Annotation of wikisrc/ports/news68kfaq.mdwn, revision 1.3

1.2       ryoon       1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/news68k Frequently Asked Questions"]]
1.1       mspo        2: 
1.2       ryoon       3: [[!toc startlevel=1 levels=2]]
1.1       mspo        4: 
                      5: * * * * *
                      6: 
1.2       ryoon       7: # General Questions
1.1       mspo        8: 
1.2       ryoon       9: ## How can I set up a serial console?
1.1       mspo       10: 
                     11: First, turn off DIP switches 1-3 to specify to use serial console for
                     12: the PROM monitor. (See [DIP switch descriptions](#dip_sw) for details)
                     13: 
                     14: The NEWS machines use CH0 port for serial console, with 9600bps, 8 bit
                     15: char, no parity and 1 stop bit.
                     16: 
                     17: Serial ports of news1400/1500/1600/1700 use ordinary 25P D-sub
                     18: connectors, so you just need a null modem cable.
                     19: 
                     20: news1200 uses female 9P D-sub connectors. It has the same pin layout
                     21: with PCs, though they have male 9P connectors.
                     22: 
                     23: See the [NetBSD Serial Port
1.2       ryoon      24: Primer](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/Hardware/Misc/serial.html)
                     25: for more information.
1.1       mspo       26: 
1.2       ryoon      27: ## My NEWS does not print anything to console!
1.1       mspo       28: 
                     29: The NEWS machines use the MK48T02 NVRAM chip, which is also used in the
                     30: SPARCstation machines. If the NVRAM battery is dead, the machine won't
                     31: boot properly.
                     32: 
                     33: What you need to do, both with a new NVRAM, or one with a dead battery
                     34: is to press the POWER/RESET buttons in the following order to force the
                     35: PROM monitor to re-initialize the NVRAM:
                     36: 
                     37: -   Press and hold POWER button
                     38: 
                     39: -   Press RESET, while still holding POWER
                     40: 
                     41: -   Release RESET first
                     42: 
                     43: -   And then release POWER
                     44: 
                     45: Unlike SPARCstations, you don't have to restore any data like the
                     46: ethernet MAC address. The MAC address is stored in ROM on NEWS, and only
                     47: thing you have to set is the time of the day for the clock.
                     48: 
                     49: If you are going to replace the dead NVRAM, the [Sun NVRAM/hostid
                     50: page](http://www.squirrel.com/squirrel/sun-nvram-hostid.faq.html) has
                     51: lots of useful information about the chips. Maybe you could try to
                     52: [attach a new battery onto the
                     53: NVRAM](http://www.squirrel.com/squirrel/sun-nvram-hostid.faq.html#attach),
                     54: but on some NEWS models the NVRAM might be soldered to the mainboard
1.2       ryoon      55: without a socket :-(
1.1       mspo       56: 
1.3     ! snj        57: ## How should I set the DIP switches?<a name="dip_sw">
1.1       mspo       58: news68k machines have one block of 8 dip switches:
                     59: 
1.2       ryoon      60: ### Table 1
                     61: [[!table data="""
                     62: Switch 1,2,3   |console settings
                     63: OFF,OFF,OFF    |ANSI terminals (i.e., serial console)
                     64: OFF,OFF,ON     |NWB-512 monochrome bitmap console
                     65: ON ,OFF,OFF    |NWB-225A color bitmap console
                     66: ON ,ON ,ON     |newer framebuffers which support autoselection functions (NWS-251, NWB-514, etc.)
                     67: """]]
                     68: 
                     69: ### Table 2
                     70: [[!table data="""
                     71: Switch 4       |boot device
                     72: OFF            |boot from SCSI disk: `hd()`
                     73: ON             |boot from floppy disk: `fh()`
                     74: """]]
                     75: 
                     76: ### Table 3
                     77: [[!table data="""
                     78: Switch 5       |autoboot
                     79: OFF            |PROM monitor
                     80: ON             |auto boot
                     81: """]]
                     82: 
                     83: ### Table 4
                     84: [[!table data="""
                     85: Switch 6       |diagnostic (?)
                     86: OFF            |Diag off (default)
                     87: ON             |Diag on
                     88: """]]
                     89: 
                     90: # Table 5
                     91: [[!table data="""
                     92: witch 7,8      |unused
                     93: default off    |
                     94: """]]
                     95: 
                     96: ## How can I turn off the machine other than by unplugging the cable?
1.1       mspo       97: 
1.2       ryoon      98: Just press the RESET button (without POWER), or use the `"off"`
1.1       mspo       99: command on the PROM prompt.
                    100: 
1.2       ryoon     101: ## NetBSD/news68k install floppy does not boot
1.1       mspo      102: 
                    103: There are some reports that some news1500 machines cannot boot the
                    104: install floppy because of read errors. It might be caused by a bug in
                    105: the PROM monitor or boot loader, but could be actual media errors. Try
                    106: cleaning up your drive and booting several times with several disks.
                    107: 
1.2       ryoon     108: ## Kernel prints `"level 3 interrupt:"` forever after boot with power cycle
1.1       mspo      109: 
                    110: Some old versions of PROM monitors do not initialize framebuffers in
                    111: expansion slots properly when serial console is specified, which leads
                    112: to the framebuffer causing spurious interrupts.
                    113: 
                    114: The workaround is to reset the machine (using the POWER+RESET method
                    115: mentioned above) with bitmap console settings once, and then reset again
                    116: with serial console.
                    117: 
1.2       ryoon     118: ## Can I install both NetBSD and NEWS-OS in the same disk?
1.1       mspo      119: 
                    120: It is not well tested and not recommended, but yes, it is possible.
                    121: 
                    122: NetBSD/news68k can recognize NEWS-OS disklabels and mount NEWS-OS disks,
                    123: but once NetBSD modifies the NEWS-OS disklabel, NEWS-OS cannot recognize
                    124: them. It is recommended to install each OS on its own disk.
                    125: 
                    126: * * * * *
                    127: 
1.2       ryoon     128: # PROM monitor Questions
                    129: 
                    130: ## What commands can I use at the PROM prompt?
                    131: 
                    132: The `help` command will show all the commands. On a NWS-1750 it says:
                    133: 
                    134: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    135: NEWS> help
                    136: bf [.{b|w|l}] <bgn> {<end>|:<cnt>} <data>               : Block Fill
                    137: bm <bgn> {<end>|:<cnt>} <dest>                          : Block Move
                    138: bo [<dev>]                                              : BOot
                    139: bp [<addr> [:<cnt>]] ...                                : BreakPoint set
                    140: cp <src_dev> <bgn>:<cnt> <dst_dev> <dest>               : CoPy
1.1       mspo      141: format {fd|fh}                                          : FORMAT floppy
1.2       ryoon     142: go [<addr> [<bkpt> [:<cnt>]]]                           : GO to user program
1.1       mspo      143: help                                                    : display this
1.2       ryoon     144: md [.{b|w|l}] [<bgn> [{<end>|:<cnt>}]]                  : Memory Display
                    145: ms [.{b|w|l}] [<addr> [<data>]]                         : Memory Set
1.1       mspo      146: mu                                                      : Memory Usage
1.2       ryoon     147: nobp [<addr>] ...                                       : NO BreakPoint
1.1       mspo      148: off                                                     : turn power OFF
                    149: rc                                                      : Re-assign Console
                    150: rd [{dreg|areg|preg|creg|mreg}] ...                     : Register Display
                    151: rr                                                      : Register Reset
1.2       ryoon     152: rs [<reg> [<data>]]                                     : Register Set
                    153: set [<var>[=<value>]]                                   : SET variable
                    154: st [:<cnt>]                                             : Stack back Trace
                    155: tr [:<cnt>] [branch] [{dreg|areg|preg|creg|mreg}]       : instruction TRace
1.1       mspo      156: vers                                                    : VERSion number
1.2       ryoon     157: NEWS>
                    158: """]]
                    159: 
                    160:  Other machines might print these messages differently, but they should be mostly the same.
                    161: 
                    162: For the boot command, you can specify the following options:
1.1       mspo      163: 
1.2       ryoon     164: ### Table 6
                    165: [[!table header="no" data="""
                    166: bo                     |boot from default device (usually sd0)
                    167: bo /1                  |boot with RB_ASKNAME (i.e., ask for root device before mountroot)
                    168: bo /2                  |boot with RB_SINGLE (i.e., go to single-user mode)
                    169: bo fh()                        |boot from 1.44M floppy
                    170: bo hd(1)               |boot from SCSI disk with ID 1
                    171: bo /2 hd()/netbsd.0    |boot "netbsd.0" on sd0 in single-user mode
                    172: """]]
                    173: 
                    174: ## Can NetBSD/news68k boot via network?
1.1       mspo      175: 
                    176: No, not yet.
                    177: 
                    178: The PROM monitor of news68k machines uses "remote disk (rd)" for
                    179: diskless boot, but it is only supported by NEWS-OS and there is no
                    180: documentation about it.
                    181: 
1.2       ryoon     182: `rd_rpc.h` or `rd_srq.h` in NEWS-OS might be helpful, but
1.1       mspo      183: currently no one is working on it.
                    184: 
                    185: * * * * *
                    186: 
1.2       ryoon     187: # Hardware Questions
1.1       mspo      188: 
1.2       ryoon     189: ## What are the specs of my NEWS?
1.1       mspo      190: 
                    191: See this [page of SONY NEWS
                    192: specifications](http://katsu.watanabe.name/doc/sonynews/model.html). It
                    193: is written in Japanese, but still has lots of good information for
                    194: non-Japanese readers.
                    195: 
1.2       ryoon     196: ## Which type of SIMM can be used for my NEWS?
1.1       mspo      197: 
                    198: For news1600/1700 machines, 30pin 1M SIMMs with 9 chips can be used to
                    199: upgrade to 16M bytes. SIMMs with 3 chips or SIMMs without parity cannot
                    200: be used. To upgrade from 16M to 32M, the optional memory board is
                    201: required.
                    202: 
                    203: For news1400/1500 machines, 30pin 1M SIMMs with 8 or 9 chips can be used
                    204: (these machines don't use the parity bit). SIMMs with 2 or 3 chips
                    205: cannot be used.
                    206: 
1.2       ryoon     207: ## Is there any hope to support NWS-18x0 models?
1.1       mspo      208: 
                    209: Unfortunately, there are many barriers to supporting news1800 machines.
                    210: news1800 models have dual 68030 CPUs. One is a main processor, and
                    211: another is an "I/O Processor". All devices (tty, ethernet, SCSI, etc.)
                    212: are connected to the IOP, but there is little information about how to
                    213: handle them. NEWS-OS provides a special module for the IOP called "MRX",
                    214: and it is loaded by the PROM at boot time from the root directory.
                    215: 
                    216: Some people have asked for NEWS device information from Sony, and Sony
                    217: once had planned to open their NEWS-OS sources. But there were many
                    218: problems with source license issues, and the NEWS development division
                    219: in Sony had already been dissolved, so no one could resolve the issues
                    220: officially.
                    221: 
1.2       ryoon     222: ## How about NWS-8xx and NWS-7xx models?
1.1       mspo      223: 
                    224: The one problem is that news800 models also use an I/O processor, which
                    225: is mentioned in the above entry. Another problem is that news800 uses
                    226: m68020 and Sony's own MMU, not Motorola's m68851 MMU. news700 also has
1.3     ! snj       227: an original MMU like news800. There is little information about it
1.1       mspo      228: either.
                    229: 
                    230: * * * * *
                    231: 
1.2       ryoon     232: # Other sources of information
1.1       mspo      233: 
1.2       ryoon     234: ## Other sources of information from NetBSD.org
1.1       mspo      235: 
1.3     ! snj       236: -   [NetBSD/news68k 6.1.5 install
        !           237:     notes](http://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/NetBSD-6.1.5/news68k/INSTALL.html) - supported hardware and how to install.
1.1       mspo      238: 
1.3     ! snj       239: -   [port-news68k mail list](http://www.NetBSD.org/mailinglists/#port-news68k)
1.1       mspo      240:     ([archive](http://mail-index.NetBSD.org/port-news68k/)) - if you
                    241:     have any additional questions please subscribe.
                    242: 
1.2       ryoon     243: -   [History of NEWS machines](http://www.NetBSD.org/ports/newsmips/history.html) - A brief
1.1       mspo      244:     history of machines running NetBSD/newsmips and NetBSD/news68k.
                    245: 
1.2       ryoon     246: -   [NetBSD Serial Port Primer](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/Hardware/Misc/serial.html)
                    247: 
                    248: -   [General NetBSD Documentation](http://www.NetBSD.org/docs/) - for questions not specific to NetBSD/news68k.

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