File:  [NetBSD Developer Wiki] / wikisrc / ports / evbarm / raspberry_pi.mdwn
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Tue Oct 30 13:49:05 2018 UTC (2 years, 6 months ago) by gdt
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raspberry_pi: clarify what works

    1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
    2: 
    3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
    4: 
    5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board.  Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.  (This page assumes those using NetBSD 7 are using 7.2, or the netbsd-7 branch after mid 2018.)
    6: 
    7: [[images/raspberrypi.jpg]]
    8: 
    9: [[!toc levels=2]]
   10: 
   11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
   12: 
   13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
   14: 
   15: ## NetBSD 7 and NetBSD 8
   16: 
   17:  - RaspberryPi 1, 2, 3 (except Pi 3 builtin WiFi and bluetooth)
   18:  - multiple processors on 2/3
   19:  - boots normally to multiuser, with FAT32 boot partition on uSD
   20:  - root filesystem can be uSD or USB-attached mass storage
   21:  - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
   22:  - X11 via HDMI
   23:  - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
   24:  - USB host controller - dwctwo(4) and most devices work
   25:  - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
   26:  - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
   27:  - RNG
   28:  - Audio: works. man page missing.
   29:  - GPIO
   30:  - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
   31:  - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
   32: 
   33: ## NetBSD current
   34: 
   35:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin bluetooth
   36:  - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
   37: 
   38: ## What needs work
   39: 
   40:  - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
   41:  - Raspberry Pi 3 builtin WiFi
   42: 
   43: # CPU types
   44: 
   45:  - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
   46:  - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
   47:  - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
   48: 
   49: Note that one can run earmv6hf code on the 2 and 3.  See also
   50: [[NetBSD/aarch64|aarch64]] for running the Pi 2/3 in 64-bit mode.
   51: 
   52: # Installation
   53: 
   54: ## SD card structure
   55: 
   56: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card.  A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
   57: 
   58: The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
   59: 
   60: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size.  The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
   61: 
   62: ## Choosing a version
   63: 
   64: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.2 or 8.0), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current.  For people who don't know how to choose among those, 8.0 or netbsd-8 is probably best.
   65: 
   66: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
   67: 
   68: ## Getting bits to install
   69: 
   70: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
   71: 
   72: Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz.  Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting.  In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
   73: 
   74: ### Building yourself
   75: 
   76: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm.  Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m.  Examples (the first two are equivalent):
   77: 
   78:  - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release
   79:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
   80:  - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
   81: 
   82: ### NetBSD FTP servers
   83: 
   84: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/).  These are equivalent to building yourself.
   85: 
   86:  - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
   87:  - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2/3.
   88:  - The old stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)    
   89:  - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
   90:  - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
   91: 
   92: ## Preparing a uSD card
   93: 
   94: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
   95: 
   96:  - gunzip rpi.img.gz
   97:  - dd if=rpi.img of=/dev/disk1
   98: 
   99: ### Serial Console
  100: 
  101: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output.  If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
  102: edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
  103: 
  104:  - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
  105: 
  106:    In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
  107: 
  108:    In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
  109: 
  110: ### Enabling ssh
  111: 
  112: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf.  Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
  113: 
  114: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
  115: 
  116: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console.  Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network.  To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
  117: 
  118:  - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
  119:  - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
  120:  - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
  121:    - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
  122:    - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
  123:  - sysinst started!
  124: 
  125: ## Installation via ebijun's image
  126: 
  127: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
  128: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages.  It
  129: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
  130: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3.  This image is typically updated
  131: every few weeks.
  132: 
  133:  - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
  134: 
  135: # Maintaining a system
  136: 
  137: ## Updating the kernel
  138: 
  139:  - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
  140: 
  141:          ...
  142:          Kernels built from RPI2:
  143:           /Users/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-current/obj.evbarm-Darwin-XXX/sys/arch/evbarm/compile/RPI2/netbsd
  144:          ...
  145: 
  146:  - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.img" (for current) or "netbsd.bin" (for 7 and 8) kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
  147:  - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
  148:  - reboot
  149: 
  150: ## Updating the firmware
  151: 
  152: A section below describes the process of updating NetBSD's copy of the firmware from upstream, with testing, by NetBSD developers.  This section is about updating a system's firmware from the firmware in a version of NetBSD.
  153: 
  154: TODO: Explain where the firmware is in the source tree, and if it is in the installed system image (such as /usr/mdec).  Explain any particular cautions.
  155: 
  156: # Wireless Networking
  157: 
  158:   Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.
  159: 
  160:  - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
  161:    - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
  162: 
  163:            ifconfig_urtwn0=dhcp
  164:            dhcpcd=YES
  165:            dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
  166:            wpa_supplicant=YES
  167:            wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
  168:    - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
  169: 
  170: # GPU
  171: 
  172: ## Video playback
  173: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
  174: 
  175: ## OpenGL ES
  176: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
  177: 
  178: ## Quake 3
  179: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
  180: 
  181:  - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
  182:  - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
  183:  - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
  184: 
  185: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
  186: 
  187: ## RetroArch / Libretro
  188: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
  189: 
  190:  - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
  191:  - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
  192:  - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
  193:  - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
  194: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  195: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
  196: """]]
  197:  - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
  198: [[!template  id=programlisting text="""
  199: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
  200: """]]
  201: 
  202: # Developer notes
  203: 
  204: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
  205: 
  206: ## Updating the firmware version in the NetBSD sources
  207: 
  208: (Note that trying new firmware may result in a non-bootable system, so
  209: be prepared to recover the bootable media with another system.)
  210: 
  211: Upstream firmware releases are
  212: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
  213: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
  214: 
  215: New firmware should pass all of the following tests before being committed to NetBSD.
  216: 
  217: - Audio
  218: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
  219: - Serial/framebuffer console
  220: - CPU frequency scaling
  221: 
  222: Tests shoudl be run on all of `rpi[0123]`.
  223: 

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