Annotation of wikisrc/ports/sandpoint/inststorcenter.mdwn, revision 1.2

1.1       mspo        1: Introduction
                      2: ============
                      3: 
                      4: <table>
                      5: <tbody>
                      6: <tr class="odd">
1.2     ! phx         7: <td align="left"><p>This document describes in depth how to prepare your Iomega StorCenter G2 for installing NetBSD/sandpoint. The three supported models are:</p>
1.1       mspo        8: <ul>
                      9: <li>StorCenter G2 Single Drive, 200MHz</li>
                     10: <li>StorCenter G2 Dual Drive, 200MHz</li>
                     11: <li>StorCenter G2 Quad Drive, 266MHz</li>
                     12: </ul>
                     13: <p>All models have 64 MB RAM and a PATA disk interface. Note that newer StorCenter models use an ARM CPU and are not supported.</p>
1.2     ! phx        14: <p>To install NetBSD/sandpoint you will have to open the case for getting access to the serial console. This is shown here for the Single Drive model.</p></td>
1.1       mspo       15: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_portrait.jpg" alt="StorCenter Single Drive" /></td>
                     16: </tr>
                     17: </tbody>
                     18: </table>
                     19: 
                     20: Accessing the serial interface
                     21: ==============================
                     22: 
                     23: We need a serial console to get access to the firmware. That includes
                     24: soldering a cable to the board and building (or buying) a serial adapter
                     25: to convert from the StorCenter's TTL levels to RS232 levels.
                     26: 
                     27: Disassemble the StorCenter Single Drive
                     28: ---------------------------------------
                     29: 
                     30: <table>
                     31: <tbody>
                     32: <tr class="odd">
                     33: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_open1.jpg" alt="StorCenter disassembly step 1" /></td>
                     34: <td align="left"><p>The Single Drive model is somewhat tricky to open. Move the cover by applying some force into the direction away from the interface bezel. It will eventually snap open. Then remove the metal shielding. Again, there are no screws. It is held in place by some brackets. Just pull it upwards and you will see the hard disk.</p></td>
                     35: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_open2.jpg" alt="StorCenter disassembly step 2" /></td>
                     36: </tr>
                     37: </tbody>
                     38: </table>
                     39: 
                     40: <table>
                     41: <tbody>
                     42: <tr class="odd">
                     43: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_open3.jpg" alt="StorCenter disassembly step 3" /></td>
                     44: <td align="left"><p>Do not try to access the screws, which are securing the disk drive, through the plastic vents. To be able to pull the metal case up we have to remove four screws at the bottom first, which are hidden behind a plastic plate. Pry open the plastic plate using a levering tool, like a screw driver. You will need some force to do that.</p></td>
                     45: </tr>
                     46: </tbody>
                     47: </table>
                     48: 
                     49: <table>
                     50: <tbody>
                     51: <tr class="odd">
                     52: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_open4.jpg" alt="StorCenter disassembly step 4" /></td>
                     53: <td align="left"><p>Remove the four screws at the bottom. Now you can easily pull the metal case out.</p></td>
                     54: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_open5.jpg" alt="StorCenter disassembly step 5" /></td>
                     55: </tr>
                     56: </tbody>
                     57: </table>
                     58: 
                     59: <table>
                     60: <tbody>
                     61: <tr class="odd">
                     62: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_open6.jpg" alt="StorCenter disassembly step 6" /></td>
                     63: <td align="left"><p>Remove the four screws which are securing the hard disk and unplug its connectors. Also remove the fan and the LED from the metal case. Now you can pull the mainboard out of the metal case, by moving it into the direction of the rear bezel.</p></td>
                     64: </tr>
                     65: </tbody>
                     66: </table>
                     67: 
                     68: Locate the serial header
                     69: ------------------------
                     70: 
                     71: Look out for an unpopulated 8-pin header, called `J11` (marked red on
                     72: the picture to the left). The leftmost four pins can be used for the
                     73: serial interface. The pin assignments are shown in the table.
                     74: 
                     75: <table>
                     76: <tbody>
                     77: <tr class="odd">
                     78: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_board.jpg" alt="StorCenter mainboard" /></td>
                     79: <td align="left"><table>
                     80: <tbody>
                     81: <tr class="odd">
                     82: <td align="left"><strong>Pin number</strong></td>
                     83: <td align="left"><strong>Function</strong></td>
                     84: </tr>
                     85: <tr class="even">
                     86: <td align="left">1</td>
                     87: <td align="left">3.3V</td>
                     88: </tr>
                     89: <tr class="odd">
                     90: <td align="left">2</td>
                     91: <td align="left">TXD</td>
                     92: </tr>
                     93: <tr class="even">
                     94: <td align="left">3</td>
                     95: <td align="left">GND</td>
                     96: </tr>
                     97: <tr class="odd">
                     98: <td align="left">4</td>
                     99: <td align="left">RXD</td>
                    100: </tr>
                    101: </tbody>
                    102: </table></td>
                    103: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_ser_header.jpg" alt="Header pin assignments" /></td>
                    104: </tr>
                    105: </tbody>
                    106: </table>
                    107: 
                    108: Attaching a serial cable
                    109: ------------------------
                    110: 
                    111: <table>
                    112: <tbody>
                    113: <tr class="odd">
                    114: <td align="left"><p>It is not recommended to solder a header onto <code>J11</code>, because then you would no longer be able to close the case. Instead you should just solder a 4-wire ribbon cable, which is flat enough to hide under the disk drive. Also make sure to choose a small 4-pin plug, which you can connect to your external cable with the actual D-SUB 9 connector. Alternatively you can cut a hole into the case.</p></td>
                    115: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/iomega_ser_cable.jpg" alt="StorCenter serial cable attached" /></td>
                    116: </tr>
                    117: </tbody>
                    118: </table>
                    119: 
                    120: Serial connection
                    121: -----------------
                    122: 
                    123: The serial port on the StorCenter is using 3.3V TTL levels, which have
                    124: to be converted into regular RS232 levels by a level shifter circuit. If
                    125: you are not anxious using a soldering iron you find detailed
                    126: instructions how to build such a converter here:
                    127: 
                    128: -   Serial adapter for 3.3V TTL
                    129: 
                    130: Make sure that the layout of the plug fits to the pinout of the
                    131: StorCenter's serial header, as shown above.
                    132: 
                    133: Another option is to buy such a converter. There are solutions for a
                    134: standard RS232 interface and for an USB interface. Look out for:
                    135: 
                    136: -   RS232 level shifter / breakout board (MAX3232 based)
                    137: -   USB to TLL serial level shifter / breakout board (FT232 based)
                    138: 
                    139: First installation
                    140: ==================
                    141: 
                    142: Accessing the Firmware
                    143: ----------------------
                    144: 
                    145: Provided the serial converter is installed and working correctly you
                    146: should be able to connect to the firmware's serial console. Iomega is
                    147: using [U-Boot](http://www.denx.de/wiki/U-Boot/), the Universal Boot
                    148: Loader.
                    149: 
                    150: Now you can connect with any terminal program to the StorCenter's serial
1.2     ! phx       151: console. The easiest approach may be to use NetBSD's `tip(1)` command to
1.1       mspo      152: make a direct console connection at 115200bps.
                    153: 
                    154:     # tip -115200 console
                    155: 
                    156: Note that when using a serial connection via USB you may have to make an
                    157: entry for `/dev/ttyU0` in `/etc/remote`.
                    158: 
                    159: Immediately after switching your StorCenter on it will display the
                    160: following information (output is from a Single Drive model) and gives
                    161: you one second to stop autobooting.
                    162: 
                    163:     U-Boot 1.0.0 (Sep  2 2005 - 14:49:11)
                    164: 
                    165:     CPU:   MPC8241 Revision 1.4 at 199.999 MHz: 16 kB I-Cache 16 kB D-Cache
                    166:     Board: StorCenter
                    167:     PICR1 is now 00141b98
                    168:     PICR2 is now 00040605
                    169:     AMBOR is now c1
                    170:     DRAM:  64 MB   
                    171:     FLASH:  8 MB   
                    172:     In:    serial  
                    173:     Out:   serial
                    174:     Err:   serial
                    175:     Net:   PCI device RTL8169#0: unknown chip version, assuming RTL-8169
                    176:     PCI device: TxConfig = 0x0
                    177:     RTL8169#0
                    178:     Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0
                    179: 
                    180: altboot
                    181: -------
                    182: 
                    183: The `altboot(8)` utility functions as a bridge between the Iomega
1.2     ! phx       184: firmware and the NetBSD kernel startup environment. NAS firmware often
1.1       mspo      185: provides no means to boot a kernel from disk or from the network and
                    186: doesn't initialize all hardware correctly. We will also use it to pass a
                    187: bootinfo list to the kernel.
                    188: 
                    189: The `altboot` boot loader has to be loaded and started using U-Boot.
                    190: Usually there are three ways to invoke it:
                    191: 
                    192: -   loadb
                    193:     to load a binary file via serial line in kermit mode
                    194: -   tftpboot
                    195:     to load a binary file over the network with TFTP protocol
                    196: -   start it from the flash memory
                    197: 
                    198: The last option is prefered once the installation is completed, but
                    199: obviously it is not possible for the first time boot. Fortunately U-Boot
                    200: has set up the network interface, which we can use after configuring the
                    201: `ipaddr` and `serverip` environment variables:
                    202: 
                    203:     IOMEGA=> 
                    204:     IOMEGA=> 
                    205:     IOMEGA=> 
                    206:     Saving Environment to Flash...
                    207:     Un-Protected 1 sectors
                    208:     Erasing Flash...
                    209:     . done
                    210:     Erased 1 sectors
                    211:     Writing to Flash... done
                    212:     Protected 1 sectors
                    213: 
                    214: Once you have set up TFTP and DHCP ([read below](#altboot_install)) you
                    215: can download `altboot` like this:
                    216: 
                    217:     IOMEGA=> 
                    218:     TFTP from server 192.168.0.5; our IP address is 192.168.0.105
                    219:     Filename 'altboot.bin'.
                    220:     Load address: 0x1000000
                    221:     Loading: ###############
                    222:     done
                    223:     Bytes transferred = 74732 (123ec hex)
                    224: 
                    225: Boot the INSTALL kernel with altboot
                    226: ------------------------------------
                    227: 
                    228: Now you can use `altboot` to launch the `netbsd-INSTALL` kernel for
1.2     ! phx       229: installing NetBSD. You may choose to load it with TFTP or from NFS. For TFTP
1.1       mspo      230: you have to enable `tftpd(8)` in `/etc/inetd.conf`, and for NFS there is
                    231: a documentation at [The Network File
                    232: System](http://www.&os;.org/docs/guide/en/chap-net-services.html#chap-net-services-nfs).
                    233: But in both cases you have to set up a DHCP server, which is explained
                    234: in the [DHCP Howto](http://www.&os;.org/docs/network/dhcp.html). An
                    235: appropriate `dhcpd.conf` entry could look like this:
                    236: 
                    237:             host storcenter {
                    238:                     hardware ethernet 00:d0:b8:xx:xx:xx;
                    239:                     fixed-address 192.168.0.105;
                    240:                     next-server 192.168.0.5;
                    241:                     option root-path "/export/storcenter/root";
                    242:             }
                    243: 
                    244: The `root-path` option is only needed when using NFS and should match
                    245: your exported NFS directory. Uncompress `netbsd-INSTALL.gz` from the
1.2     ! phx       246: NetBSD/sandpoint distribution and copy it into the NFS or TFTP directory.
1.1       mspo      247: Then start the DHCP, NFS or TFTP server and boot the installation kernel
                    248: from the firmware either with
                    249: 
                    250:     IOMEGA=> 
                    251: 
                    252: or from NFS:
                    253: 
                    254:     IOMEGA=> 
                    255: 
                    256: Our bootloader configures the hardware, determines the IP address, loads
                    257: the kernel via network and launches it:
                    258: 
                    259:     ## Starting application at 0x01000000 ...
                    260: 
1.2     ! phx       261:     >> NetBSD/sandpoint altboot, revision 1.8 (Wed Nov 23 21:51:40 CET 2011)
1.1       mspo      262:     >> IOMEGA StorCenter G2, cpu 200 MHz, bus 100 MHz, 64MB SDRAM
                    263:     channel 0 present
                    264:     wd0: <ST3300822A> DMA LBA LBA48 286168 MB
                    265:     wd0: no disklabel
                    266:     MAC address 00:d0:b8:xx:xx:xx
                    267:     100Mbps-FDX
                    268:     Hit any key to enter interactive mode: 0
                    269:     loading "netbsd-INSTALL" 5222228+112540=0x516b78
                    270:     entry=0x90000, ssym=0x5a66f0, esym=0x5a6b78
                    271:     Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
                    272:         2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
1.2     ! phx       273:         The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
1.1       mspo      274:     Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                    275:         The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
                    276: 
1.2     ! phx       277:     NetBSD 5.99.59 (INSTALL) #10: Fri Dec 30 18:53:09 CET 2011
1.1       mspo      278:         frank@compaq.owl.de:/home/frank/netbsd/current/src/sys/arch/sandpoint/compile/obj/INSTALL
                    279:     Model: iomega
                    280:     total memory = 65536 KB
                    281:     avail memory = 57904 KB
                    282:     OpenPIC Version 1.2: Supports 1 CPUs and 26 interrupt sources.
                    283:     mainbus0 (root)
                    284:     cpu0 at mainbus0: 8245 (Revision 0.4), ID 0 (primary)
                    285:     cpu0: HID0 0x90c000<DOZE,DPM,ICE,DCE>, powersave: 1
                    286:     eumb0 at mainbus0
                    287:     com0 at eumb0 unit 0: ns16550a, working fifo
                    288:     com0: console
                    289:     com0: interrupting at irq 40
                    290:     ociic0 at eumb0
                    291:     iic0 at ociic0: I2C bus
                    292:     dsrtc0 at iic0 addr 0x68: DS1307 Real-time Clock/NVRAM
                    293:     satmgr0 at eumb0 unit 1: button manager (iomega)
                    294:     satmgr0: interrupting at irq 41
                    295:     pci0 at mainbus0 bus 0
                    296:     pchb0 at pci0 dev 0 function 0
                    297:     pchb0: vendor 0x1057 product 0x0006 (rev. 0x14)
                    298:     viaide0 at pci0 dev 13 function 0
                    299:     viaide0: VIA Technologies VT6410 IDE controller
                    300:     viaide0: using irq 17 for native-PCI interrupt
                    301:     atabus0 at viaide0 channel 0
                    302:     atabus1 at viaide0 channel 1
                    303:     ohci0 at pci0 dev 14 function 0: vendor 0x1033 product 0x0035 (rev. 0x43)
                    304:     ohci0: interrupting at irq 18
                    305:     ohci0: OHCI version 1.0
                    306:     usb0 at ohci0: USB revision 1.0
                    307:     ohci1 at pci0 dev 14 function 1: vendor 0x1033 product 0x0035 (rev. 0x43)
                    308:     ohci1: interrupting at irq 19
                    309:     ohci1: OHCI version 1.0
                    310:     usb1 at ohci1: USB revision 1.0
                    311:     ehci0 at pci0 dev 14 function 2: vendor 0x1033 product 0x00e0 (rev. 0x04)
                    312:     ehci0: interrupting at irq 20
                    313:     ehci0: companion controllers, 3 ports each: ohci0 ohci1
                    314:     usb2 at ehci0: USB revision 2.0
                    315:     re0 at pci0 dev 15 function 0: RealTek 8169/8110 Gigabit Ethernet (rev. 0x10)
                    316:     re0: interrupting at irq 16
                    317:     re0: Ethernet address 00:d0:b8:xx:xx:xx
                    318:     rgephy0 at re0 phy 7: RTL8169S/8110S/8211 1000BASE-T media interface, rev. 3
                    319:     rgephy0: 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, 1000baseT, 1000baseT-FDX, auto
                    320:     biomask 1f000000 netmask 1f000000 ttymask 1f000000
                    321:     uhub0 at usb0: vendor 0x1033 OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
                    322:     uhub1 at usb1: vendor 0x1033 OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
                    323:     uhub2 at usb2: vendor 0x1033 EHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 2.00/1.00, addr 1
                    324:     wd0 at atabus0 drive 0
                    325:     wd0: <ST3300822A>
                    326:     wd0: 279 GB, 581421 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 586072368 sectors
                    327:     boot device: re0
                    328:     root on md0a dumps on md0b
                    329:     root file system type: ffs
                    330:     WARNING: preposterous TOD clock time
                    331:     WARNING: using filesystem time
                    332:     WARNING: CHECK AND RESET THE DATE!
                    333:     erase ^H, werase ^W, kill ^U, intr ^C, status ^T
                    334:     Terminal type? [vt100]
                    335: 
1.2     ! phx       336: Just follow the usual procedure to install a NetBSD system.
1.1       mspo      337: 
                    338: Sandpoint installation window
                    339: Post installation steps
                    340: =======================
                    341: 
                    342: After a successful installation you want to make the system boot
                    343: standalone when switched on, without the need for a serial console. So
                    344: you have to modify the `bootcmd` in U-Boot's environment and write the
                    345: `altboot.bin` binary to the Flash ROM.
                    346: 
                    347: To find a suitable place in the Flash ROM you can use the `flinfo`
                    348: command and look out for empty sectors `(E)`. On my StorCenter I have
                    349: chosen `0xffe80000`. Replace that in all the following commands if you
                    350: have chosen a different address.
                    351: 
                    352: Load `altboot.bin` into memory at `0x1000000` again, as explained above.
                    353: Then execute the following commands to write it to Flash ROM:
                    354: 
                    355:     IOMEGA=> protect off ffe80000 ffe9ffff
                    356:     Un-Protected 2 sectors
                    357:     IOMEGA=> erase ffe80000 ffe9ffff
                    358: 
                    359:     . done
                    360:     Erased 2 sectors
                    361:     IOMEGA=> cp.b 1000000 ffe80000 18000
                    362:     Copy to Flash... done
                    363:     IOMEGA=> protect on ffe80000 ffe9ffff
                    364:     Protected 2 sectors
                    365: 
                    366: Finally adapt the `bootcmd` environment string to autoboot `altboot` and
                    367: start the `netbsd` kernel (which is the default name) from `wd0` on each
                    368: reboot:
                    369: 
                    370:     IOMEGA=> setenv bootcmd cp.b ffe80000 1000000 18000\; go 1000000 wd0:
                    371:     IOMEGA=> saveenv
                    372:     Saving Environment to Flash...
                    373:     Un-Protected 1 sectors
                    374:     Erasing Flash...
                    375:     . done
                    376:     Erased 1 sectors
                    377:     Writing to Flash... done
                    378:     Protected 1 sectors
                    379: 
                    380: The `\` is important for `setenv` not to misinterpret the `;` as the end
                    381: of the command.
                    382: 
1.2     ! phx       383: Have fun with your mini NetBSD server!

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