Diff for /wikisrc/ports/xen/howto.mdwn between versions 1.6 and 1.12

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 <table>  
 <tbody>  
 <tr class="odd">  
 <td align="left"><a href="../../about/disclaimer.html#bsd-daemon"></a></td>  
 <td align="left"><h1>Table Of Contents</h1>  
 <ul>  
 <li>Introduction</li>  
 <li>Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged NetBSD domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged Linux domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Creating an unprivileged Solaris domain (DomU)</li>  
 <li>Using PCI devices in guest domains</li>  
 <li>Links and further information</li>  
 </ul></td>  
 </tr>  
 </tbody>  
 </table>  
   
 Introduction  Introduction
 ------------  ------------
   
 [![[Xen  [![[Xen
 screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)  screenshot]](http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xens.png)](../../gallery/in-Action/hubertf-xen.png)
   
   Xen is a virtual machine monitor or hypervisor for x86 hardware
   (i686-class or higher), which supports running multiple guest
   operating systems on a single physical machine.  With Xen, one uses
   the Xen kernel to control the CPU, memory and console, a dom0
   operating system which mediates access to other hardware (e.g., disks,
   network, USB), and one or more domU operating systems which operate in
   an unprivileged virtualized environment.  IO requests from the domU
   systems are forwarded by the hypervisor (Xen) to the dom0 to be
   fulfilled.
   
   Xen supports two styles of guests.  The original is Para-Virtualized
   (PV) which means that the guest OS does not attempt to access hardware
   directly, but instead makes hypercalls to the hypervisor.  This is
   analogous to a user-space program making system calls.  (The dom0
   operating system uses PV calls for some functions, such as updating
   memory mapping page tables, but has direct hardware access for disk
   and network.)   PV guests must be specifically coded for Xen.
   
   The more recent style is HVM, which means that the guest does not have
   code for Xen and need not be aware that it is running under Xen.
   Attempts to access hardware registers are trapped and emulated.  This
   style is less efficient but can run unmodified guests.
   
   At boot, the dom0 kernel is loaded as module with Xen as the kernel.
   The dom0 can start one or more domUs.  (Booting is explained in detail
   in the dom0 section.)
   
   NetBSD supports Xen in that it can serve as dom0, be used as a domU,
   and that Xen kernels and tools are available in pkgsrc.  This HOWTO
   attempts to address both the case of running a NetBSD dom0 on hardware
   and running NetBSD as a domU in a VPS.
   
   Prerequisites
   =============
   
   Installing NetBSD/Xen is not extremely difficult, but it is more
   complex than a normal installation of NetBSD.
   
   This HOWTO presumes a basic familiarity with the Xen system
   architecture.
   
 Xen is a virtual machine monitor for x86 hardware (requires i686-class  This HOWTO presumes familiarity with installing NetBSD on i386/amd64
 CPUs), which supports running multiple guest operating systems on a  hardware and installing software from pkgsrc.
 single machine. Guest OSes (also called "domains") require a modified  
 kernel which supports Xen hypercalls in replacement to access to the  For more details on Xen, see [](http://www.xen.org/).
 physical hardware. At boot, the Xen kernel (also known as the Xen  
 hypervisor) is loaded (via the bootloader) along with the guest kernel  
 for the first domain (called *domain0*). The Xen kernel has to be loaded  
 using the multiboot protocol. You would use the NetBSD boot loader for  
 this, or alternatively the `grub` boot loader (`grub` has some  
 limitations, detailed below). *domain0* has special privileges to access  
 the physical hardware (PCI and ISA devices), administrate other domains  
 and provide virtual devices (disks and network) to other domains that  
 lack those privileges. For more details, see [](http://www.xen.org/).  
   
 NetBSD can be used for both *domain0 (Dom0)* and further, unprivileged  
 (DomU) domains. (Actually there can be multiple privileged domains  
 accessing different parts of the hardware, all providing virtual devices  
 to unprivileged domains. We will only talk about the case of a single  
 privileged domain, *domain0*). *domain0* will see physical devices much  
 like a regular i386 or amd64 kernel, and will own the physical console  
 (VGA or serial). Unprivileged domains will only see a character-only  
 virtual console, virtual disks (`xbd`) and virtual network interfaces  
 (`xennet`) provided by a privileged domain (usually *domain0*). xbd  
 devices are connected to a block device (i.e., a partition of a disk,  
 raid, ccd, ... device) in the privileged domain. xennet devices are  
 connected to virtual devices in the privileged domain, named  
 xvif\<domain number\>.\<if number for this domain\>, e.g., xvif1.0. Both  
 xennet and xvif devices are seen as regular Ethernet devices (they can  
 be seen as a crossover cable between 2 PCs) and can be assigned  
 addresses (and be routed or NATed, filtered using IPF, etc ...) or be  
 added as part of a bridge.  
   
 Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)  Installing NetBSD as privileged domain (Dom0)
 ---------------------------------------------  ---------------------------------------------
Line 354  working vif-bridge is also provided with Line 350  working vif-bridge is also provided with
   
     #!/bin/sh      #!/bin/sh
     #============================================================================      #============================================================================
     # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.5 2013/11/01 12:27:37 mspo Exp $      # $NetBSD: howto.mdwn,v 1.11 2014/12/23 23:25:57 gdt Exp $
     #      #
     # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge      # /usr/pkg/etc/xen/vif-bridge
     #      #
Line 734  to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a k Line 730  to use PCI devices in a domU. Here's a k
 Links and further information  Links and further information
 =============================  =============================
   
 -   The HowTo on  -   The [HowTo on Installing into RAID-1](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-xen/2006/03/01/0010.html)
     Installing into RAID-1      explains how to set up booting a dom0 with Xen using grub 
     gives some hints on using Xen (grub) with NetBSD's RAIDframe      with NetBSD's RAIDframe.  (This is obsolete with the use of
 -   Harold Gutch wrote documentation on      NetBSD's native boot.)
     setting up a Linux DomU with a NetBSD Dom0  
 -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load  -   An example of how to use NetBSD's native bootloader to load
     NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 MAN.BOOT.8      NetBSD/Xen instead of Grub can be found in the i386/amd64 boot(8)
     and MAN.BOOT.CFG.5 manpages.      and boot.cfg(5) manpages.
   

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