1: [[!meta title="NetBSD/evbarm on Raspberry Pi"]]
3: This page attempts to document and coordinate efforts towards NetBSD/evbarm on [Raspberry Pi](http://www.raspberrypi.org). All board variants are supported.
5: Initial, limited, Raspberry Pi support was introduced in NetBSD 6.0. NetBSD 7.0 adds complete support for the board, along with introducing support for the quad-core Raspberry Pi 2 board. Raspberry Pi 3 support was added for NetBSD 8, and backported to NetBSD 7 in July of 2017.
9: [[!toc levels=2]]
11: <small>([Raspberry Pi image](http://www.flickr.com/photos/42325803@N07/8118758647/) by Christopher Lee used under CC-By-2.0 license)</small>
13: # What works (and what doesn't yet)
15: ## NetBSD 7 before July, 2017
17: - RaspberryPi 1, and 2 (including SMP)
18: - multi-user boot with root on SD card
19: - serial or graphics console (with EDID query / parsing)
20: - DMA controller driver and sdhc(4) support
21: - Audio: works. man page missing.
22: - I²C: works, could use enhancements, man page
23: - GPIO
24: - RNG
25: - SPI: could use enhancements, man page
26: - GPU (VCHIQ) - 3D and video decode. man page missing.
27: - USB (host) - dwctwo(4)
28: - USB Ethernet - usmsc(4)
29: - X windows.
31: ## NetBSD 7 after July, 2017 and NetBSD 8
33: - Raspberry Pi 3 (excluding WiFi and bluetooth)
35: ## NetBSD current
37: - Raspberry Pi 3 bluetooth
38: - Raspberry Pi 3 new SD host controller driver
40: ## What needs work
42: - USB (host); isochronous transfers.
43: - WiFi
44: - Raspberry Pi 3 in 64-bit mode. (Note that this will be provided by the evbarm64 port, rather than evbarm.)
46: # CPU types
48: Note that one can also use code for earlier models on later models.
50: - Raspberry Pi 1 uses "earmv6hf".
51: - Raspberry Pi 2 uses "earmv7hf".
52: - Raspberry Pi 3 uses "earmv7hf".
54: # Installation
56: ## SD card structure
58: The Raspberry Pi looks for firmware and kernel.img on the first FAT32 partition of the uSD card. A separate kernel (kernel7.img) is used on RPI2 and RPI3.
60: The NetBSD kernel will then use the FFS partition as the root filesystem.
62: A 2 GB card is the smallest workable size. The NetBSD filesystem will be expanded to fit.
64: ## Choosing a version
66: First, decide if you want to install a formal release (7.1), a stable branch build (netbsd-7, netbsd-8), or NetBSD-current. Note that 7.1 predates Raspberry Pi 3 support. For people who don't know how to choose among those, netbsd-8 is probably best.
68: See also "ebijun's image", below, which is NetBSD-current and includes packages.
70: ## Getting bits to install
72: You can either build a release yourself with build.sh, or get one from the NetBSD FTP servers.
74: Both will provide rpi.img.gz and rpi_inst.img.gz. Each is an image to be written to a uSD card, and has a FAT32 partition for booting. In rpi.img.gz, there is also an FFS partition for NetBSD.
76: ### Building yourself
78: Getting sources and building a release with build.sh is not special for evbarm. Pick a CPU type alias and pass it to build.sh with -m. Examples (the first two are equivalent):
79: - ./build.sh -m earmv6hf -u release
80: - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv6hf -u release
81: - ./build.sh -m evbarm -a earmv7hf -u release
83: ### NetBSD FTP servers
85: NetBSD provides nightly builds on [nyftp.netbsd.org](http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/). These are equivalent to building yourself.
87: - The 'evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an rpi.img file that can be used as a single image for both boards.
88: - The 'evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/' directory contains an armv7.img file that is optimized for Raspberry Pi 2.
89: - The stable build directory will be under netbsd-7/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-7/201710201440Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg)
90: - The not-yet-released stable build directory will be under netbsd-8/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/netbsd-8/201710211010Z/evbarm-earmv6hf/binary/gzimg/)
91: - The HEAD/current directory build will be under HEAD/YYYYMMDDHHMMZ/ (for example, http://nyftp.netbsd.org/pub/NetBSD-daily/HEAD/201710202210Z/evbarm-earmv7hf/binary/gzimg/)
93: ## Preparing a uSD card
95: Once you have rpi.img.gz (or rpi_inst), put it on a uSD card using gunzip and dd, for example:
97: - gunzip rpi.img.gz
98: - dd if=rpi.i7mg of=/dev/disk1
100: ### Serial Console
102: By default the rpi.img is set to use the HDMI output. If you wish to use a serial console, first mount the FAT32 partition and then
103: edit cmdline.txt and remove '"console=fb"'.
105: - Most (all?) USB-to-TTL serial adapters only connect Tx, Rx and ground, and do not connect any flow control lines. An effect of missing flow control is that you see console output, but cannot type anything. If so, adjust your serial console application's flow control settings to "none".
107: In Kermit, the command is "set flow none".
109: In minicom, run "minicom -s" and set hardware flow control to "no"
111: ### Enabling ssh
113: If you want to enable ssh with the standard image, so that you can log in over the net without either a serial or HDMI console, mount the ffs partition, place /root/.ssh/authorized_keys, uncomment PermitRootLogin in /etc/ssh/sshd_config, and comment out the rc_configure=NO in /etc/rc.conf. Besides having to find the IP address, you will have to wait for the partition resizing and reboot.
115: ### Installation with sshramdisk image
117: build.sh (and hence the FTP site) also creates an image 'rpi_inst.img.gz' specifically for installation without HDMI or a serial console. Note that this image is much smaller and that you will need to fetch the sets over the network. To use this method, write that image to a uSD card as above, and then:
119: - Ensure that you have a lan with a DHCP server.
120: - Connect an Ethernet cable from the RPI to the LAN.
121: - After starting DHCP client, SSH login to with user "sysinst", and password "netbsd".
122: - Be careful to note the ip address given during DHCP so you don't lose your connection
123: - Also for after the sysinst is done and the system reboots
124: - sysinst started!
126: ## Installation via ebijun's image
128: As an alternative to the standard installation images, Jun Ebihara
129: provides an install image for Raspberry Pi that includes packages. It
130: is based on NetBSD-current and is built for earmv6hf, and thus will
131: work on Raspberry Pi 1, 2 and 3. This image is typically updated
132: every few weeks.
134: - [https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README](https://github.com/ebijun/NetBSD/blob/master/RPI/RPIimage/Image/README)
136: ## Updating the kernel
138: - Build a new kernel, e.g. using build.sh. It will tell you where the ELF version of the kernel is, e.g.
141: Kernels built from RPI2:
145: - Besides the "netbsd" kernel in ELF format, there is also a "netbsd.bin" kernel that is in a format that the Raspberry can boot.
146: - Depending on your hardware version, copy this either to /boot/kernel.img (First generation Pi, Pi Zero hardware) or to /boot/kernel7.img (Pi 2, Pi 3 hardware)
147: - reboot
149: # Wireless Networking
151: Note that the built-in WiFi in the RPI3 is not yet supported.
153: - A Realtek 802.11n USB adaptor configures as urtwn(4).
154: - Configure with wpa_supplicant in /etc/rc.conf -
158: dhcpcd_flags="-q -b"
160: wpa_supplicant_flags="-B -i urtwn0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf"
161: - A sample wpa_supplicant.conf can be found at /usr/share/examples/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf
163: # GPU
165: ## Video playback
166: Accelerated video playback is supported in NetBSD 7 with the [OMXPlayer](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/omxplayer) application and through GStreamer with the [omx](http://pkgsrc.se/multimedia/gst-plugins1-omx) plugin.
168: ## OpenGL ES
169: Accelerated OpenGL ES is supported in NetBSD 7. The GL ES client libraries are included with the [misc/raspberrypi-userland](http://pkgsrc.se/misc/raspberrypi-userland) package.
171: ## Quake 3
172: A Raspberry Pi optimized build of *ioquake3* is available in the [games/ioquake3-raspberrypi](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-raspberrypi) package. To use it, the following additional resources are required:
174: - pak0.pk3 from Quake 3 CD
175: - additional pak files from the [games/ioquake3-pk3](http://pkgsrc.se/games/ioquake3-pk3) package
176: - read/write permissions on /dev/vchiq and /dev/wsmouse
178: Place the pak0.pk3 file in the /usr/pkg/lib/ioquake3/baseq3 directory.
180: ## RetroArch / Libretro
181: Using [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch) it is possible to run many emulators at full speed the Raspberry Pi. Emulator cores for various gaming consoles are available in the [emulators/libretro-*](http://pkgsrc.se/search.php?so=libretro-) packages. To begin using retroarch:
183: - Install [emulators/retroarch](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/retroarch)
184: - Install the libretro core for the system you would like to emulate (lets take [emulators/libretro-gambatte](http://pkgsrc.se/emulators/libretro-gambatte), a GameBoy Color emulator, as an example).
185: - Plug in a USB HID compatible Gamepad, such as the Logitech F710 in "DirectInput" mode (set "D/X" switch to "D").
186: - Create a config file for your gamepad using *retroarch-joyconfig*.
187: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
188: $ retroarch-joyconfig -o gamepad.cfg
190: - Launch the emulator from the command-line (no X required):
191: [[!template id=programlisting text="""
192: $ retroarch --appendconfig gamepad.cfg -L /usr/pkg/lib/libretro/gambatte_libretro.so game.gbc
195: # Developer notes
197: These notes are for people working on improvements to RPI support in NetBSD.
199: ## Updating the firmware
201: You probably don't want to do this. Firmware updates can break things,
202: and the latest firmware that's been tested is already included in the
203: NetBSD build you installed.
205: If you're feeling adventurous (or are the port maintainer), here's what
206: to test whenever you try new firmware:
208: - Audio
209: - OMXPlayer (and [[!template id=man name="vchiq"]])
210: - Serial/framebuffer console
211: - CPU frequency scaling
213: That goes for all of `rpi`.
215: Upstream firmware releases are
216: [on GitHub](https://github.com/raspberrypi/firmware/releases).
217: Copy all files except `kernel*.img` into `/boot` and reboot.
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