Annotation of wikisrc/ports/sandpoint/instlinkstation.mdwn, revision 1.1

1.1     ! mspo        1: Introduction
        !             2: ============
        !             3: 
        !             4: <table>
        !             5: <tbody>
        !             6: <tr class="odd">
        !             7: <td align="left"><p>This document describes in depth how to prepare your Buffalo LinkStation for installing OS/sandpoint. In this example we use a LinkStation HD-HLAN, which is the same board as a classic KuroBox. The software installation instructions are valid for the whole LinkStation/KuroBox family:</p>
        !             8: <ul>
        !             9: <li>LinkStation HD-HLAN (LS1/PPC)</li>
        !            10: <li>LinkStation HD-HGLAN (Gigabit ethernet)</li>
        !            11: <li>TeraStation HD-HTGL</li>
        !            12: <li>TeraStation Pro TS-TGL</li>
        !            13: <li>KuroBox classic (HD-HLAN board)</li>
        !            14: <li>KuroBox HG (HD-HGLAN board)</li>
        !            15: <li>KuroBox/T4 (TS-TGL board)</li>
        !            16: </ul></td>
        !            17: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_front.jpg" alt="HD-HLAN front view" /></td>
        !            18: </tr>
        !            19: </tbody>
        !            20: </table>
        !            21: 
        !            22: Accessing the serial interface
        !            23: ==============================
        !            24: 
        !            25: We need a serial console to get access to the firmware. That includes
        !            26: soldering a four pin header onto the board and building (or buying) a
        !            27: serial adapter from the LinkStation's TTL levels to RS232 levels.
        !            28: 
        !            29: Disassemble the HD-HLAN
        !            30: -----------------------
        !            31: 
        !            32: Unfortunately the LinkStation was not meant to be opened by customers,
        !            33: so Buffalo didn't make it easy. On the top and bottom of the case there
        !            34: is a small tab besides the grey frame, which you have to press down
        !            35: (e.g. with a screwdriver) to be able to move the frame to the front. On
        !            36: the photo below the location is marked red.
        !            37: 
        !            38: KuroBox with tab marked
        !            39: After a few millimeters the grey piece snaps free and comes up. You need
        !            40: quite some force to do that, because the shiny front bezel is secured by
        !            41: two hidden screws (one in the top and another in the bottom of the
        !            42: bezel). With enough force and skill you may be able to tear the screws
        !            43: out of the case (fortunately the screws are small). They remain in the
        !            44: shiny bezel. You may want to shorten the screws with a file now.
        !            45: 
        !            46: HD-HLAN half opened
        !            47: Before the case can be opened you have to remove a screw hidden under a
        !            48: sticker, below the fan (marked on the right side of the picture). Then
        !            49: press the four tabs on the top and bottom to remove the upper half of
        !            50: the case. Remove another four screws to be able to lift the board.
        !            51: 
        !            52: Locate the serial header
        !            53: ------------------------
        !            54: 
        !            55: Look out for a 4-pin header, called `J1`, which is usually unpopulated.
        !            56: The pin assignments are:
        !            57: 
        !            58: <table>
        !            59: <tbody>
        !            60: <tr class="odd">
        !            61: <td align="left"><table>
        !            62: <tbody>
        !            63: <tr class="odd">
        !            64: <td align="left"><strong>Pin number</strong></td>
        !            65: <td align="left"><strong>Function</strong></td>
        !            66: </tr>
        !            67: <tr class="even">
        !            68: <td align="left">1</td>
        !            69: <td align="left">TXD</td>
        !            70: </tr>
        !            71: <tr class="odd">
        !            72: <td align="left">2</td>
        !            73: <td align="left">RXD</td>
        !            74: </tr>
        !            75: <tr class="even">
        !            76: <td align="left">3</td>
        !            77: <td align="left">3.3V</td>
        !            78: </tr>
        !            79: <tr class="odd">
        !            80: <td align="left">4</td>
        !            81: <td align="left">GND</td>
        !            82: </tr>
        !            83: </tbody>
        !            84: </table></td>
        !            85: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_ser_pins.jpg" alt="Header pin assignments" /></td>
        !            86: </tr>
        !            87: </tbody>
        !            88: </table>
        !            89: 
        !            90: Solder the missing header and enable write access
        !            91: -------------------------------------------------
        !            92: 
        !            93: I would suggest to solder the 4-pin header on the back side of the PCB,
        !            94: because it is better accessible when opening the case. It is advisable
        !            95: to use an angled header to avoid problems closing the case. You also
        !            96: have to bridge `R76`, which is unoccupied. This is needed to enable
        !            97: write-access for the serial console. You may want to mark pin 1 of the
        !            98: header, before installing the board again.
        !            99: 
        !           100: <table>
        !           101: <tbody>
        !           102: <tr class="odd">
        !           103: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_ser_header.jpg" alt="Soldered header" /></td>
        !           104: <td align="left"><img src="../../images/ports/sandpoint/ls1_R76.jpg" alt="Bridging R76" /></td>
        !           105: </tr>
        !           106: </tbody>
        !           107: </table>
        !           108: 
        !           109: Connect a serial cable
        !           110: ----------------------
        !           111: 
        !           112: The serial port on LinkStation and KuroBox devices is using 3.3V TTL
        !           113: levels, which have to be converted into regular RS232 levels by a level
        !           114: shifter circuit. If you are not anxious using a soldering iron you find
        !           115: detailed instructions how to build such a converter here:
        !           116: 
        !           117: -   Serial adapter for 3.3V TTL
        !           118: 
        !           119: Make sure that the layout of the plug fits to the pinout of the
        !           120: LinkStation's serial header, as shown above.
        !           121: 
        !           122: Another option is to buy such a converter. There are solutions for a
        !           123: standard RS232 interface and for an USB interface. Look out for:
        !           124: 
        !           125: -   RS232 level shifter / breakout board (MAX3232 based)
        !           126: -   USB to TLL serial level shifter / breakout board (FT232 based)
        !           127: 
        !           128: Now you can connect with any terminal program to the LinkStation's
        !           129: serial console. The easiest approach may be to use OS's `tip(1)` command
        !           130: to make a direct console connection at 57600bps.
        !           131: 
        !           132:     # tip -57600 console
        !           133: 
        !           134: Note that when using a serial connection via USB you may have to make an
        !           135: entry for `/dev/ttyU0` in `/etc/remote`.
        !           136: 
        !           137: Replace the firmware with U-Boot
        !           138: ================================
        !           139: 
        !           140: The LinkStations run with a proprietary firmware, which doesn't give you
        !           141: any control about the boot process. So our next step is to replace it
        !           142: with [U-Boot](http://www.denx.de/wiki/U-Boot/).
        !           143: 
        !           144: Getting root access
        !           145: -------------------
        !           146: 
        !           147: We need root access on the vendor's Linux installation to be able to
        !           148: flash a new firmware. Without the original disk it will become much more
        !           149: difficult. You would either have to find a way to install the system
        !           150: onto a new disk with the help of a second machine, or use the JTAG port
        !           151: to flash the new firmware directly into the chip (in the last case you
        !           152: can skip all sections until ?).
        !           153: 
        !           154: For the KuroBox you can skip this section. The root password is known to
        !           155: be `kuro`. Also telnet access is enabled. The default IP of the KuroBox
        !           156: is `192.168.11.150`.
        !           157: 
        !           158: Make a new user over the LinkStation's web interface. We can use it to
        !           159: log in over the serial port.
        !           160: 
        !           161: Add a new user on the GUI
        !           162: Log in into the new account and create a CGI file under `/www` which
        !           163: makes `/etc/passwd` writeable for all users.
        !           164: 
        !           165:     BUFFALO INC. Link Station series HD-HLAN (HIDETADA)
        !           166: 
        !           167:     BUFFALO login: 
        !           168:     Password: 
        !           169:     Linux (none) 2.4.17_mvl21-sandpoint #990 2004xxxx 13:39:00 JST ppc unknown
        !           170:     Besucher@BUFFALO:~$ 
        !           171:     Besucher@BUFFALO:~$ 
        !           172: 
        !           173: `exploit.cgi` should look like this:
        !           174: 
        !           175:     #!/bin/sh
        !           176:     chmod 666 /etc/passwd
        !           177: 
        !           178: Then enter the URL `http://mylinkstation/cgi-bin3/exploit.cgi` into your
        !           179: browser. When all went well, `/etc/passwd` is writeable now. Edit it
        !           180: with `vi` and copy your user password (`/Jg58Gq9427qY` in this example)
        !           181: over the current root password. Now you can log in with the same
        !           182: password into the root account.
        !           183: 
        !           184:     root:dwqa1LabM8BgA:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
        !           185:     bin:*:1:1:bin:/bin:
        !           186:     daemon:*:2:2:daemon:/usr/sbin:
        !           187:     sys:*:3:3:sys:/dev:
        !           188:     adm:*:4:4:adm:/var/adm:
        !           189:     sync:*:6:8:sync:/bin:/bin/sync
        !           190:     shutdown:*:7:9:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown
        !           191:     halt:*:8:10:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt
        !           192:     operator:*:12:0:operator:/root:
        !           193:     ftp:*:15:14:ftp:/usr/sbin:/bin/false
        !           194:     nobody:*:99:99:nobody:/home:/bin/sh
        !           195:     Besucher:/Jg58Gq9427qY:101:1000::/home:/bin/bash
        !           196: 
        !           197: The CGI exploit, which I described above, probably does not work with
        !           198: all Linkstation firmware releases. It may fail with versions after 1.45.
        !           199: I was able to do it with 1.47 though. An alternative to this method
        !           200: would be to connect the hard disk to a second machine, which can mount
        !           201: the Linux file system, and replace the root password there.
        !           202: 
        !           203: Flashing U-Boot
        !           204: ---------------
        !           205: 
        !           206: To transfer the new firmware onto the LinkStation we first have to
        !           207: configure FTP access (already enabled for KuroBox). Enable the server
        !           208: and allow write access for registered users to the shared folders (e.g.
        !           209: `share`).
        !           210: 
        !           211: Enable FTP access with the GUI
        !           212: Get an appropriate U-Boot firmware image from
        !           213: <http://www.genbako.com/u-boot_loader/>:
        !           214: 
        !           215: -   LinkStation HD-HLAN or KuroBox classic
        !           216: -   LinkStation HD-HGLAN or KuroBox HG
        !           217: 
        !           218: Transfer the firmware into the `share` folder on the LinkStation.
        !           219: 
        !           220:     $ 
        !           221:     Connected to 192.168.0.9.
        !           222:     220 BUFFALO FTP server ready
        !           223:     Name (192.168.0.9:user): 
        !           224:     331 Password required for Besucher.
        !           225:     Password: 
        !           226:     230 User Besucher logged in.
        !           227:     Remote system type is UNIX.
        !           228:     Using binary mode to transfer files.
        !           229:     ftp> 
        !           230:     250 CWD command successful.
        !           231:     ftp> 
        !           232:     local: u-boot-hd.flash.bin remote: u-boot-hd.flash.bin
        !           233:     229 Entering Extended Passive Mode (|||1045|)
        !           234:     150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for u-boot-hd.flash.bin
        !           235:     100% |***********************************|   170 KiB    6.07 MiB/s    00:00
        !           236:     ETA
        !           237:     226 Transfer complete.
        !           238:     174640 bytes sent in 00:00 (4.86 MiB/s)
        !           239:     ftp> 
        !           240: 
        !           241: The next step is dangerous. Any fault, like a wrong firmware or an
        !           242: interrupted flashing process, will turn your LinkStation into a brick.
        !           243: 
        !           244: The boot loader firmware can be accessed from Linux through `/dev/fl2`.
        !           245: There is no `dd` so we will use `cat`. Log in as root on the serial
        !           246: console, go to the shared folder where we uploaded the new firmware and
        !           247: flash it.
        !           248: 
        !           249:     root@BUFFALO:~# 
        !           250:     root@BUFFALO:/mnt/share# 
        !           251:     total 176
        !           252:     -rw-rw-rw-    1 Besucher hdusers    174640 May 13 15:43 u-boot-hd.flash.bin
        !           253:     root@BUFFALO:/mnt/share# 
        !           254: 
        !           255: The Diag and Disk Full LEDs will flash red during this process. This is
        !           256: normal. After a few seconds the LEDs are off again and the prompt
        !           257: returns. To make sure the process was successful, you should reread the
        !           258: firmware from the flash and compare it with the original. Therefore you
        !           259: have to download the new image, as this Linux installation also got no
        !           260: `cmp`.
        !           261: 
        !           262:     root@BUFFALO:/mnt/share# 
        !           263: 
        !           264: Here the downloaded image differs at character 174641. But that is ok,
        !           265: because the firmware is only 174640 bytes large and we downloaded the
        !           266: whole flash contents.
        !           267: 
        !           268:     $ 
        !           269:     cmp: EOF on u-boot-hd.flash.bin: char 174641, line 891
        !           270: 
        !           271: Reboot your LinkStation and cross fingers. When all went well, the
        !           272: following lines will appear on your serial console:
        !           273: 
        !           274:     U-Boot 1.1.4 LiSt 2.1.0 (Sep 21 2006 - 00:22:56) LinkStation / KuroBox
        !           275: 
        !           276:     CPU:   MPC8245 Revision 1.4 at 196.608 MHz: 16 kB I-Cache 16 kB D-Cache
        !           277:     DRAM:  64 MB
        !           278:     FLASH:  4 MB
        !           279:     *** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment
        !           280: 
        !           281:             00  0b  1317  0985  0200  ff
        !           282:             00  0c  1095  0680  0101  ff
        !           283:             00  0e  1033  0035  0c03  ff
        !           284:             00  0e  1033  0035  0c03  ff
        !           285:             00  0e  1033  00e0  0c03  ff
        !           286:     Net:   COMET#0
        !           287: 
        !           288: This precompiled U-Boot defaults to the `netcat` console. So we have to
        !           289: wait about 20 seconds before an error is printed and the console returns
        !           290: to serial.
        !           291: 
        !           292:     next_cons_choice: Unexpected code: 0x33
        !           293:     stdin :   serial
        !           294:     stdout:   serial
        !           295:     stderr:   serial
        !           296:     IDE:   Bus 0: OK 
        !           297:       Device 0: Model: SAMSUNG SP1604N Firm: TM100-30 Ser#: S013J20XC0xxxx
        !           298:                 Type: Hard Disk
        !           299:                 Supports 48-bit addressing
        !           300:                 Capacity: 152627.8 MB = 149.0 GB (312581808 x 512)
        !           301:     Boot in 08 seconds ('s' to stop)...
        !           302: 
        !           303: Here you should press `s` to stop booting and change some environment
        !           304: variables to make U-Boot default to serial.
        !           305: 
        !           306:     => 
        !           307:     => 
        !           308:     => 
        !           309:     => 
        !           310: 
        !           311: Enter `reset` to reboot into interactive mode with serial console. At
        !           312: this point we no longer need the original Linux installation and we are
        !           313: ready for OS.
        !           314: 
        !           315: First installation
        !           316: ==================
        !           317: 
        !           318: The altboot bootloader
        !           319: ----------------------
        !           320: 
        !           321: The `altboot(8)` program functions as a bridge between the U-Boot
        !           322: firmware and the OS kernel startup environment. NAS firmware often
        !           323: provides no means to boot a kernel from disk or from the network and
        !           324: doesn't initialize all hardware correctly. We will also use it to pass a
        !           325: bootinfo list to the kernel.
        !           326: 
        !           327: The `altboot` boot loader has to be loaded and started using U-Boot. For
        !           328: the first installation we have to load it over the network with TFTP
        !           329: protocol, using the command `tftpboot`. Later we can put `altboot` into
        !           330: the flash memory and copy it from there.
        !           331: 
        !           332: When not already done, enable TFTP on your working system in
        !           333: `/etc/inetd.conf` and restart `inetd`. Then copy `altboot.bin` from the
        !           334: sandpoint distribution into `/tftpboot`. On the LinkStation we have to
        !           335: tell U-Boot its client address and the `tftpd` server address. Our
        !           336: working system's server address is `192.168.0.5` in this example, and
        !           337: the LinkStation is at `192.168.0.102`.
        !           338: 
        !           339:     => 
        !           340:     => 
        !           341:     => 
        !           342:     Saving Environment to Flash...
        !           343:     Un-Protected 1 sectors
        !           344:     Erasing Flash...
        !           345:     Flash erase: first = 54 @ 0xfff60000
        !           346:                  last  = 54 @ 0xfff60000
        !           347:     Flash erase: Done
        !           348:     Erased 1 sectors
        !           349:     Writing to Flash... done
        !           350:     Protected 1 sectors
        !           351: 
        !           352: Load `altboot.bin` into memory. The binary is relocated at 0x1000000, so
        !           353: type:
        !           354: 
        !           355:     => 
        !           356:     Using COMET#0 device
        !           357:     TFTP from server 192.168.0.5; our IP address is 192.168.0.102
        !           358:     Filename 'altboot.bin'.
        !           359:     Load address: 0x1000000
        !           360:     Loading: ##############
        !           361:     done
        !           362:     Bytes transferred = 70844 (114bc hex)
        !           363: 
        !           364: Boot the INSTALL kernel with altboot
        !           365: ------------------------------------
        !           366: 
        !           367: Now you can use `altboot` to launch the `netbsd-INSTALL_KURO` kernel for
        !           368: installing OS. It is important to take `netbsd-INSTALL_KURO` instead of
        !           369: `netbsd-INSTALL`, because LinkStation and KuroBox systems have the UARTs
        !           370: swapped, i.e. they are using the second UART for the serial console. You
        !           371: may choose to load the installation kernel with TFTP or from NFS. TFTP
        !           372: was described above and for NFS there is a documentation at [The Network
        !           373: File
        !           374: System](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/guide/en/chap-net-services.html#chap-net-services-nfs).
        !           375: But in both cases you have to set up a DHCP server, which is explained
        !           376: in the [DHCP Howto](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/network/dhcp.html). An
        !           377: appropriate `dhcpd.conf` entry could look like this:
        !           378: 
        !           379:             host linkstation {
        !           380:                     hardware ethernet 00:07:40:xx:xx:xx;
        !           381:                     fixed-address 192.168.0.102;
        !           382:                     next-server 192.168.0.5;
        !           383:                     option root-path "/export/linkstation/root";
        !           384:             }
        !           385: 
        !           386: The `root-path` option is only needed when using NFS and should match
        !           387: your exported NFS directory. Uncompress `netbsd-INSTALL_KURO.gz` from
        !           388: the OS/sandpoint distribution and copy it into the NFS or TFTP
        !           389: directory. Then start the DHCP, NFS or TFTP server and boot the
        !           390: installation kernel from the firmware either with
        !           391: 
        !           392:     => 
        !           393: 
        !           394: or from NFS:
        !           395: 
        !           396:     => 
        !           397: 
        !           398: Our bootloader configures the hardware, determines the IP address, loads
        !           399: the kernel via network and launches it:
        !           400: 
        !           401:     ## Starting application at 0x01000000 ...
        !           402: 
        !           403:     >> NetBSD/sandpoint altboot, revision 1.5 (Fri Feb 18 23:21:15 CET 2011)
        !           404:     >> KuroBox, cpu 195 MHz, bus 97 MHz, 64MB SDRAM
        !           405:     channel 0 present
        !           406:     wd0: <SAMSUNG SP1604N> DMA LBA LBA48 152627 MB
        !           407:     wd0: no disklabel
        !           408:     MAC address 00:07:40:xx:xx:xx
        !           409:     100Mbps-FDX
        !           410:     loading "netbsd-INSTALL_KURO" 5142988+110988=0x502f98
        !           411:     entry=0x00090000, ssym=0x00592b58, esym=0x00592f98
        !           412:     ksyms: Symbol table not found
        !           413:     ksyms: String table not found
        !           414:     ksyms: Perhaps the kernel is stripped?
        !           415:     Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
        !           416:         2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
        !           417:         The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
        !           418:     Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
        !           419:         The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
        !           420: 
        !           421:     NetBSD 5.99.45 (INSTALL_KURO) #0: Thu Feb 10 11:36:46 UTC 2011
        !           422:         builds@b6.netbsd.org:/home/builds/ab/HEAD/sandpoint/201102100300Z-obj/home/builds/ab/HEAD/src/sys/arch/sandpoint/compile/INSTALL_KURO
        !           423:     total memory = 65536 KB
        !           424:     avail memory = 57984 KB
        !           425:     OpenPIC Version 1.2: Supports 1 CPUs and 26 interrupt sources.
        !           426:     mainbus0 (root)
        !           427:     cpu0 at mainbus0: 8245 (Revision 0.4), ID 0 (primary)
        !           428:     cpu0: HID0 0x90c000<DOZE,DPM,ICE,DCE>, powersave: 1
        !           429:     eumb0 at mainbus0
        !           430:     com0 at eumb0 unit 1: ns16550a, working fifo
        !           431:     com0: console
        !           432:     ociic0 at eumb0
        !           433:     iic0 at ociic0: I2C bus
        !           434:     rs5c372rtc0 at iic0 addr 0x32: RICOH RS5C372[AB] Real-time Clock
        !           435:     satmgr0 at eumb0 unit 0: button manager (kurobox)
        !           436:     pci0 at mainbus0 bus 0
        !           437:     pchb0 at pci0 dev 0 function 0
        !           438:     pchb0: vendor 0x1057 product 0x0006 (rev. 0x14)
        !           439:     tlp0 at pci0 dev 11 function 0: ADMtek AN985 Ethernet, pass 1.1
        !           440:     tlp0: interrupting at irq 16
        !           441:     tlp0: Ethernet address 00:07:40:xx:xx:xx
        !           442:     ukphy0 at tlp0 phy 1: OUI 0x00e092, model 0x0001, rev. 1
        !           443:     ukphy0: 10baseT, 10baseT-FDX, 100baseTX, 100baseTX-FDX, auto
        !           444:     cmdide0 at pci0 dev 12 function 0: Silicon Image 0680 (rev. 0x02)
        !           445:     cmdide0: primary channel wired to native-PCI mode
        !           446:     cmdide0: using irq 17 for native-PCI interrupt
        !           447:     atabus0 at cmdide0 channel 0
        !           448:     cmdide0: secondary channel wired to native-PCI mode
        !           449:     atabus1 at cmdide0 channel 1
        !           450:     ohci0 at pci0 dev 14 function 0: vendor 0x1033 product 0x0035 (rev. 0x43)
        !           451:     ohci0: interrupting at irq 19
        !           452:     ohci0: OHCI version 1.0
        !           453:     usb0 at ohci0: USB revision 1.0
        !           454:     ohci1 at pci0 dev 14 function 1: vendor 0x1033 product 0x0035 (rev. 0x43)
        !           455:     ohci1: interrupting at irq 19
        !           456:     ohci1: OHCI version 1.0
        !           457:     usb1 at ohci1: USB revision 1.0
        !           458:     ehci0 at pci0 dev 14 function 2: vendor 0x1033 product 0x00e0 (rev. 0x04)
        !           459:     ehci0: interrupting at irq 19
        !           460:     ehci0: companion controllers, 3 ports each: ohci0 ohci1
        !           461:     usb2 at ehci0: USB revision 2.0
        !           462:     biomask 8000038 netmask 8000038 ttymask 8000038
        !           463:     uhub0 at usb0: vendor 0x1033 OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
        !           464:     uhub1 at usb1: vendor 0x1033 OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
        !           465:     uhub2 at usb2: vendor 0x1033 EHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 2.00/1.00, addr 1
        !           466:     wd0 at atabus0 drive 0: <SAMSUNG SP1604N>
        !           467:     wd0: 149 GB, 310101 cyl, 16 head, 63 sec, 512 bytes/sect x 312581808 sectors
        !           468:     boot device: tlp0
        !           469:     root on md0a dumps on md0b
        !           470:     root file system type: ffs
        !           471:     erase ^H, werase ^W, kill ^U, intr ^C, status ^T
        !           472:     Terminal type? [vt100]
        !           473: 
        !           474: Just follow the usual procedure to install a OS system.
        !           475: 
        !           476: Sandpoint installation window
        !           477: Post installation steps
        !           478: =======================
        !           479: 
        !           480: After a successful installation you want to make the system boot
        !           481: standalone when switched on, without the need for a serial console. So
        !           482: you have to modify the `bootcmd` in U-Boot's environment and write the
        !           483: `altboot.bin` binary to the Flash ROM.
        !           484: 
        !           485: On the LinkStation and KuroBox the last 128K or the Flash ROM are known
        !           486: to be unused, so we can put `altboot` there. Load `altboot.bin` into
        !           487: memory at `0x1000000` again, as explained above, and execute the
        !           488: following commands to write it to Flash ROM:
        !           489: 
        !           490:     => 
        !           491:     Un-Protected 9 sectors
        !           492:     => 
        !           493: 
        !           494:     Flash erase: first = 62 @ 0xfffe0000
        !           495:                  last  = 70 @ 0xffffe000
        !           496:     Flash erase: Done
        !           497:     Erased 9 sectors
        !           498:     => 
        !           499:     => 
        !           500:     Using COMET#0 device
        !           501:     TFTP from server 192.168.0.5; our IP address is 192.168.0.102
        !           502:     Filename 'altboot.bin'.
        !           503:     Load address: 0x1000000
        !           504:     Loading: ##############
        !           505:     done
        !           506:     Bytes transferred = 70844 (114bc hex)
        !           507:     => 
        !           508:     Copy to Flash... done
        !           509:     => 
        !           510:     Total of 131072 bytes were the same
        !           511:     => 
        !           512:     Protected 9 sectors
        !           513:     => 
        !           514: 
        !           515: Finally adapt the `bootcmd` environment string to autoboot `altboot` and
        !           516: start the `netbsd` kernel (which is the default name) from `wd0` on each
        !           517: reboot:
        !           518: 
        !           519:     => 
        !           520:     => 
        !           521:     => 
        !           522: 
        !           523: The `\` is important for `setenv` not to misinterpret the `;` as the end
        !           524: of the command.
        !           525: 
        !           526: Have fun with your mini OS server!

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