Annotation of wikisrc/ports/sandpoint/instlinkstation.mdwn, revision 1.3

1.1       mspo        1: Introduction
                      2: ============
                      3: 
                      4: <table>
                      5: <tbody>
                      6: <tr class="odd">
1.2       phx         7: <td align="left"><p>This document describes in depth how to prepare your Buffalo LinkStation for installing NetBSD/sandpoint. In this example we use a LinkStation HD-HLAN, which is the same board as a classic KuroBox. The software installation instructions are valid for the whole LinkStation/KuroBox family:</p>
1.1       mspo        8: <ul>
                      9: <li>LinkStation HD-HLAN (LS1/PPC)</li>
                     10: <li>LinkStation HD-HGLAN (Gigabit ethernet)</li>
                     11: <li>TeraStation HD-HTGL</li>
                     12: <li>TeraStation Pro TS-TGL</li>
                     13: <li>KuroBox classic (HD-HLAN board)</li>
                     14: <li>KuroBox HG (HD-HGLAN board)</li>
                     15: <li>KuroBox/T4 (TS-TGL board)</li>
                     16: </ul></td>
1.3     ! phx        17: <td align="left"><img src="http://www.netbsd.org/images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_front.jpg" alt="HD-HLAN front view" /></td>
1.1       mspo       18: </tr>
                     19: </tbody>
                     20: </table>
                     21: 
                     22: Accessing the serial interface
                     23: ==============================
                     24: 
                     25: We need a serial console to get access to the firmware. That includes
                     26: soldering a four pin header onto the board and building (or buying) a
                     27: serial adapter from the LinkStation's TTL levels to RS232 levels.
                     28: 
                     29: Disassemble the HD-HLAN
                     30: -----------------------
                     31: 
                     32: Unfortunately the LinkStation was not meant to be opened by customers,
                     33: so Buffalo didn't make it easy. On the top and bottom of the case there
                     34: is a small tab besides the grey frame, which you have to press down
                     35: (e.g. with a screwdriver) to be able to move the frame to the front. On
                     36: the photo below the location is marked red.
                     37: 
                     38: KuroBox with tab marked
                     39: After a few millimeters the grey piece snaps free and comes up. You need
                     40: quite some force to do that, because the shiny front bezel is secured by
                     41: two hidden screws (one in the top and another in the bottom of the
                     42: bezel). With enough force and skill you may be able to tear the screws
                     43: out of the case (fortunately the screws are small). They remain in the
                     44: shiny bezel. You may want to shorten the screws with a file now.
                     45: 
                     46: HD-HLAN half opened
                     47: Before the case can be opened you have to remove a screw hidden under a
                     48: sticker, below the fan (marked on the right side of the picture). Then
                     49: press the four tabs on the top and bottom to remove the upper half of
                     50: the case. Remove another four screws to be able to lift the board.
                     51: 
                     52: Locate the serial header
                     53: ------------------------
                     54: 
                     55: Look out for a 4-pin header, called `J1`, which is usually unpopulated.
                     56: The pin assignments are:
                     57: 
                     58: <table>
                     59: <tbody>
                     60: <tr class="odd">
                     61: <td align="left"><table>
                     62: <tbody>
                     63: <tr class="odd">
                     64: <td align="left"><strong>Pin number</strong></td>
                     65: <td align="left"><strong>Function</strong></td>
                     66: </tr>
                     67: <tr class="even">
                     68: <td align="left">1</td>
                     69: <td align="left">TXD</td>
                     70: </tr>
                     71: <tr class="odd">
                     72: <td align="left">2</td>
                     73: <td align="left">RXD</td>
                     74: </tr>
                     75: <tr class="even">
                     76: <td align="left">3</td>
                     77: <td align="left">3.3V</td>
                     78: </tr>
                     79: <tr class="odd">
                     80: <td align="left">4</td>
                     81: <td align="left">GND</td>
                     82: </tr>
                     83: </tbody>
                     84: </table></td>
1.3     ! phx        85: <td align="left"><img src="http://www.netbsd.org/images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_ser_pins.jpg" alt="Header pin assignments" /></td>
1.1       mspo       86: </tr>
                     87: </tbody>
                     88: </table>
                     89: 
                     90: Solder the missing header and enable write access
                     91: -------------------------------------------------
                     92: 
                     93: I would suggest to solder the 4-pin header on the back side of the PCB,
                     94: because it is better accessible when opening the case. It is advisable
                     95: to use an angled header to avoid problems closing the case. You also
                     96: have to bridge `R76`, which is unoccupied. This is needed to enable
                     97: write-access for the serial console. You may want to mark pin 1 of the
                     98: header, before installing the board again.
                     99: 
                    100: <table>
                    101: <tbody>
                    102: <tr class="odd">
1.3     ! phx       103: <td align="left"><img src="http://www.netbsd.org/images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_ser_header.jpg" alt="Soldered header" /></td>
        !           104: <td align="left"><img src="http://www.netbsd.org/images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_R76.jpg" alt="Bridging R76" /></td>
1.1       mspo      105: </tr>
                    106: </tbody>
                    107: </table>
                    108: 
                    109: Connect a serial cable
                    110: ----------------------
                    111: 
                    112: The serial port on LinkStation and KuroBox devices is using 3.3V TTL
                    113: levels, which have to be converted into regular RS232 levels by a level
                    114: shifter circuit. If you are not anxious using a soldering iron you find
                    115: detailed instructions how to build such a converter here:
                    116: 
                    117: -   Serial adapter for 3.3V TTL
                    118: 
                    119: Make sure that the layout of the plug fits to the pinout of the
                    120: LinkStation's serial header, as shown above.
                    121: 
                    122: Another option is to buy such a converter. There are solutions for a
                    123: standard RS232 interface and for an USB interface. Look out for:
                    124: 
                    125: -   RS232 level shifter / breakout board (MAX3232 based)
                    126: -   USB to TLL serial level shifter / breakout board (FT232 based)
                    127: 
                    128: Now you can connect with any terminal program to the LinkStation's
1.2       phx       129: serial console. The easiest approach may be to use NetBSD's `tip(1)` command
1.1       mspo      130: to make a direct console connection at 57600bps.
                    131: 
                    132:     # tip -57600 console
                    133: 
                    134: Note that when using a serial connection via USB you may have to make an
                    135: entry for `/dev/ttyU0` in `/etc/remote`.
                    136: 
                    137: Replace the firmware with U-Boot
                    138: ================================
                    139: 
                    140: The LinkStations run with a proprietary firmware, which doesn't give you
                    141: any control about the boot process. So our next step is to replace it
                    142: with [U-Boot](http://www.denx.de/wiki/U-Boot/).
                    143: 
                    144: Getting root access
                    145: -------------------
                    146: 
                    147: We need root access on the vendor's Linux installation to be able to
                    148: flash a new firmware. Without the original disk it will become much more
                    149: difficult. You would either have to find a way to install the system
                    150: onto a new disk with the help of a second machine, or use the JTAG port
                    151: to flash the new firmware directly into the chip (in the last case you
                    152: can skip all sections until ?).
                    153: 
                    154: For the KuroBox you can skip this section. The root password is known to
                    155: be `kuro`. Also telnet access is enabled. The default IP of the KuroBox
                    156: is `192.168.11.150`.
                    157: 
                    158: Make a new user over the LinkStation's web interface. We can use it to
                    159: log in over the serial port.
                    160: 
                    161: Add a new user on the GUI
                    162: Log in into the new account and create a CGI file under `/www` which
                    163: makes `/etc/passwd` writeable for all users.
                    164: 
                    165:     BUFFALO INC. Link Station series HD-HLAN (HIDETADA)
                    166: 
                    167:     BUFFALO login: 
                    168:     Password: 
                    169:     Linux (none) 2.4.17_mvl21-sandpoint #990 2004xxxx 13:39:00 JST ppc unknown
                    170:     Besucher@BUFFALO:~$ 
                    171:     Besucher@BUFFALO:~$ 
                    172: 
                    173: `exploit.cgi` should look like this:
                    174: 
                    175:     #!/bin/sh
                    176:     chmod 666 /etc/passwd
                    177: 
                    178: Then enter the URL `http://mylinkstation/cgi-bin3/exploit.cgi` into your
                    179: browser. When all went well, `/etc/passwd` is writeable now. Edit it
                    180: with `vi` and copy your user password (`/Jg58Gq9427qY` in this example)
                    181: over the current root password. Now you can log in with the same
                    182: password into the root account.
                    183: 
                    184:     root:dwqa1LabM8BgA:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
                    185:     bin:*:1:1:bin:/bin:
                    186:     daemon:*:2:2:daemon:/usr/sbin:
                    187:     sys:*:3:3:sys:/dev:
                    188:     adm:*:4:4:adm:/var/adm:
                    189:     sync:*:6:8:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
                    190:     shutdown:*:7:9:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown
                    191:     halt:*:8:10:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt
                    192:     operator:*:12:0:operator:/root:
                    193:     ftp:*:15:14:ftp:/usr/sbin:/bin/false
                    194:     nobody:*:99:99:nobody:/home:/bin/sh
                    195:     Besucher:/Jg58Gq9427qY:101:1000::/home:/bin/bash
                    196: 
                    197: The CGI exploit, which I described above, probably does not work with
                    198: all Linkstation firmware releases. It may fail with versions after 1.45.
                    199: I was able to do it with 1.47 though. An alternative to this method
                    200: would be to connect the hard disk to a second machine, which can mount
                    201: the Linux file system, and replace the root password there.
                    202: 
                    203: Flashing U-Boot
                    204: ---------------
                    205: 
                    206: To transfer the new firmware onto the LinkStation we first have to
                    207: configure FTP access (already enabled for KuroBox). Enable the server
                    208: and allow write access for registered users to the shared folders (e.g.
                    209: `share`).
                    210: 
                    211: Enable FTP access with the GUI
                    212: Get an appropriate U-Boot firmware image from
                    213: <http://www.genbako.com/u-boot_loader/>:
                    214: 
                    215: -   LinkStation HD-HLAN or KuroBox classic
                    216: -   LinkStation HD-HGLAN or KuroBox HG
                    217: 
                    218: Transfer the firmware into the `share` folder on the LinkStation.
                    219: 
                    220:     $ 
                    221:     Connected to 192.168.0.9.
                    222:     220 BUFFALO FTP server ready
                    223:     Name (192.168.0.9:user): 
                    224:     331 Password required for Besucher.
                    225:     Password: 
                    226:     230 User Besucher logged in.
                    227:     Remote system type is UNIX.
                    228:     Using binary mode to transfer files.
                    229:     ftp> 
                    230:     250 CWD command successful.
                    231:     ftp> 
                    232:     local: u-boot-hd.flash.bin remote: u-boot-hd.flash.bin
                    233:     229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||1045|)
                    234:     150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for u-boot-hd.flash.bin
                    235:     100% |***********************************|   170 KiB    6.07 MiB/s    00:00
                    236:     ETA
                    237:     226 Transfer complete.
                    238:     174640 bytes sent in 00:00 (4.86 MiB/s)
                    239:     ftp> 
                    240: 
                    241: The next step is dangerous. Any fault, like a wrong firmware or an
                    242: interrupted flashing process, will turn your LinkStation into a brick.
                    243: 
                    244: The boot loader firmware can be accessed from Linux through `/dev/fl2`.
                    245: There is no `dd` so we will use `cat`. Log in as root on the serial
                    246: console, go to the shared folder where we uploaded the new firmware and
                    247: flash it.
                    248: 
                    249:     root@BUFFALO:~# 
                    250:     root@BUFFALO:/mnt/share# 
                    251:     total 176
                    252:     -rw-rw-rw-    1 Besucher hdusers    174640 May 13 15:43 u-boot-hd.flash.bin
                    253:     root@BUFFALO:/mnt/share# 
                    254: 
                    255: The Diag and Disk Full LEDs will flash red during this process. This is
                    256: normal. After a few seconds the LEDs are off again and the prompt
                    257: returns. To make sure the process was successful, you should reread the
                    258: firmware from the flash and compare it with the original. Therefore you
                    259: have to download the new image, as this Linux installation also got no
                    260: `cmp`.
                    261: 
                    262:     root@BUFFALO:/mnt/share# 
                    263: 
                    264: Here the downloaded image differs at character 174641. But that is ok,
                    265: because the firmware is only 174640 bytes large and we downloaded the
                    266: whole flash contents.
                    267: 
                    268:     $ 
                    269:     cmp: EOF on u-boot-hd.flash.bin: char 174641, line 891
                    270: 
                    271: Reboot your LinkStation and cross fingers. When all went well, the
                    272: following lines will appear on your serial console:
                    273: 
                    274:     U-Boot 1.1.4 LiSt 2.1.0 (Sep 21 2006 - 00:22:56) LinkStation / KuroBox
                    275: 
                    276:     CPU:   MPC8245 Revision 1.4 at 196.608 MHz: 16 kB I-Cache 16 kB D-Cache
                    277:     DRAM:  64 MB
                    278:     FLASH:  4 MB
                    279:     *** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment
                    280: 
                    281:             00  0b  1317  0985  0200  ff
                    282:             00  0c  1095  0680  0101  ff
                    283:             00  0e  1033  0035  0c03  ff
                    284:             00  0e  1033  0035  0c03  ff
                    285:             00  0e  1033  00e0  0c03  ff
                    286:     Net:   COMET#0
                    287: 
                    288: This precompiled U-Boot defaults to the `netcat` console. So we have to
                    289: wait about 20 seconds before an error is printed and the console returns
                    290: to serial.
                    291: 
                    292:     next_cons_choice: Unexpected code: 0x33
                    293:     stdin :   serial
                    294:     stdout:   serial
                    295:     stderr:   serial
                    296:     IDE:   Bus 0: OK 
                    297:       Device 0: Model: SAMSUNG SP1604N Firm: TM100-30 Ser#: S013J20XC0xxxx
                    298:                 Type: Hard Disk
                    299:                 Supports 48-bit addressing
                    300:                 Capacity: 152627.8 MB = 149.0 GB (312581808 x 512)
                    301:     Boot in 08 seconds ('s' to stop)...
                    302: 
                    303: Here you should press `s` to stop booting and change some environment
                    304: variables to make U-Boot default to serial.
                    305: 
                    306:     => 
                    307:     => 
                    308:     => 
                    309:     => 
                    310: 
                    311: Enter `reset` to reboot into interactive mode with serial console. At
                    312: this point we no longer need the original Linux installation and we are
1.2       phx       313: ready for NetBSD.
1.1       mspo      314: 
                    315: First installation
                    316: ==================
                    317: 
                    318: The altboot bootloader
                    319: ----------------------
                    320: 
                    321: The `altboot(8)` program functions as a bridge between the U-Boot
1.2       phx       322: firmware and the NetBSD kernel startup environment. NAS firmware often
1.1       mspo      323: provides no means to boot a kernel from disk or from the network and
                    324: doesn't initialize all hardware correctly. We will also use it to pass a
                    325: bootinfo list to the kernel.
                    326: 
                    327: The `altboot` boot loader has to be loaded and started using U-Boot. For
                    328: the first installation we have to load it over the network with TFTP
                    329: protocol, using the command `tftpboot`. Later we can put `altboot` into
                    330: the flash memory and copy it from there.
                    331: 
                    332: When not already done, enable TFTP on your working system in
                    333: `/etc/inetd.conf` and restart `inetd`. Then copy `altboot.bin` from the
                    334: sandpoint distribution into `/tftpboot`. On the LinkStation we have to
                    335: tell U-Boot its client address and the `tftpd` server address. Our
                    336: working system's server address is `192.168.0.5` in this example, and
                    337: the LinkStation is at `192.168.0.102`.
                    338: 
                    339:     => 
                    340:     => 
                    341:     => 
                    342:     Saving Environment to Flash...
                    343:     Un-Protected 1 sectors
                    344:     Erasing Flash...
                    345:     Flash erase: first = 54 @ 0xfff60000
                    346:                  last  = 54 @ 0xfff60000
                    347:     Flash erase: Done
                    348:     Erased 1 sectors
                    349:     Writing to Flash... done
                    350:     Protected 1 sectors
                    351: 
                    352: Load `altboot.bin` into memory. The binary is relocated at 0x1000000, so
                    353: type:
                    354: 
                    355:     => 
                    356:     Using COMET#0 device
                    357:     TFTP from server 192.168.0.5; our IP address is 192.168.0.102
                    358:     Filename 'altboot.bin'.
                    359:     Load address: 0x1000000
                    360:     Loading: ##############
                    361:     done
                    362:     Bytes transferred = 70844 (114bc hex)
                    363: 
                    364: Boot the INSTALL kernel with altboot
                    365: ------------------------------------
                    366: 
                    367: Now you can use `altboot` to launch the `netbsd-INSTALL_KURO` kernel for
1.2       phx       368: installing NetBSD. It is important to take `netbsd-INSTALL_KURO` instead of
1.1       mspo      369: `netbsd-INSTALL`, because LinkStation and KuroBox systems have the UARTs
                    370: swapped, i.e. they are using the second UART for the serial console. You
                    371: may choose to load the installation kernel with TFTP or from NFS. TFTP
                    372: was described above and for NFS there is a documentation at [The Network
                    373: File
                    374: System](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/chap-net-services.html#chap-net-services-nfs).
                    375: But in both cases you have to set up a DHCP server, which is explained
                    376: in the [DHCP Howto](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/network/dhcp.html). An
                    377: appropriate `dhcpd.conf` entry could look like this:
                    378: 
                    379:             host linkstation {
                    380:                     hardware ethernet 00:07:40:xx:xx:xx;
                    381:                     fixed-address 192.168.0.102;
                    382:                     next-server 192.168.0.5;
                    383:                     option root-path "/export/linkstation/root";
                    384:             }
                    385: 
                    386: The `root-path` option is only needed when using NFS and should match
                    387: your exported NFS directory. Uncompress `netbsd-INSTALL_KURO.gz` from
1.2       phx       388: the NetBSD/sandpoint distribution and copy it into the NFS or TFTP
1.1       mspo      389: directory. Then start the DHCP, NFS or TFTP server and boot the
                    390: installation kernel from the firmware either with
                    391: 
                    392:     => 
                    393: 
                    394: or from NFS:
                    395: 
                    396:     => 
                    397: 
                    398: Our bootloader configures the hardware, determines the IP address, loads
                    399: the kernel via network and launches it:
                    400: 
                    401:     ## Starting application at 0x01000000 ...
                    402: 
                    403:     >> NetBSD/sandpoint altboot, revision 1.5 (Fri Feb 18 23:21:15 CET 2011)
                    404:     >> KuroBox, cpu 195 MHz, bus 97 MHz, 64MB SDRAM
                    405:     channel 0 present
                    406:     wd0: <SAMSUNG SP1604N> DMA LBA LBA48 152627 MB
                    407:     wd0: no disklabel
                    408:     MAC address 00:07:40:xx:xx:xx
                    409:     100Mbps-FDX
                    410:     loading "netbsd-INSTALL_KURO" 5142988+110988=0x502f98
                    411:     entry=0x00090000, ssym=0x00592b58, esym=0x00592f98
                    412:     ksyms: Symbol table not found
                    413:     ksyms: String table not found
                    414:     ksyms: Perhaps the kernel is stripped?
                    415:     Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
                    416:         2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
                    417:         The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                    418:     Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                    419:         The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
                    420: 
                    421:     NetBSD 5.99.45 (INSTALL_KURO) #0: Thu Feb 10 11:36:46 UTC 2011
                    422:         builds@b6.netbsd.org:/home/builds/ab/HEAD/sandpoint/201102100300Z-obj/home/builds/ab/HEAD/src/sys/arch/sandpoint/compile/INSTALL_KURO
                    423:     total memory = 65536 KB
                    424:     avail memory = 57984 KB
                    425:     OpenPIC Version 1.2: Supports 1 CPUs and 26 interrupt sources.
                    426:     mainbus0 (root)
                    427:     cpu0 at mainbus0: 8245 (Revision 0.4), ID 0 (primary)
                    428:     cpu0: HID0 0x90c000<DOZE,DPM,ICE,DCE>, powersave: 1
                    429:     eumb0 at mainbus0
                    430:     com0 at eumb0 unit 1: ns16550a, working fifo
                    431:     com0: console
                    432:     ociic0 at eumb0
                    433:     iic0 at ociic0: I2C bus
                    434:     rs5c372rtc0 at iic0 addr 0x32: RICOH RS5C372[AB] Real-time Clock
                    435:     satmgr0 at eumb0 unit 0: button manager (kurobox)
                    436:     pci0 at mainbus0 bus 0
                    437:     pchb0 at pci0 dev 0 function 0
                    438:     pchb0: vendor 0x1057 product 0x0006 (rev. 0x14)
                    439:     tlp0 at pci0 dev 11 function 0: ADMtek AN985 Ethernet, pass 1.1
                    440:     tlp0: interrupting at irq 16
                    441:     tlp0: Ethernet address 00:07:40:xx:xx:xx
                    442:     ukphy0 at tlp0 phy 1: OUI 0x00e092, model 0x0001, rev. 1
                    443:     ukphy0: 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, auto
                    444:     cmdide0 at pci0 dev 12 function 0: Silicon Image 0680 (rev. 0x02)
                    445:     cmdide0: primary channel wired to native-PCI mode
                    446:     cmdide0: using irq 17 for native-PCI interrupt
                    447:     atabus0 at cmdide0 channel 0
                    448:     cmdide0: secondary channel wired to native-PCI mode
                    449:     atabus1 at cmdide0 channel 1
                    450:     ohci0 at pci0 dev 14 function 0: vendor 0x1033 product 0x0035 (rev. 0x43)
                    451:     ohci0: interrupting at irq 19
                    452:     ohci0: OHCI version 1.0
                    453:     usb0 at ohci0: USB revision 1.0
                    454:     ohci1 at pci0 dev 14 function 1: vendor 0x1033 product 0x0035 (rev. 0x43)
                    455:     ohci1: interrupting at irq 19
                    456:     ohci1: OHCI version 1.0
                    457:     usb1 at ohci1: USB revision 1.0
                    458:     ehci0 at pci0 dev 14 function 2: vendor 0x1033 product 0x00e0 (rev. 0x04)
                    459:     ehci0: interrupting at irq 19
                    460:     ehci0: companion controllers, 3 ports each: ohci0 ohci1
                    461:     usb2 at ehci0: USB revision 2.0
                    462:     biomask 8000038 netmask 8000038 ttymask 8000038
                    463:     uhub0 at usb0: vendor 0x1033 OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
                    464:     uhub1 at usb1: vendor 0x1033 OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
                    465:     uhub2 at usb2: vendor 0x1033 EHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 2.00/1.00, addr 1
                    466:     wd0 at atabus0 drive 0: <SAMSUNG SP1604N>
                    467:     wd0: 149 GB, 310101 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 312581808 sectors
                    468:     boot device: tlp0
                    469:     root on md0a dumps on md0b
                    470:     root file system type: ffs
                    471:     erase ^H, werase ^W, kill ^U, intr ^C, status ^T
                    472:     Terminal type? [vt100]
                    473: 
1.2       phx       474: Just follow the usual procedure to install a NetBSD system.
1.1       mspo      475: 
                    476: Sandpoint installation window
                    477: Post installation steps
                    478: =======================
                    479: 
                    480: After a successful installation you want to make the system boot
                    481: standalone when switched on, without the need for a serial console. So
                    482: you have to modify the `bootcmd` in U-Boot's environment and write the
                    483: `altboot.bin` binary to the Flash ROM.
                    484: 
                    485: On the LinkStation and KuroBox the last 128K or the Flash ROM are known
                    486: to be unused, so we can put `altboot` there. Load `altboot.bin` into
                    487: memory at `0x1000000` again, as explained above, and execute the
                    488: following commands to write it to Flash ROM:
                    489: 
                    490:     => 
                    491:     Un-Protected 9 sectors
                    492:     => 
                    493: 
                    494:     Flash erase: first = 62 @ 0xfffe0000
                    495:                  last  = 70 @ 0xffffe000
                    496:     Flash erase: Done
                    497:     Erased 9 sectors
                    498:     => 
                    499:     => 
                    500:     Using COMET#0 device
                    501:     TFTP from server 192.168.0.5; our IP address is 192.168.0.102
                    502:     Filename 'altboot.bin'.
                    503:     Load address: 0x1000000
                    504:     Loading: ##############
                    505:     done
                    506:     Bytes transferred = 70844 (114bc hex)
                    507:     => 
                    508:     Copy to Flash... done
                    509:     => 
                    510:     Total of 131072 bytes were the same
                    511:     => 
                    512:     Protected 9 sectors
                    513:     => 
                    514: 
                    515: Finally adapt the `bootcmd` environment string to autoboot `altboot` and
                    516: start the `netbsd` kernel (which is the default name) from `wd0` on each
                    517: reboot:
                    518: 
                    519:     => 
                    520:     => 
                    521:     => 
                    522: 
                    523: The `\` is important for `setenv` not to misinterpret the `;` as the end
                    524: of the command.
                    525: 
1.2       phx       526: Have fun with your mini NetBSD server!

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