen
 command:  -------------------
   
     # cpuctl identify 0  In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
     cpu0: Intel Core 2 (Merom) (686-class), id 0x6f6  pkgsrc (or another matching pair).
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR>  See [the pkgsrc
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CFLUSH,DS,ACPI,MMX>  documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with pkgsrc.
     cpu0: features 0xbfebfbff<FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,SBF>  
     cpu0: features2 0x4e33d<SSE3,DTES64,MONITOR,DS-CPL,,TM2,SSSE3,CX16,xTPR,PDCM,DCA>  For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More
     cpu0: features3 0x20100800<SYSCALL/SYSRET,XD,EM64T>  recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools
     cpu0: "Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU            5130  @ 2.00GHz"  package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.
     cpu0: I-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way, D-cache 32KB 64B/line 8-way  
     cpu0: L2 cache 4MB 64B/line 16-way  Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
     cpu0: ITLB 128 4KB entries 4-way  installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
     cpu0: DTLB 256 4KB entries 4-way, 32 4MB entries 4-way  For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
     cpu0: Initial APIC ID 0  to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-debug.gz is basically only
     cpu0: Cluster/Package ID 0  useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
     cpu0: Core ID 0  in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
     cpu0: family 06 model 0f extfamily 00 extmodel 00  of a NetBSD build.  Both xen and NetBSD may be left compressed.  (If
   using i386, use releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.)
 Depending on your CPU, the feature you are looking for is called HVM,  
 SVM or VMX.  In a dom0 kernel, kernfs is mandatory for xend to comunicate with the
   kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.
 Next you need to copy the selected Xen kernel itself. pkgsrc installed  
 them under `/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/`. The file you're looking for is  Because you already installed NetBSD, you have a working boot setup
 `xen.gz`. Copy it to your root file system. `xen-debug.gz` is a kernel  with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffsv1 or bootxx_ffsv2 at the
 with more consistency checks and more details printed on the serial  beginning of your root filesystem, /boot present, and likely
 console. It is useful for debugging crashing guests if you use a serial  /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
 console. It is not useful with a VGA console.  
   See boot.cfg(5) for an example.  The basic line is
 You'll then need a NetBSD/Xen kernel for *domain0* on your root file  
 system. The XEN3PAE\_DOM0 kernel or XEN3\_DOM0 provided as part of the  "menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M"
 i386 or amd64 binaries is suitable for this, but you may want to  
 customize it. Keep your native kernel around, as it can be useful for  which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be
 recovery. *Note:* the *domain0* kernel must support KERNFS and `/kern`  allocated for domUs.
 must be mounted because *xend* needs access to `/kern/xen/privcmd`.  
   As with non-Xen systems, you should have a line to boot /netbsd (a
 Next you need to get a bootloader to load the `xen.gz` kernel, and the  kernel that works without Xen) and fallback versions of the non-Xen
 NetBSD *domain0* kernel as a module. This can be `grub` or NetBSD's boot  kernel, Xen, and the dom0 kernel.
 loader. Below is a detailled example for grub, see the boot.cfg(5)  
 manual page for an example using the latter.  Configuring Xen
   ---------------
 This is also where you'll specify the memory allocated to *domain0*, the  
 console to use, etc ...  Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, and
   just run the dom0 kernel.  There will be no domUs, and none can be
 Here is a commented `/grub/menu.lst` file:  started because you still have to configure the dom0 tools.
   
     #Grub config file for NetBSD/xen. Copy as /grub/menu.lst and run  For 3.3 (and probably 3.1), add to rc.conf (but note that you should
     # grub-install /dev/rwd0d (assuming your boot device is wd0).  have installed 4.2):
     #    xend=YES
     # The default entry to load will be the first one    xenbackendd=YES
     default=0  
   For 4.1 and 4.2, add to rc.conf:
     # boot the default entry after 10s if the user didn't hit keyboard    xend=YES
     timeout=10    xencommons=YES
   
     # Configure serial port to use as console. Ignore if you'll use VGA only  Note that xend is for supporting "xm", and should only be used if
     serial --unit=0 --speed=115200 --word=8 --parity=no --stop=1  you plan on using "xm".  Do NOT enable xend if you plan on using
   "xl" as it will cause problems.
     # Let the user select which console to use (serial or VGA), default  
     # to serial after 10s  
     terminal --timeout=10 serial console  
   
     # An entry for NetBSD/xen, using /netbsd as the domain0 kernel, and serial  
     # console. Domain0 will have 64MB RAM allocated.  
     # Assume NetBSD is installed in the first MBR partition.  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, serial)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  
   
     # Same as above, but using VGA console  
     # We can use console=tty0 (Linux syntax) or console=pc (NetBSD syntax)  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, vga)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  
   
     # NetBSD/xen using a backup domain0 kernel (in case you installed a  
     # nonworking kernel as /netbsd  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, serial)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536 com1=115200,8n1  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=ttyS0  
     title Xen 3 / NetBSD (hda0, backup, VGA)  
       root(hd0,0)  
       kernel (hd0,a)/xen.gz dom0_mem=65536  
       module (hd0,a)/netbsd.backup bootdev=wd0a ro console=tty0  
   
     #Load a regular NetBSD/i386 kernel. Can be useful if you end up with a  
     #nonworking /xen.gz  
     title NetBSD 5.1  
       root (hd0,a)  
       kernel --type=netbsd /netbsd-GENERIC  
   
     #Load the NetBSD bootloader, letting it load the NetBSD/i386 kernel.  
     #May be better than the above, as grub can't pass all required infos  
     #to the NetBSD/i386 kernel (e.g. console, root device, ...)  
     title NetBSD chain  
       root        (hd0,0)  
       chainloader +1  
   
     ## end of grub config file.  
             
   
 Install grub with the following command:  
   
     # grub --no-floppy  
   
     grub> root (hd0,a)  
      Filesystem type is ffs, partition type 0xa9  
   
     grub> setup (hd0)  
      Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... no  
      Checking if "/grub/stage1" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/stage2" exists... yes  
      Checking if "/grub/ffs_stage1_5" exists... yes  
      Running "embed /grub/ffs_stage1_5 (hd0)"...  14 sectors are embedded.  
     succeeded  
      Running "install /grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,a)/grub/stage2 /grub/menu.lst"...  
      succeeded  
     Done.  
             
   
 Updating NetBSD in a dom0  Updating NetBSD in a dom0
 -------------------------  -------------------------
Line 296  and adjusts /etc. Line 281  and adjusts /etc.
 Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for  Note that one must update both the non-Xen kernel typically used for
 rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.  rescue purposes and the DOM0 kernel used with Xen.
   
   To convert from grub to /boot, install an mbr bootblock with fdisk,
   bootxx_ with installboot, /boot and /boot.cfg.  This really should be
   no different than completely reinstalling boot blocks on a non-Xen
   system.
   
 Updating Xen versions  Updating Xen versions
 ---------------------  ---------------------
   
 TODO: write  Updating Xen is conceptually not difficult, but can run into all the
   issues found when installing Xen.  Assuming migration from 4.1 to 4.2,
   remove the xenkernel41 and xentools41 packages and install the
   xenkernel42 and xentools42 packages.  Copy the 4.2 xen.gz to /.
   
   Ensure that the contents of /etc/rc.d/xen* are correct.  Enable the
   correct set of daemons.  Ensure that the domU config files are valid
   for the new version.
   
 Creating unprivileged domains (domU)  Creating unprivileged domains (domU)
 ====================================  ====================================
Line 333  PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By d Line 330  PKG\_SYSCONFDIR for its parameters. By d
 will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file  will be executed in the new domain (this kernel is in the *domain0* file
 system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should  system, not on the new domain virtual disk; but please note, you should
 install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make  install the same kernel into *domainU* as `/netbsd` in order to make
 your system tools, like MAN.SAVECORE.8, work). A suitable kernel is  your system tools, like savecore(8), work). A suitable kernel is
 provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.  provided as part of the i386 and amd64 binary sets: XEN3\_DOMU.
   
 Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:  Here is an /usr/pkg/etc/xen/nbsd example config file:
Line 443  like this: Line 440  like this:
     !brconfig $int add ex0 up      !brconfig $int add ex0 up
   
 (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0  (replace `ex0` with the name of your physical interface). Then bridge0
 will be created on boot. See the MAN.BRIDGE.4 man page for details.  will be created on boot. See the bridge(4) man page for details.
   
 So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a  So, here is a suitable `/usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge` for xvif?.? (a
 working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:  working vif-bridge is also provided with xentools20) configuring:
   
     #!/bin/sh      #!/bin/sh
     #============================================================================      #============================================================================
     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.15 2014/12/24 00:04:47 gdt Exp $      # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.26 2014/12/24 01:38:26 gdt Exp $
     #      #
     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge      # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
     #      #

Removed from v.1.16  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.27


CVSweb for NetBSD wikisrc <wikimaster@NetBSD.org> software: FreeBSD-CVSweb