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    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/news68k Frequently Asked Questions"]]
    2: 
    3: [[!toc startlevel=1 levels=2]]
    4: 
    5: * * * * *
    6: 
    7: # General Questions
    8: 
    9: ## How can I set up a serial console?
   10: 
   11: First, turn off DIP switches 1-3 to specify to use serial console for
   12: the PROM monitor. (See [DIP switch descriptions](#dip_sw) for details)
   13: 
   14: The NEWS machines use CH0 port for serial console, with 9600bps, 8 bit
   15: char, no parity and 1 stop bit.
   16: 
   17: Serial ports of news1400/1500/1600/1700 use ordinary 25P D-sub
   18: connectors, so you just need a null modem cable.
   19: 
   20: news1200 uses female 9P D-sub connectors. It has the same pin layout
   21: with PCs, though they have male 9P connectors.
   22: 
   23: See the [NetBSD Serial Port
   24: Primer](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/Hardware/Misc/serial.html)
   25: for more information.
   26: 
   27: ## My NEWS does not print anything to console!
   28: 
   29: The NEWS machines use the MK48T02 NVRAM chip, which is also used in the
   30: SPARCstation machines. If the NVRAM battery is dead, the machine won't
   31: boot properly.
   32: 
   33: What you need to do, both with a new NVRAM, or one with a dead battery
   34: is to press the POWER/RESET buttons in the following order to force the
   35: PROM monitor to re-initialize the NVRAM:
   36: 
   37: -   Press and hold POWER button
   38: 
   39: -   Press RESET, while still holding POWER
   40: 
   41: -   Release RESET first
   42: 
   43: -   And then release POWER
   44: 
   45: Unlike SPARCstations, you don't have to restore any data like the
   46: ethernet MAC address. The MAC address is stored in ROM on NEWS, and only
   47: thing you have to set is the time of the day for the clock.
   48: 
   49: If you are going to replace the dead NVRAM, the [Sun NVRAM/hostid
   50: page](http://www.squirrel.com/squirrel/sun-nvram-hostid.faq.html) has
   51: lots of useful information about the chips. Maybe you could try to
   52: [attach a new battery onto the
   53: NVRAM](http://www.squirrel.com/squirrel/sun-nvram-hostid.faq.html#attach),
   54: but on some NEWS models the NVRAM might be soldered to the mainboard
   55: without a socket :-(
   56: 
   57: ## How should I set the DIP switches?<a name="dip_sw">
   58: news68k machines have one block of 8 dip switches:
   59: 
   60: ### Table 1
   61: [[!table data="""
   62: Switch 1,2,3	|console settings
   63: OFF,OFF,OFF	|ANSI terminals (i.e., serial console)
   64: OFF,OFF,ON	|NWB-512 monochrome bitmap console
   65: ON ,OFF,OFF	|NWB-225A color bitmap console
   66: ON ,ON ,ON	|newer framebuffers which support autoselection functions (NWS-251, NWB-514, etc.)
   67: """]]
   68: 
   69: ### Table 2
   70: [[!table data="""
   71: Switch 4	|boot device
   72: OFF		|boot from SCSI disk: `hd()`
   73: ON		|boot from floppy disk: `fh()`
   74: """]]
   75: 
   76: ### Table 3
   77: [[!table data="""
   78: Switch 5	|autoboot
   79: OFF		|PROM monitor
   80: ON		|auto boot
   81: """]]
   82: 
   83: ### Table 4
   84: [[!table data="""
   85: Switch 6	|diagnostic (?)
   86: OFF		|Diag off (default)
   87: ON		|Diag on
   88: """]]
   89: 
   90: # Table 5
   91: [[!table data="""
   92: witch 7,8	|unused
   93: default off	|
   94: """]]
   95: 
   96: ## How can I turn off the machine other than by unplugging the cable?
   97: 
   98: Just press the RESET button (without POWER), or use the `"off"`
   99: command on the PROM prompt.
  100: 
  101: ## NetBSD/news68k install floppy does not boot
  102: 
  103: There are some reports that some news1500 machines cannot boot the
  104: install floppy because of read errors. It might be caused by a bug in
  105: the PROM monitor or boot loader, but could be actual media errors. Try
  106: cleaning up your drive and booting several times with several disks.
  107: 
  108: ## Kernel prints `"level 3 interrupt:"` forever after boot with power cycle
  109: 
  110: Some old versions of PROM monitors do not initialize framebuffers in
  111: expansion slots properly when serial console is specified, which leads
  112: to the framebuffer causing spurious interrupts.
  113: 
  114: The workaround is to reset the machine (using the POWER+RESET method
  115: mentioned above) with bitmap console settings once, and then reset again
  116: with serial console.
  117: 
  118: ## Can I install both NetBSD and NEWS-OS in the same disk?
  119: 
  120: It is not well tested and not recommended, but yes, it is possible.
  121: 
  122: NetBSD/news68k can recognize NEWS-OS disklabels and mount NEWS-OS disks,
  123: but once NetBSD modifies the NEWS-OS disklabel, NEWS-OS cannot recognize
  124: them. It is recommended to install each OS on its own disk.
  125: 
  126: * * * * *
  127: 
  128: # PROM monitor Questions
  129: 
  130: ## What commands can I use at the PROM prompt?
  131: 
  132: The `help` command will show all the commands. On a NWS-1750 it says:
  133: 
  134: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
  135: NEWS> help
  136: bf [.{b|w|l}] <bgn> {<end>|:<cnt>} <data>               : Block Fill
  137: bm <bgn> {<end>|:<cnt>} <dest>                          : Block Move
  138: bo [<dev>]                                              : BOot
  139: bp [<addr> [:<cnt>]] ...                                : BreakPoint set
  140: cp <src_dev> <bgn>:<cnt> <dst_dev> <dest>               : CoPy
  141: format {fd|fh}                                          : FORMAT floppy
  142: go [<addr> [<bkpt> [:<cnt>]]]                           : GO to user program
  143: help                                                    : display this
  144: md [.{b|w|l}] [<bgn> [{<end>|:<cnt>}]]                  : Memory Display
  145: ms [.{b|w|l}] [<addr> [<data>]]                         : Memory Set
  146: mu                                                      : Memory Usage
  147: nobp [<addr>] ...                                       : NO BreakPoint
  148: off                                                     : turn power OFF
  149: rc                                                      : Re-assign Console
  150: rd [{dreg|areg|preg|creg|mreg}] ...                     : Register Display
  151: rr                                                      : Register Reset
  152: rs [<reg> [<data>]]                                     : Register Set
  153: set [<var>[=<value>]]                                   : SET variable
  154: st [:<cnt>]                                             : Stack back Trace
  155: tr [:<cnt>] [branch] [{dreg|areg|preg|creg|mreg}]       : instruction TRace
  156: vers                                                    : VERSion number
  157: NEWS>
  158: """]]
  159: 
  160:  Other machines might print these messages differently, but they should be mostly the same.
  161: 
  162: For the boot command, you can specify the following options:
  163: 
  164: ### Table 6
  165: [[!table header="no" data="""
  166: bo			|boot from default device (usually sd0)
  167: bo /1			|boot with RB_ASKNAME (i.e., ask for root device before mountroot)
  168: bo /2			|boot with RB_SINGLE (i.e., go to single-user mode)
  169: bo fh()			|boot from 1.44M floppy
  170: bo hd(1)		|boot from SCSI disk with ID 1
  171: bo /2 hd()/netbsd.0	|boot "netbsd.0" on sd0 in single-user mode
  172: """]]
  173: 
  174: ## Can NetBSD/news68k boot via network?
  175: 
  176: No, not yet.
  177: 
  178: The PROM monitor of news68k machines uses "remote disk (rd)" for
  179: diskless boot, but it is only supported by NEWS-OS and there is no
  180: documentation about it.
  181: 
  182: `rd_rpc.h` or `rd_srq.h` in NEWS-OS might be helpful, but
  183: currently no one is working on it.
  184: 
  185: * * * * *
  186: 
  187: # Hardware Questions
  188: 
  189: ## What are the specs of my NEWS?
  190: 
  191: See this [page of SONY NEWS
  192: specifications](http://katsu.watanabe.name/doc/sonynews/model.html). It
  193: is written in Japanese, but still has lots of good information for
  194: non-Japanese readers.
  195: 
  196: ## Which type of SIMM can be used for my NEWS?
  197: 
  198: For news1600/1700 machines, 30pin 1M SIMMs with 9 chips can be used to
  199: upgrade to 16M bytes. SIMMs with 3 chips or SIMMs without parity cannot
  200: be used. To upgrade from 16M to 32M, the optional memory board is
  201: required.
  202: 
  203: For news1400/1500 machines, 30pin 1M SIMMs with 8 or 9 chips can be used
  204: (these machines don't use the parity bit). SIMMs with 2 or 3 chips
  205: cannot be used.
  206: 
  207: ## Is there any hope to support NWS-18x0 models?
  208: 
  209: Unfortunately, there are many barriers to supporting news1800 machines.
  210: news1800 models have dual 68030 CPUs. One is a main processor, and
  211: another is an "I/O Processor". All devices (tty, ethernet, SCSI, etc.)
  212: are connected to the IOP, but there is little information about how to
  213: handle them. NEWS-OS provides a special module for the IOP called "MRX",
  214: and it is loaded by the PROM at boot time from the root directory.
  215: 
  216: Some people have asked for NEWS device information from Sony, and Sony
  217: once had planned to open their NEWS-OS sources. But there were many
  218: problems with source license issues, and the NEWS development division
  219: in Sony had already been dissolved, so no one could resolve the issues
  220: officially.
  221: 
  222: ## How about NWS-8xx and NWS-7xx models?
  223: 
  224: The one problem is that news800 models also use an I/O processor, which
  225: is mentioned in the above entry. Another problem is that news800 uses
  226: m68020 and Sony's own MMU, not Motorola's m68851 MMU. news700 also has
  227: an original MMU like news800. There is little information about it
  228: either.
  229: 
  230: * * * * *
  231: 
  232: # Other sources of information
  233: 
  234: ## Other sources of information from NetBSD.org
  235: 
  236: -   [NetBSD/news68k 7.0 install
  237:     notes](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-7.0/news68k/INSTALL.html) - supported hardware and how to install.
  238: 
  239: -   [port-news68k mail list](http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/#port-news68k)
  240:     ([archive](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-news68k/)) - if you
  241:     have any additional questions please subscribe.
  242: 
  243: -   [History of NEWS machines](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/newsmips/history.html) - A brief
  244:     history of machines running NetBSD/newsmips and NetBSD/news68k.
  245: 
  246: -   [NetBSD Serial Port Primer](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/Hardware/Misc/serial.html)
  247: 
  248: -   [General NetBSD Documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/) - for questions not specific to NetBSD/news68k.

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