Annotation of wikisrc/ports/luna68k/luna68k_info.mdwn, revision 1.2

1.1       ryoon       1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/luna68k: Information"]]
                      2: 
                      3: *This page is under construction and more information will be added
                      4: to make it helpful for hardware owners suffering from missing documents.*
                      5: 
                      6: # Hardware and Operation<a name="hardware"></a>
                      7: [[!table data="""
                      8: Model          |Processor                              |RAM    |RAM configuration
                      9: LUNA           |20MHz 68030 + 20MHz 68882 FPU          |16MB   |4/8MB + two 4MB modules
                     10: LUNA-88K       |25MHz 88100 + pairs of 88204 CMMU      |64MB   |16 30-pin SIPP slots
                     11: LUNA-II                |25MHz 68040                            |64MB   |16 30-pin SIMM slots
                     12: """]]
                     13: 
                     14: LUNA-II has a room for piggy back 2nd 68040 processor,
                     15: and apparently designed as 2 processor SMP box.
                     16: LUNA-88K Plus product announcement was done in mid 1993.
                     17: It's not certain volume production was made.
                     18: The company released later rebagged DG AViiONs under LUNA brandname
                     19: which run m88k DG-UX.
                     20: 
                     21: ## Photos; front and back
                     22: 
                     23: [ ... professional looks photos here ... ]
                     24: 
                     25: ## Front panel DIP switch #1
                     26: 
                     27: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     28:       [] []    [] [] []
                     29: [] []       []
                     30: 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
                     31: """]]
                     32: 
                     33: [[!table data="""
                     34: switch #       |description
                     35: 1              |down - boot system in ROM monitor mode<br />up - load and start UNIX (always goes to multiuser mode)
                     36: 2              |down - serial console on ttya<br/ >up - console on bitmap display
                     37: 3              |down - force to have monochrome display<br />up - color display
                     38: 4              |down - verification on every harddisk write operation<br />up - no write verification
                     39: 5              |down - operating system is UniOS-B (4.3BSD/a.out OMAGIC)<br />up - operating system is UniOS-U (SystemV/COFF)
                     40: 6              |down - force monochrome display<br />up - color display</br />*uncertain about functional difference from sw3.*
                     41: 7              |down - boot from network<br />up - boot from local devices
                     42: 8              |down - start diagnostics<br />up - normal boot
                     43: """]]
                     44: 
                     45: DIP switch #2 is not used for any purpose. 
                     46: 
                     47: ## ROM monitor operation
                     48: 
                     49: ROM monitor commands are not like those found in popular UNIX boxes. 
                     50: 
                     51: <dl>
                     52: <dt>k</dt>
                     53: <dd>
                     54: Display and change the boot device and filename. Boot device can be harddisk
                     55: (dk), netboot (et), cassette tape (sd), or floppy disk (fl).
                     56: </dd>
                     57: <dt>g</dt>
                     58: <dd>
                     59: Load the boot program into memory. It can take a different filename
                     60: as optional argument. Note ROM monitor recognizes only a.out format binaries.
                     61: </dd>
                     62: <dt>x</dt>
                     63: <dd>
                     64: Execute the loaded program. It accepts optional arguments. NetBSD/luna68k
                     65: takes any letter of s (boot in single user mode), d (start DDB session)
                     66: or a (ask root device name).
                     67: </dd>
                     68: </dl>
                     69: 
                     70: [ ... more info, differences between models ... ]
                     71: 
                     72: Here is an example of netbooting:
                     73: 
                     74: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     75: >k
                     76: ctlr: dk  et
                     77: host: omron        [enter]
                     78: sver: servername   [enter]
                     79: fnam: server:/vmunix  lala:netbsd.aout
                     80: >g
                     81: text(1585988)+data(0)+bss(72780) 
                     82: >x
                     83: [ Kernel symbol table missing! ]
                     84: Copyright (c) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005,
                     85:     2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
                     86:     The NetBSD Foundation, Inc.  All rights reserved.
                     87: Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1993
                     88:     The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
                     89:  ...
                     90: """]]
                     91: 
                     92: ## How to determine the station's Ethernet address
                     93: 
                     94: For the ROM monitor prompt '>', type the following hexadecimal address;
                     95: 
                     96: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                     97: >4101ffe0[enter]
                     98:   4101FFE0: 30 30 30 30 30 41 30 32 *00000A02*
                     99: >[enter]
                    100:   4101FFE8: 34 33 30 46 00 00 00 00 *430F....*
                    101: """]]
                    102: 
                    103: in this example, the station address is 00:00:0A:02:43:0F.
                    104: 
                    105: Some older models do not store the station address in CPU ROM,
                    106: but in NVRAM storage (found in V4.02 ROM monitor dated Oct 12 1988).
                    107: See also next section.
                    108: 
                    109: ## Dead timekeeper NVRAM syndrome
                    110: 
                    111: The LUNA are equipped with the infamous (non)volatile timekeeping
                    112: RAM Mostek 48T02. Like for Sun3s and SPARCstations,
                    113: the backup battery wears out and eventually loses its contents.
                    114: Whenever the LUNA ROM monitor detects the situation,
                    115: it initializes the NVRAM with factory default values.
                    116: A Dead NVRAM is cumbersome for daily operations because there is no way
                    117: to automatically boot NetBSD/luna68k at powerup;
                    118: you have to boot the machine in ROM monitor mode and enter
                    119: the boot commands by hand, specifying explicit boot configuration every time.
                    120: 
                    121: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
                    122: Diagnostic Start....nvram initialize.
                    123: No problems in hardware
                    124: OMRON WS Monitor Ver4.22 (Thu Jul 27 11:45:42 1989) - 0x01000000 bytes of memory
                    125: "BSD Monitor-mode"
                    126: >
                    127: """]]
                    128: 
                    129: If you see the ROM monitor message shown above on powerup,
                    130: the NVRAM battery is gone and the contents have been initialized
                    131: with factory default values. To learn about the dead NVRAM syndrome,
                    132: please refer to [Frequently Asked Questions about Sun NVRAM/hostid](http://www.squirrel.com/squirrel/sun-nvram-hostid.faq.html).
                    133: 
                    134: Older models have Ethernet station address in the ENADDR environment
                    135: variable. If the NVRAM wears out, the ROM monitor resets the value
                    136: to 0:0:0:0:0:0, and the ROM monitor will refuse to netboot
                    137: before until a valid address is set.
                    138: 
                    139: ## Dead NVRAM replacement
                    140: The author succeeded in installing new DS1642-70 NVRAM.
                    141: The PROM detected it and initialized ("kick-start") the timekeeping circuit
                    142: automagically. I purchased it from a Dallas Semiconductor credit card sale
                    143: representative. The price was $16.89 on Jan 4 2000.
                    144: 
                    145: ## Disk drive replacement
                    146: 
                    147: The LUNA is equipped with one 3.5" 'half height' hard disk drive made
                    148: by either Conner, Fujitsu or Hitachi. They are slow and small disks of
                    149: at best 172MB or 270MB capacity.
                    150: It's a good idea to replace these low capacity drives with high capacity
                    151: faster drives.
                    152: 
                    153: ## Removing the front bezel
                    154: 
                    155: Remove the top cover first. It has one screw on the back.
                    156: Remove the metal sheet on top, which also has one screw.
                    157: Then, remove the side covers; look for one screw on the back of each one.
                    158: The front bezel might be secured with screws on both sides.
                    159: It has three leads on the top. Unlock them gently from metal notches,
                    160: release the top first, then remove the bottom end.
                    161: 
                    162: ## Removing the tape/disk unit
                    163: 
                    164: The tape and disk unit forms a block secured by a metal lead on the top.
                    165: Loosen the lead and slide the block to front end gently.
                    166: When you got a little space, release the power and SCSI cables on the back.
                    167: Pay attention to avoid finger injuries due to the low quality metal work.
                    168: 
                    169: ## Replacing the disk drive
                    170: 
                    171: The ROM monitor requires the disk drive to have SCSI ID #6.
                    172: The disk drive may be at the end of SCSI cable or not.
                    173: The LUNA requires at least one SCSI termination. Without a SCSI termination,
                    174: the system won't be able to run.
                    175: 
                    176: ## ttya connector replacement
                    177: 
                    178: The LUNA uses obscure serial connectors inherited from the old deskside
                    179: VME machine design. It's close to impossible to obtain genuine cables,
                    180: and the connector parts are very hard to find in market.
                    181: See [Tadashi Okamura's post](http://mail-index.netbsd.org/port-luna68k/2002/03/21/0000.html) for details.
                    182: 
                    183: ## SCSI connector replacement
                    184: 
                    185: The LUNA is equipped with an external SCSI connector.
                    186: It's a micro DB50 connector, looks like the so called 'SCSI-2 connector'
                    187: commonly found in any modern UNIX boxes, but it has a different gender!
                    188: You can replace it by decomposing parts from a PC SCSI assembly;
                    189: micro DB50 connector on ISA/PCI metal plate with 50-pin flat cable connector
                    190: on back side. The item is available at conventional PC shops.
                    191: 
                    192: # Installation
                    193: 
                    194: Instructions are available
                    195: in the [[How to install NetBSD/luna68k|luna68k_install]] document.
                    196: 
                    197: # Future work<a name="futurework"></a>
                    198: 
1.2     ! snj       199: X server; should not be hard.
1.1       ryoon     200: The X Consortium X11 release contains code for UNIOS-B/Mach2.5.
                    201: NetBSD/luna68k has the WSCONS interface, and the porting effort
                    202: will be concentrated around this point.
                    203: However, it's uncertain that color support will be implemented,
                    204: because the LUNA framebuffer is designed in 'planer format',
                    205: not 'packed pixel format.'
                    206: 
                    207: LUNA-88K support would be a fun project;
                    208: CMU Mach3 MK84 release contains code for the LUNA-88K hardware,
                    209: and its peripheral devices are nearly identical to those of the LUNA.
                    210: 
                    211: # History and Background of LUNA<a name="behindthescene"></a>
                    212: 
                    213: The LUNA has an interesting behind the scene story.
                    214: 
                    215: The LUNA hardware had two different operating systems;
                    216: a 4.3BSD derivative and a SVR3 variant.
                    217: The first one, named UNIOS-B, was was a port of Integrated Solution Inc.
                    218: UNIX product. ISI manufactured m68k based VME UNIX boxes.
                    219: Their OS had an interesting feature of TRFS (Translucent Remote File System)
                    220: as well as the popular SMI's NFS. The paper of TRFS was published
                    221: at USENIX Technical Conference (late '80, details unknown in this moment).
                    222: 
                    223: TRFS runs atop its own RPC layer with a distinct ethertype;
                    224: the protocol can not operate across routing segments.
                    225: TRFS supports diskless client nodes. TRFS is a remarkably small network
                    226: filesystem. It is not built on VFS nor fssw[].
                    227: Each remote client process has a phantom kernel process in the TRFS server,
                    228: and operational semantics of UNIX I/O model is preserved across machines
                    229: unlike to NFS.
                    230: 
                    231: ISI once made m68020 based deskside UNIX workstations,
                    232: which were available for the Japanese market.
                    233: The machine had its own bitmap windowing system, and marketed
                    234: against then successful SMI's sun2.
                    235: 
                    236: The LUNA was a straight port of the ISI combined with OMRON's hardware design.
                    237: LUNA could boot via network and operate as a diskless TRFS client.
                    238: For unknown reasons, OMRON published little about how the LUNA
                    239: could be used as TRFS network nodes.
                    240: 
                    241: Upfront to RISC computer boom, the company made a multiprocessor
                    242: variant of the LUNA; a 4 processor m88000 SMP box geared by CMU's Mach2.5.
                    243: The company was affiliated with Motorola, and the choice was
                    244: natural to them (the company acquired a Japanese unit of Data General
                    245: when it was abandoned by the parent company).
                    246: A m68040 variant was made later, and marketed as LUNA-II.
                    247: 
                    248: The LUNA also has an interesting side story; it was a development
                    249: platform of the Japanese Xterminal for a while.
                    250: At late '80, a software company named ASTEC started developing an Xterminal
                    251: prototype. Engineers in the company knew that a LUNA could be netbooted
                    252: by another one. They started designing and building a propriety OS featuring
                    253: an UNIX-like API and homebrew TCP/IP protocol stack.
                    254: The LUNA was a quasi target hardware, and Xterminal images were downloaded
                    255: to it by TRFS network boot.
                    256: 
                    257: Three Japanese companies bought the prototype design;
                    258: OMRON, JCC and Takaoka Electric. The last two made their own 68030 based
                    259: Xterminal hardware and deployed their products to the domestic market.
                    260: The Xterminal business was a moderate success. ASTEC provided prototype
                    261: Xserver software based on each release of X11 sample implementation
                    262: to the companies.

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