Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.136 and 1.143

version 1.136, 2016/12/21 17:03:03 version 1.143, 2018/06/17 21:11:00
Line 2  Introduction Line 2  Introduction
 ============  ============
   
 [![[Xen  [![[Xen
 screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)  screenshot]](https://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](https://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
   
 Xen is a hypervisor (or virtual machine monitor) for x86 hardware  Xen is a hypervisor (or virtual machine monitor) for x86 hardware
 (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest  (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
Line 51  attempts to address both the case of run Line 51  attempts to address both the case of run
 and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD  and running domUs under it (NetBSD and other), and also running NetBSD
 as a domU in a VPS.  as a domU in a VPS.
   
 Xen 3.1 in pkgsrc supports "PCI passthrough", which means that  Xen 3.1 in pkgsrc used to support "PCI passthrough", which means that
 specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead  specific PCI devices can be made available to a specific domU instead
 of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some  of the dom0.  This can be useful to let a domU run X11, or access some
 network interface or other peripheral.  network interface or other peripheral.
Line 109  as of 2016-12 received backported securi Line 109  as of 2016-12 received backported securi
 i386 PAE and amd64 hardware.  There are no good reasons to run this  i386 PAE and amd64 hardware.  There are no good reasons to run this
 version.  version.
   
   Note that 3.1, 3.3 and 4.1 have been removed from pkgsrc-current, but
   are in 2016Q4.  They will be removed from this HOWTO sometime after
   2017Q1.
   
 xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but  xenkernel42 provides Xen 4.2.  It is no longer maintained by Xen, but
 as of 2016-12 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.2 runs on  as of 2016-12 received backported security patches.  Xen 4.2 runs on
 i386 PAE and amd64 hardware.  The only reason to run this is if you  i386 PAE and amd64 hardware.  The only reason to run this is if you
Line 117  supports i386 but not amd64.  (This migh Line 121  supports i386 but not amd64.  (This migh
 an i386 dom0, if it turns out that an amd64 Xen kernel and an i386  an i386 dom0, if it turns out that an amd64 Xen kernel and an i386
 dom0 is problematic.)  dom0 is problematic.)
   
 xenkernel45 provides Xen 4.5.  As of 2016-12, security patches were  xenkernel45 provides Xen 4.5.  Security advisories released in 2018-05
 released by Xen and applied to pkgsrc.  Xen 4.5 runs on amd64 hardware  did not include support for 4.5.  Xen 4.5 and newer runs on amd64
 only.  While slightly old, 4.5 has been tested and run by others, so  hardware only.  While slightly old, 4.5 has been tested and run by
 it is the conservative choice.  others, so it is a very conservative choice.
   
 xenkernel46 provides Xen 4.6.  It is new to pkgsrc as of 2016-05.  As  xenkernel46 provides Xen 4.6, and was added to pkgsrc as of 2016-05.
 of 2016-12, security patches were released by Xen and applied to  As of 2018-05, security patches were released by Xen and are expected
 pkgsrc.  Xen 4.6 runs on amd64 hardware only For new installations,  to be applied to pkgsrc.  Xen 4.6 runs on amd64 hardware only.  (If
 4.6 is probably the appropriate choice and it will likely soon be the  using Ubuntu guests, be sure to have the xentools46 from December,
 standard approach.  (If using Ubuntu guests, be sure to have the  2016).  4.6 is perhaps an old choice, or perhaps the standard
 xentools46 from December, 2016).  approach.
   
   Xen 4.7 was released in 2016-06 and is not in pkgsrc.
   
   xenkernel48 provides Xen 4.8, and was added to pkgsrc in 2017-03.  As
   of 2018-05, security patches were released by Xen and are expected to
   be applied to pkgsrc.  4.8 is perhaps the standard choice, or perhaps
   slightly new.
   
 Xen 4.7 (released 2016-06) and 4.8 (released 2016-12) are not yet in  Xen 4.9 and 4.10 are not in pkgsrc.
 pkgsrc.  
   
 See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).  See also the [Xen Security Advisory page](http://xenbits.xen.org/xsa/).
   
Line 164  of interfaces. Line 174  of interfaces.
 NetBSD  NetBSD
 ------  ------
   
 The netbsd-6, netbsd-7, and -current branches are all reasonable  The netbsd-7, netbsd-8, and -current branches are all reasonable
 choices, with more or less the same considerations for non-Xen use.  choices, with more or less the same considerations for non-Xen use.
 Therefore, netbsd-7 is recommended as the stable version of the most  Therefore, netbsd-7 is recommended as the stable version of the most
 recent release for production use.  In addition, netbsd-7 and -current  recent release for production use.  (Note that netbsd-7 (and therefore
 have a important scheduler fix (in November of 2015) affecting  8/current) have a important scheduler fix (in November of 2015)
 contention between dom0 and domUs; see  affecting contention between dom0 and domUs; see
 https://releng.netbsd.org/cgi-bin/req-7.cgi?show=1040 for a  https://releng.netbsd.org/cgi-bin/req-7.cgi?show=1040 for a
 description.  For those wanting to learn Xen or without production  description.)  For production, netbsd-7 is appropriate.  For learning,
 stability concerns, netbsd-7 is still likely most appropriate, but  netbsd-8 is appropriate.  For developing Xen, netbsd-current may be
 -current is also a reasonable choice.  (Xen runs ok on netbsd-5, but  appropriate.
 the xentools packages are likely difficult to build, and netbsd-5 is  
 not supported.)  
   
 As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is  As of NetBSD 6, a NetBSD domU will support multiple vcpus.  There is
 no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really  no SMP support for NetBSD as dom0.  (The dom0 itself doesn't really
Line 230  Mostly, NetBSD as a dom0 or domU is quit Line 238  Mostly, NetBSD as a dom0 or domU is quit
 However, there are some open PRs indicating problems.  However, there are some open PRs indicating problems.
   
  - [PR 48125](http://gnats.netbsd.org/48125)   - [PR 48125](http://gnats.netbsd.org/48125)
  - [PR 47720](http://gnats.netbsd.org/47720)  
   
 Note also that there are issues with sparse vnd(4) instances, but  Note also that there are issues with sparse vnd(4) instances, but
 these are not about Xen -- they just are noticed with sparse vnd(4)  these are not about Xen -- they just are noticed with sparse vnd(4)
Line 239  instances in support of virtual disks in Line 246  instances in support of virtual disks in
 Recommendation  Recommendation
 --------------  --------------
   
 Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel45 or xenkernel46,  Therefore, this HOWTO recommends running xenkernel46, xl, the NetBSD 7
 xl, the NetBSD 7 stable branch, and to use an amd64 kernel as the  stable branch, and therefore to use an amd64 kernel as the dom0.
 dom0.  Either the i386PAE or amd64 version of NetBSD may be used as  Either the i386PAE or amd64 version of NetBSD may be used as domUs.
 domUs.  
   A tentative replacement recommendation is xenkernel48, xl, and NetBSD
   8.
   
 Because bugs are fixed quite often, and because of Xen security  Because bugs are fixed quite often, and because of Xen security
 advisories, it is good to stay up to date with NetBSD (tracking a  advisories, it is good to stay up to date with NetBSD (tracking a
Line 329  half-dozen domUs of 512M and 32G each.   Line 338  half-dozen domUs of 512M and 32G each.  
 have to be bigger than the sum of the RAM/disk needs of the dom0 and  have to be bigger than the sum of the RAM/disk needs of the dom0 and
 all the domUs.  all the domUs.
   
   In 2018-05, trouble booting a dom0 was reported with 256M of RAM: with
   512M it worked reliably.  This does not make sense, but if you see
   "not ELF" after Xen boots, try increasing dom0 RAM.
   
 Styles of dom0 operation  Styles of dom0 operation
 ------------------------  ------------------------
   
Line 350  Xen daemons when not running Xen. Line 363  Xen daemons when not running Xen.
 Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will  Note that NetBSD as dom0 does not support multiple CPUs.  This will
 limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.  In theory  limit the performance of the Xen/dom0 workstation approach.  In theory
 the only issue is that the "backend drivers" are not yet MPSAFE:  the only issue is that the "backend drivers" are not yet MPSAFE:
   http://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/08/29/msg015195.html    https://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/08/29/msg015195.html
   
 Installation of NetBSD  Installation of NetBSD
 ----------------------  ----------------------
Line 393  Installation of Xen Line 406  Installation of Xen
   
 In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from  In the dom0, install sysutils/xenkernel42 and sysutils/xentools42 from
 pkgsrc (or another matching pair).  See [the pkgsrc  pkgsrc (or another matching pair).  See [the pkgsrc
 documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with  documentation](https://www.NetBSD.org/docs/pkgsrc/) for help with
 pkgsrc.  Ensure that your packages are recent; the HOWTO does not  pkgsrc.  Ensure that your packages are recent; the HOWTO does not
 contemplate old builds.  contemplate old builds.
   
Line 426  beginning of your root file system, have Line 439  beginning of your root file system, have
 Add a line to to /boot.cfg to boot Xen.  See boot.cfg(5) for an  Add a line to to /boot.cfg to boot Xen.  See boot.cfg(5) for an
 example.  The basic line is  example.  The basic line is
   
         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M          menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
   
 which specifies that the dom0 should have 256M, leaving the rest to be  which specifies that the dom0 should have 512M, leaving the rest to be
 allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use  allocated for domUs.  To use a serial console, use
   
         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz console=com0;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1          menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3_DOM0.gz;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M console=com1 com1=9600,8n1
   
 which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting  which will use the first serial port for Xen (which counts starting
 from 1), forcing speed/parity, and also for NetBSD (which counts  from 1, unlike NetBSD which counts starting from 0), forcing
 starting at 0).  In an attempt to add performance, one can also add  speed/parity.  Because the NetBSD command line lacks a
   "console=pc" argument, it will use the default "xencons" console device,
   which directs the console I/O through Xen to the same console device Xen
   itself uses (in this case, the serial port).
   
   In an attempt to add performance, one can also add
   
         dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin          dom0_max_vcpus=1 dom0_vcpus_pin
   
Line 468  grub was recommended.  If necessary, see Line 486  grub was recommended.  If necessary, see
 [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub).  [old grub information](/ports/xen/howto-grub).
   
 The [HowTo on Installing into  The [HowTo on Installing into
 RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)  RAID-1](https://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
 explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with  explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub with
 NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native  NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of NetBSD's native
 boot.  Now, just create a system with RAID-1, and alter /boot.cfg as  boot.  Now, just create a system with RAID-1, and alter /boot.cfg as
Line 594  section. Line 612  section.
         # Install secondary boot loader          # Install secondary boot loader
         cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /          cp -p /usr/mdec/boot /
         # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:          # Create boot.cfg following earlier guidance:
         menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=256M          menu=Xen:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.gz dom0_mem=512M
         menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=256M          menu=Xen.ok:load /netbsd-XEN3PAE_DOM0.ok.gz console=pc;multiboot /xen.ok.gz dom0_mem=512M
         menu=GENERIC:boot          menu=GENERIC:boot
         menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s          menu=GENERIC single-user:boot -s
         menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok          menu=GENERIC.ok:boot netbsd.ok
Line 668  In 2015-01, the following combination wa Line 686  In 2015-01, the following combination wa
         dom0 kernel: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.5          dom0 kernel: NetBSD/amd64 6.1.5
         Xen tools: xentools42-4.2.5 from pkgsrc          Xen tools: xentools42-4.2.5 from pkgsrc
   
 See [PR 47720](http://gnats.netbsd.org/47720) for a problem with dom0  See [PR 47720](https://gnats.netbsd.org/47720) for a problem with dom0
 shutdown.  shutdown.
   
 Unprivileged domains (domU)  Unprivileged domains (domU)
Line 864  Sizing domains Line 882  Sizing domains
   
 Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources.  However, many  Modern x86 hardware has vast amounts of resources.  However, many
 virtual servers can function just fine on far less.  A system with  virtual servers can function just fine on far less.  A system with
 256M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice.  Note that it is  512M of RAM and a 4G disk can be a reasonable choice.  Note that it is
 far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones.  For  far easier to adjust virtual resources than physical ones.  For
 memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot.  For disk, one can  memory, it's just a config file edit and a reboot.  For disk, one can
 create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,  create a new file and vnconfig it (or lvm), and then dump/restore,
Line 1152  to update the special boot partition. Line 1170  to update the special boot partition.
 Amazon  Amazon
 ------  ------
   
 See the [Amazon EC2 page](../amazon_ec2/).  See the [Amazon EC2 page](/amazon_ec2/).
   
 Using npf  Using npf
 ---------  ---------
Line 1163  DOMU kernel. Line 1181  DOMU kernel.
 TODO: Explain how to compile npf into a custom kernel, answering (but  TODO: Explain how to compile npf into a custom kernel, answering (but
 note that the problem was caused by not booting the right kernel)  note that the problem was caused by not booting the right kernel)
 [this email to  [this email to
 netbsd-users](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/12/26/msg015576.html).  netbsd-users](https://mail-index.netbsd.org/netbsd-users/2014/12/26/msg015576.html).
   
 TODO items for improving NetBSD/xen  TODO items for improving NetBSD/xen
 ===================================  ===================================
Line 1178  TODO items for improving NetBSD/xen Line 1196  TODO items for improving NetBSD/xen
     fragsize/blocksize (UFS2 support may be present; the point is to      fragsize/blocksize (UFS2 support may be present; the point is to
     make it so that with any UFS1/UFS2 file system setup that works      make it so that with any UFS1/UFS2 file system setup that works
     with NetBSD grub will also work).      with NetBSD grub will also work).
     See [pkg/40258](http://gnats.netbsd.org/40258).      See [pkg/40258](https://gnats.netbsd.org/40258).
   * Push patches upstream.    * Push patches upstream.
   * Get UFS2 patches into pvgrub.    * Get UFS2 patches into pvgrub.
 * Add support for PV ops to a version of /boot, and make it usable as  * Add support for PV ops to a version of /boot, and make it usable as

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