Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.149 and 1.154

version 1.149, 2018/07/26 11:00:10 version 1.154, 2018/07/26 16:29:45
Line 19  Xen supports different styles of guest: Line 19  Xen supports different styles of guest:
   
 [[!table data="""  [[!table data="""
 Style of guest  |Supported by NetBSD  Style of guest  |Supported by NetBSD
 PV              |Yes  PV              |Yes (dom0, domU)
 HVM             |Yes  HVM             |Yes (domU)
 PVHVM           |No  PVHVM           |No
 PVH             |No  PVH             |No
 """]]  """]]
Line 35  There are further features for IOMMU vir Line 35  There are further features for IOMMU vir
 AMD's AMD-Vi.  TODO: Explain whether Xen on NetBSD makes use of these  AMD's AMD-Vi.  TODO: Explain whether Xen on NetBSD makes use of these
 features.  TODO: Review by someone who really understands this.  features.  TODO: Review by someone who really understands this.
   
 Generally any machine that runs NetBSD/amd64 will work with Xen and PV  
 guests.  In theory i386 computers (without x86_64/amd64 support) can  
 be used for Xen <= 4.2, but we have no recent reports of this working  
 (this is a hint).  For HVM guests, hardware support is needed, but it  
 is common on recent machines.  
   
 At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.  At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as a module with Xen as the kernel.
 The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail  The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
 in the dom0 section.)  in the dom0 section.)
   
 NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,  
 and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO  
 attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware  
 and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD  
 as a domU in a VPS.  
   
 Xen 3.1 in pkgsrc used to support "PCI passthrough", which means that  
 specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead  
 of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some  
 network interface or other peripheral.  
   
 NetBSD 6 and earlier supported Xen 2; support was removed from NetBSD  
 7.  Xen 2 has been removed from pkgsrc.  
   
 Prerequisites  
 -------------  
   
 Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more  
 complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.  
 In general, this HOWTO is occasionally overly restrictive about how  
 things must be done, guiding the reader to stay on the established  
 path when there are no known good reasons to stray.  
   
 This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system  This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
 architecture, with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64 hardware, and with  architecture, with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64 hardware, and with
 installing software from pkgsrc.  See also the [Xen  installing software from pkgsrc.  See also the [Xen
 website](http://www.xenproject.org/).  website](http://www.xenproject.org/).
   
   This HOWTO attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0
   on hardware and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also
   running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
   
 Versions of Xen and NetBSD  Versions of Xen and NetBSD
 ==========================  ==========================
   
Line 82  which version to choose.  Versions not i Line 57  which version to choose.  Versions not i
 versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.  versions of NetBSD are intentionally ignored.
   
 The term "amd64" is used to refer to both the NetBSD port and to the  The term "amd64" is used to refer to both the NetBSD port and to the
 hardware architecture on which it runs.  (Such hardware is made by  hardware architecture on which it runs.  Such hardware is generally
 both Intel and AMD, and in 2016 a normal PC has this CPU  made by both Intel and AMD, and common on PC computers.
 architecture.)  
   
 Xen versions  Xen versions
 ------------  ------------
Line 155  Architecture Line 129  Architecture
 ------------  ------------
   
 Xen itself can run on i386 (Xen < 4.2) or amd64 hardware (all Xen  Xen itself can run on i386 (Xen < 4.2) or amd64 hardware (all Xen
 versions).  (Practically, almost any computer where one would want to  versions).  Practically, almost any computer where one would want to
 run Xen today supports amd64.)  run Xen today supports amd64.
   
 Xen, the dom0 system, and each domU system can be either i386 or  Xen, the dom0 system, and each domU system can be either i386 or
 amd64.  When building a xenkernel package, one obtains an i386 Xen  amd64.  When building a xenkernel package, one obtains an i386 Xen
Line 166  be i386.  With an amd64 Xen kernel, an a Line 140  be i386.  With an amd64 Xen kernel, an a
 work, and an i386 dom0 kernel should in theory work.  An amd64  work, and an i386 dom0 kernel should in theory work.  An amd64
 Xen/dom0 is known to support both i386 and amd64 domUs.  Xen/dom0 is known to support both i386 and amd64 domUs.
   
 i386 dom0 and domU kernels must be PAE (except for an i386 Xen 3.1  i386 dom0 and domU kernels must be PAE. PAE kernels are included in
 kernel, where one can use non-PAE for dom0 and all domUs); PAE kernels  the NetBSD default build.
 are included in the NetBSD default build.  (Note that emacs (at least)  
 fails if run on i386 with PAE when built without, and vice versa,  
 presumably due to bugs in the undump code.)  
   
 Because of the above, the standard approach is to use an amd64 Xen  Because of the above, the standard approach is to use an amd64 Xen
 kernel and NetBSD/amd64 for the dom0.  For domUs, NetBSD/i386 (with  kernel and NetBSD/amd64 for the dom0.  For domUs, NetBSD/i386 (PAE) and
 the PAE kernel) and NetBSD/amd64 are in widespread use, and there is  NetBSD/amd64 are in widespread use, and there is
 little to no Xen-specific reason to prefer one over the other.  little to no Xen-specific reason to prefer one over the other.
   
 Note that to use an i386 dom0 with Xen 4.5 or higher, one must build  Note that to use an i386 dom0 with Xen 4.5 or higher, one must build
 (or obtain from pre-built packages) an amd64 Xen kernel and install  (or obtain from pre-built packages) an amd64 Xen kernel and install
 that on the system.  (One must also use a PAE i386 kernel, but this is  that on the system.  Almost no one in the NetBSD/Xen community does
 also required with an i386 Xen kernel.).  Almost no one in the  this, and the standard, well-tested, approach is to use an amd64 dom0.
 NetBSD/Xen community does this, and the standard, well-tested,  
 approach is to use an amd64 dom0.  
   
 A [posting on  A [posting on
 xen-devel](https://lists.xen.org/archives/html/xen-devel/2012-07/msg00085.html)  xen-devel](https://lists.xen.org/archives/html/xen-devel/2012-07/msg00085.html)
Line 192  caution that the total situation is comp Line 161  caution that the total situation is comp
 understood. On top of that caution, the post is about Linux, not  understood. On top of that caution, the post is about Linux, not
 NetBSD.  TODO: Include link to benchmarks, if someone posts them.  NetBSD.  TODO: Include link to benchmarks, if someone posts them.
   
 Recommendation  
 --------------  
   
 Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel46, xl, the NetBSD 7  
 stable branch, and therefore to use an amd64 kernel as the dom0.  
 Either the i386PAE or amd64 version of NetBSD may be used as domUs.  
   
 A tentative replacement recommendation is xenkernel48, xl, and NetBSD  
 8.  
   
 Because bugs are fixed quite often, and because of Xen security  
 advisories, it is good to stay up to date with NetBSD (tracking a  
 stable branch), with the Xen kernel (tracking a Xen version via  
 pkgsrc), and with the Xen tools.  Specifically, NetBSD (-7 and  
 -current) got an important fix affecting dom0/domU timesharing in  
 November, 2015, and xentools46 got a fix to enable Ubuntu guests to  
 boot in December, 2016.  
   
 NetBSD as a dom0  NetBSD as a dom0
 ================  ================
   
Line 300  documentation](https://www.NetBSD.org/do Line 251  documentation](https://www.NetBSD.org/do
 pkgsrc.  Ensure that your packages are recent; the HOWTO does not  pkgsrc.  Ensure that your packages are recent; the HOWTO does not
 contemplate old builds.  contemplate old builds.
   
   
 For Xen 3.1, support for HVM guests is in sysutils/xentool3-hvm.  More  
 recent versions have HVM support integrated in the main xentools  
 package.  It is entirely reasonable to run only PV guests.  
   
 Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is  Next you need to install the selected Xen kernel itself, which is
 installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.  installed by pkgsrc as "/usr/pkg/xen*-kernel/xen.gz".  Copy it to /.
 For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar  For debugging, one may copy xen-debug.gz; this is conceptually similar
Line 312  to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen- Line 258  to DIAGNOSTIC and DEBUG in NetBSD.  xen-
 useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel  useful with a serial console.  Then, place a NetBSD XEN3_DOM0 kernel
 in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz  in /, copied from releasedir/amd64/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz
 of a NetBSD build.  If using i386, use  of a NetBSD build.  If using i386, use
 releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.  (If using Xen  releasedir/i386/binary/kernel/netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz.  Both xen and
 3.1 and i386, you may use XEN3_DOM0 with the non-PAE Xen.  But you  the NetBSD kernel may be (and typically are) left compressed.
 should not use Xen 3.1.)  Both xen and the NetBSD kernel may be (and  
 typically are) left compressed.  
   
 In a dom0, kernfs is mandatory for xend to communicate with the  In a dom0, kernfs is mandatory for xend to communicate with the
 kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.  (A standard NetBSD install  kernel, so ensure that /kern is in fstab.  (A standard NetBSD install
Line 326  with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffs Line 270  with an MBR bootblock, either bootxx_ffs
 beginning of your root file system, have /boot, and likely also  beginning of your root file system, have /boot, and likely also
 /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)  /boot.cfg.  (If not, fix before continuing!)
   
 Add a line to to /boot.cfg to boot Xen.  See boot.cfg(5) for an  Add a line to /boot.cfg to boot Xen.  See boot.cfg(5) for an
 example.  The basic line is  example.  The basic line is:
   
         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
   """]]
   
 which specifies that the dom0 should have 512M, leaving the rest to be  which specifies that the dom0 should have 512M, leaving the rest to be
 allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use  allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use
   
         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
   """]]
   
 which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting  which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
 from 1, unlike NetBSD which counts starting from 0), forcing  from 1, unlike NetBSD which counts starting from 0), forcing
Line 343  speed/parity.  Because the NetBSD comman Line 291  speed/parity.  Because the NetBSD comman
 which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen  which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen
 itself uses (in this case, the serial port).  itself uses (in this case, the serial port).
   
 In an attempt to add performance, one can also add  In an attempt to add performance, one can also add:
   
         dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
   """]]
   
 to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use  to force only one vcpu to be provided (since NetBSD dom0 can't use
 more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU.  TODO: benchmark this.  more) and to pin that vcpu to a physical CPU.  TODO: benchmark this.
Line 362  sure /netbsd is ok).  Consider also a li Line 312  sure /netbsd is ok).  Consider also a li
 of Xen and the dom0 kernel, but note that non-Xen NetBSD can be used  of Xen and the dom0 kernel, but note that non-Xen NetBSD can be used
 to resolve Xen booting issues.  to resolve Xen booting issues.
   
 Probably you want a default=N line to choose Xen in the absence of  
 intervention.  
   
 Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather  Now, reboot so that you are running a DOM0 kernel under Xen, rather
 than GENERIC without Xen.  than GENERIC without Xen.
   
Line 385  described above.) Line 332  described above.)
 Configuring Xen  Configuring Xen
 ---------------  ---------------
   
 Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.  
   
 Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, but not  Now, you have a system that will boot Xen and the dom0 kernel, but not
 do anything else special.  Make sure that you have rebooted into Xen.  do anything else special.  Make sure that you have rebooted into Xen.
 There will be no domUs, and none can be started because you still have  There will be no domUs, and none can be started because you still have
 to configure the dom0 daemons.  to configure the dom0 daemons.
   
 The daemons which should be run vary with Xen version and with whether  The daemons which should be run vary with Xen version and with whether
 one is using xm or xl.  The Xen 3.1, 3.3 and 4.1 packages use xm.  Xen  one is using xm or xl. Xen 4.2 and up packages use xl. To use xm with 4.2,
 4.2 and up packages use xl.  To use xm with 4.2, edit xendomains to  edit xendomains to use xm instead.
 use xm instead.  
   
 For 3.1 and 3.3, you should enable xend and xenbackendd:  
   
         xend=YES  
         xenbackendd=YES  
   
 For 4.1 and up, you should enable xencommons.  Not enabling xencommons  For 4.1 and up, you should enable xencommons.  Not enabling xencommons
 will result in a hang; it is necessary to hit ^C on the console to let  will result in a hang; it is necessary to hit ^C on the console to let
 the machine finish booting.  If you are using xm (default in 4.1, or  the machine finish booting.  If you are using xm (default in 4.1, or
 if you changed xendomains in 4.2), you should also enable xend:  if you changed xendomains in 4.2), you should also enable xend:
   
         xend=YES # only if using xm, and only installed <= 4.2  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
         xencommons=YES  xend=YES # only if using xm, and only installed <= 4.2
   xencommons=YES
   """]]
   
 TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.  TODO: Recommend for/against xen-watchdog.
   
Line 416  After you have configured the daemons an Line 357  After you have configured the daemons an
 order given) or rebooted, use xm or xl to inspect Xen's boot messages,  order given) or rebooted, use xm or xl to inspect Xen's boot messages,
 available resources, and running domains.  An example with xl follows:  available resources, and running domains.  An example with xl follows:
   
         # xl dmesg  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
         [xen's boot info]  # xl dmesg
         # xl info  ... xen's boot info ...
         [available memory, etc.]  # xl info
         # xl list  ... available memory, etc ...
         Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console  # xl list
         Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1  Name              Id  Mem(MB)  CPU  State  Time(s)  Console
   Domain-0           0       64    0  r----     58.1
   """]]
   
   Xen logs will be in /var/log/xen.
   
 ### Issues with xencommons  ### Issues with xencommons
   
Line 441  this will get fixed any time soon. Line 386  this will get fixed any time soon.
 The installation of NetBSD should already have created devices for xen  The installation of NetBSD should already have created devices for xen
 (xencons, xenevt, xsd_kva), but if they are not present, create them:  (xencons, xenevt, xsd_kva), but if they are not present, create them:
   
         cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   cd /dev && sh MAKEDEV xen
   """]]
   
 anita (for testing NetBSD)  anita (for testing NetBSD)
 --------------------------  --------------------------
Line 450  With the setup so far (assuming 4.2/xl), Line 397  With the setup so far (assuming 4.2/xl),
 anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as  anita (see pkgsrc/misc/py-anita) to test NetBSD releases, by doing (as
 root, because anita must create a domU):  root, because anita must create a domU):
   
         anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/  [[!template id=programlisting text="""
   anita --vmm=xl test file:///usr/obj/i386/
   """]]
   
 Alternatively, one can use --vmm=xm to use xm-based domU creation  Alternatively, one can use --vmm=xm to use xm-based domU creation
 instead (and must, on Xen <= 4.1).   TODO: confirm that anita xl really works.  instead (and must, on Xen <= 4.1).   TODO: confirm that anita xl really works.
Line 539  Specifically, for 4.x remove autorestart Line 488  Specifically, for 4.x remove autorestart
 are specified with numbers as the second argument, as the examples  are specified with numbers as the second argument, as the examples
 above show, and not NetBSD device names.  above show, and not NetBSD device names.
   
 Hardware known to work  
 ----------------------  
   
 Arguably, this section is misplaced, and there should be a page of  
 hardware that runs NetBSD/amd64 well, with the mostly-well-founded  
 assumption that NetBSD/xen runs fine on any modern hardware that  
 NetBSD/amd64 runs well on.  Until then, we give motherboard/CPU (and  
 sometimes RAM) pairs/triples to aid those choosing a motherboard.  
 Note that Xen systems usually do not run X, so a listing here does not  
 imply that X works at all.  
   
         Supermicro X9SRL-F, Xeon E5-1650 v2, 96 GiB ECC  
         Supermicro ??, Atom C2758 (8 core), 32 GiB ECC  
         ASUS M5A78L-M/USB3 AM3+ microATX, AMD Piledriver X8 4000MHz, 16 GiB ECC  
   
 Older hardware:  
   
         Intel D915GEV, Pentium4 CPU 3.40GHz, 4GB 533MHz Synchronous DDR2  
         INTEL DG33FB, "Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU     E6850  @ 3.00GHz"  
         INTEL DG33FB, "Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Duo CPU     E8400  @ 3.00GHz"  
   
 Running Xen under qemu  
 ----------------------  
   
 The astute reader will note that this section is somewhat twisted.  
 However, it can be useful to run Xen under qemu either because the  
 version of NetBSD as a dom0 does not run on the hardware in use, or to  
 generate automated test cases involving Xen.  
   
 In 2015-01, the following combination was reported to mostly work:  
   
         host OS: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.4  
         qemu: 2.2.0 from pkgsrc  
         Xen kernel: xenkernel42-4.2.5nb1 from pkgsrc  
         dom0 kernel: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.5  
         Xen tools: xentools42-4.2.5 from pkgsrc  
   
 See [PR 47720](https://gnats.netbsd.org/47720) for a problem with dom0  
 shutdown.  
   
 Unprivileged domains (domU)  Unprivileged domains (domU)
 ===========================  ===========================
   
Line 811  savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful Line 720  savecore(8) can work.   (This is helpful
 The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The  The kernel must be specifically for Xen and for use as a domU.  The
 i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:  i386 and amd64 provide the following kernels:
   
         i386 XEN3_DOMU  
         i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU          i386 XEN3PAE_DOMU
         amd64 XEN3_DOMU          amd64 XEN3_DOMU
   
 Unless using Xen 3.1 (and you shouldn't) with i386-mode Xen, you must  
 use the PAE version of the i386 kernel.  
   
 This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is  This will boot NetBSD, but this is not that useful if the disk is
 empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen  empty.  One approach is to unpack sets onto the disk outside of xen
 (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a  (by mounting it, just as you would prepare a physical disk for a

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